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Full text of "The Humming bird"

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HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 

OF THE 

MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY 
'£123 

Bequest of 
WILLIAM BREWSTER 



à-JUAAJMAXl o& /, I 9^0 




tlllWILUAM BREWSTERltlEZJ 



FEB 2" 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/hummingbird21892bouc 



SJrç Strmmmg §M 



A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCAED 




OUxAyy\xcu JQ^MAsCOUuk' 



VOLUME II, 1892 



LONDON 

A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, W. G. 

1892 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 



J- 



I 



The Humming Bird. 

NEW SPECIES OF BIRDS AND INSECTS 
Described in vol. II of THE HUMMING BIRD 

AVES 

TROCHILl 

Pages. 

Ph.ethornis rupurimii, Boucard 1 

Heliodoxa berlepschi, Boucard 75 

Heliotkypha simoni. Boucard 76 

Heliangelus rotschildi, Boucard 77 

Eriocnemis albogularis, Boucard 78 

Chlorostilbon spkciosa, Boucard 79 

Saucerottia nunezi, Boucard ... 81 

Uranomitra columbiana, Boucard 82 

Ph.ethornis panvmensis, Boucard .... 83. 

Homophanialawrencei, Boucard 87 

FORMICARID^K 

Formicivora stictocorypha, Boucard and Berlepsch 44 

INSECTS 

COLEOPTERA 

CICLNDELID^E 
Manticora gruti, Boucard 45 

DIPTEBA 

Ormthomyia geniculata, Bigot 49 

NEW SPECIES OF HUMMING BIRD, described 
IN THE GENERA OF HUMMINGBIRDS 

Lophornis hauxwelli, Boucard ... * 37 

CONTENTS OF VOL II. 

Description of a supposed new species of Humming Bird, in 

Boucard's Museum 1 

The World's Fair, International Exposition of Chicago, 

2,13, 20, 32,35, 46,66, 88, 98 

Review of new scientific books 6 

Notes on the rare pheasant Rheinardius ocellatus 9 

Books received ... 16 

Celebrated Gallery of old Masters, of the late General 

Marquess de Garbarino 17 

Customs Tariff of Great-Britain and Ireland. ..:.... 19 

Obituary 24 

Biographical Notes on Henry Walter Bates E. R. S. etc., 

with portrait 26 

American Pearls 33 

Fish from Volcano i s 34 

A very large Tree 34 

A curious Rat-Catcheb 39 



The Humming Bird. 

Pages . 

List of birds collected, by Mr Hardy at Porto-Real, Brazil 
with description of one supposed new species, by 

Messrs Boucard and Count Berlepsch 41 

Description of a supposed new species of the genus Manti- 
cora, « Cicindelid^e » from Damara Land, South Africa, 

by A. Boucard 45 

Description d'une espèce nouvelle de Diptère parasite de 

Costa Rica, Ornithomyia genic lata, par M. J. Bigot . . 49 
The Completion of the Panama Canal, by A. Boucard. . 50-57 
A complete list, up to date, of the Humming Birds found 
in Columbia, with descriptions of several supposed new 

species, by A. Boucard 73 

Christopher Columbus . 89 

Festivities and Exhibitions, held in honour of Christopher 
Columbus in America, Spain, Italy and France .... 92-120 

America, by A. Boucard 105 

Le Canal de Panama, by A. Boucard 120 

International Exhibition in Monaco 122 

A new Emission of Postage Stamps . . 123 

REVIEW OF NEW PUBLICATIONS . . 123 

Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithso- 
nian institution, 1890 1891 124 

Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Vol . XX, 1891 . 124 

Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum Vol. XVI, 1892. 124 

Catalogue of Birds in thé Britich Museum. Vol XXII, 1892. 126 

Zoological Record, Vol XXVIII, 1892 . 126 

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1892. 127 
The Ibis, Vol. IV, Sixth Series, 18 ->2 ... .128 

Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France, Vol. V, 1892. 129 
Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica, Antonio 

Alzate, 1892 130 

Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili. Vol. 1, 1892. 130 

The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 181 2 1b0 

OTHLR PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED 130 

OBITUARY 131 

August von Pelzen 131 

Dom Pedro d'Alcantara 132 

M. Alphand 132 

Monseigneur Freppel 133 

Armand de Quatrefages de Bréau 133 

Duke of Clarence 134 

Henry Walter Bates 24, 26, 134 

Etienne Arago 134 

Hermann-Charles Burmeister 134 

Carl-August Dohrn 1.15 

Marshal da Fonseca .... 135 

Ernest Renan 135 

Alfred Tennyson 136 

Xavier Marmier 136 

GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, by A. Boucard 1 56 



\ 





Vol.IL, No. 1.] JANUARY, 1892. 



[PRICE SIXPENCE. 



Wiu^ |§mrawit§ Bird 

A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 

A. BOUCARD. 




QLo/i/m/Cu JO-chxcouuK' 



Annual Subscription :. United Kingdom, Europe, N.America, & Canada, 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings. 

All other countries, 7 shillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. Vol. I. complete, Ten Shillings. 
Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Whole Page, £2. Half-Page, £1 2s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or continuous Advertisements, per contract. 




SK 



Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co. 

Naturalists and Feather Merchants, 

225, HIGB HOLBORN, LONDON, I.C., ENGLAND. 

COMMISSION. EXPORTATION. 



Messes. BOUCARD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on 
commission all kinds of Objects of Natural History, Collec- 
tions of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles 
and Fishes in spirit ; Crustacese and Arachnidae in spirit ; 
Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins 
and Feathers for Plumassiers. and Naturalists ; Mammal 
Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial 
Florists ; Rare old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all 
sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., otc, etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them 
without consulting Messrs. Boucard.Pottier & Co., who having 
a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, 
are able to get the very best prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of 
Museums and private Amateurs that they undertake to stuff 
from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. 
Only experienced and scientific Taxidermists are employed by 
the hour for that work, which will always be of the best 
class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of 
specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at whole- 
sale prices which defy all competition, either as quality or 
price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific 
Institutions. No one should be without them. The appear- 
ance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and every- 
one should adopt them and renovate the old ones. See 
Advertisement. 



The Humming Bird, iii 

FOR SALE.— Shells. 

"Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidae, is. each. Helicidse, 6d. each. Bulimidae is. each. 
Achatinidse, is. each. Cylindrellidae, is. 6d. each. Clausilidae, 
$d. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. Lymmea, Physa, and 
Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclostomidse, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 
3d. each. Unio, Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, Oliva, 
Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, Cypraea, 
Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, Venus, Cardium, 
&c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, Fluviatile 
and Terrestrial Shells formed during the last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all of them in 
the most perfect condition. 

Marine and Fresh Univalves 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 
Foreign Land Shells 
European „ 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 



Very nearly all the rare species known are represented in 
the Collection and sometimes by several specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. A. Boucard, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the 
world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. Will be sold at 
a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most per- 
fect condition. 23 specimens at 5s. each. 

a 



Species 


Specimens. 


5238 


21,3*4 


' 1850 


5>9°° 


2673 


1 9,442 




i 950 




' 80 


9,761 


37,686 



i?i The Humming Bird. 



FOR SALE. — From Kina Balu {Borneo). 

Calyptomena whitehead^ male, ioos. A magnificent bird, 
discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the interior of Borneo. 
Many other species from the same collector (magnificent skins). 



FOR SALE. 

JUST RECEIVED. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Madagascar. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Ecuador. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Guiana. 

A fine lot of Lepidoptera from Darjeeling, India, including 
Armandia, Teinopalpus, and all the rare species of Papilios^ 
all in splendid condition, to be sold at a bargain. 



FOR SALE. 

Some Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, 
Mexico, and Central America, etc., etc. 



Postage Stamps 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the 
World. 
For prices Ac. apply to Naturalists Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.O. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none 
have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially 
Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



/ s ' December 1 8 93 



NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS 



Henceforth The Humming Bird will be issued quarterly, 
cm the first of March, June, September and December. 

Each part will consist of 64 pages of text, at least, and 
when possible or advisable, plates will be issued. 

Iu Volume Three, besides original articles on Science, 
Art, and Industry, will be continued the Genera of Humming 
Birds, and will commence the publication of a work, entitled: 
"TRAVELS of a Naturalist in America", by our 
Chief Editor, Mr A. Boucard, and prepared especially for 
this Journal. 

Mr Boucard having spent many years in Mexico and in North 
Gentrrl and South America, a Record of his travels, adven- 
tures and discoveries in that wonderful Continent, will 
certainly prove of interest to the Readers of the Humming 
Bird. 

In consequence of the increase of text, and plates, which 
we intend to issue during the year 1893, the price of each 
part cannot bs fixed until issued ; but we are willing to 
receive annual subscriptions, including postage, at the following 
rates : 

United Kingdom, Europe, Canada, and North America 
10 shillings. Other Countries 12 shillings. 

No parts will b? issue 1 under two and sixpence. 

THE REDACTION 




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r A. BOUCARD 

225, High Holborn 

LONDON, W.C, 

(England) 



The Humming Bird. iii 

FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 

Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 

Glandinidae, is. each. Helicidse, 6d. each. Bulimidae. is. each. 
Achatinidae, is. each. Cylindrellidae, is. 6d. each. Clausilidae, 
3d. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. Lymmea, Physa, and 
Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclostomidae, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 
3d. each. Unio, Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, Oliva, 
Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, Cypraea, 
Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, Venus, Cardium, 
&c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, Fluviatile 
and Terrestrial Shells formed during the last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all of them in 
the most perfect condition. 

Marine and Fresh Univalves 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 
Foreign Land Shells 
European „ 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 



Very nearly all the rare species known are represented in 
the Collection and sometimes by several specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. A. Boucard, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



Species 


Specimens. 


5238 


21,314 


' 1850 


5>9°° 


2673 


1 9,442 




1 950 




' 80 


9,761 


37,686 



FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the 
world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. Will be sold at 
a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most per- 
fect condition. 23 specimens at 5s. each. 

a 



ÎT The Humming Bird. 



FOR SALE.— From Kina Balu (Borneo). 

Calyptomena whitehead^ male, ioos. A magnificent bird, 
discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the interior of Borneo. 
Many other species from the same collector (magnificent skins). 



FOR SALE. 

JUST RECEIVED. 
A fine lot of Reptiles from Madagascar. 
A fine lot of Reptiles from Ecuador. 
A fine lot of Reptiles from Guiana. 

A fine lot of Lepidoptera from Darjeeling, India, including 
Armandia, Teinopalpus, and all the rare species of Papilios, 
all in splendid condition, to be sold at a bargain. 



FOR SALE. 

Some Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, 
Mexico, and Central America, etc., etc. 



Postage Stamps 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the 
World. 
For prices Ac. apply to Naturalists Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none 
have been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially 
Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs of stamps, etc. etc. 



%\t Humming §irîr. 



NOTICE. 



At the request of many Subscribers, I have determined to 
change the size of this Journal. 

From the ist January, 1892, it will appear in octavo form, a 
size more handy, easier to send by post, and to secure its 
arrival in good condition in the hands of Subscribers. 

The Editor. 

Subscribers to Vol. II. are respectfully reminded that the 
price of subscription is now due. 



Description of a supposed new Species of 
Humming Bird in Boucard's Museum. 



Phaetornis Rupurumii, N.sp. 

■Male. — Upperside pale golden-çreen, brownish on head ; 
upper tail-coverts, golden green with rufous edges. Throat 
black. Lines under and above the eyes, pale rufous, with lores 
and ear coverts black, forming a central black bar between. 
Breast, abdomen and flanks, pale greyish, tinged with pale rufous. 
Undertail coverts white. Median rectrices bronze-green, paler 
near the end, white tips ; the next one of same colour but slightly 
darker, with white tips. The two next purple-black tipped 
white, the last of same colour, with edges near the point, and 
tips rufous. Wings purple-brown. Bill black. Lower mandible, 
flesh colour to a little more than half its length, rest black. 

Total length, 4§ in.; Wing, if; Tail, 2 ; Culmen, 1. 

Habitat, River Rupurumi, Brit. Guiana. 

Type, in Boucard's Museum. 

This pretty species of Phaethornis was discovered by Mr. 
Whitely during his last voyage, in the interior of British Guiana. 
It was killed the 31st of March, 1890, on the river Rupurumi. 
Its place is between P. squalidus, and P. longuemarei, but it is 
quite distinct of both species. 



2 The Humming Bird. 

THE WORLDS FAIR. 

International Exposition of Chicago. 

After all, it appears that the Americans have made their 
mind up to beat all preceding International Expositions. It is 
a 'fact that they are spending enormous sums to that purpose. 
It is stated that the expenses to be made reach already the 
enormous sum of six millions, seven hundred and forty thousand 
dollars, for the Exposition buildings only. In addition to that 
the company will have to spend another ten millions of dollars 
for the grading, filling, landscape gardening, viaducts and 
bridges, piers, etc., etc., so that the total amount is expected 
to reach, at least, the stupendous sum of seventeen millions of 
dollars. 

Besides that, the States and Territories are expected to spend 
about three millions of dollars. Then come the foreign 
nations. Fifty-one have already accepted the invitation of the 
American Government, and the amount known to be spent by 
twenty-eight of them reaches the nice total of nearly five 
millions of dollars. 

Thinking that the readers of the Humming Bird will be 
glad to know how this gigantic industrial enterprise is going on, 
I will reserve a space in each number of Vol. II. of this 
Journal, in which I will give all the latest information about it. 

It appears that the Americans want to celebrate the fourth 
hundredth anniversary of the discovery of America, by 
Christopher Colomb, in a manner which could not be sur- 
passed. 

The Editor. 

World's Fair Notes. 

Virginia's building at the Exposition will be of the old 
colonial type, measuring 33 by 76 feet, two stories high and 
surrounded by a piazza, fifteen feet wide. Its cost will be 
$20,000. 

The nine Lady Managers resident in Chicago, called 
together by Mrs. Potter Palmer, have decided to establish a 
model sanitary kitchen in the Woman's building at the 
Exposition. An effort will be made by a special entertainment 
or otherwise, to raise the $4,000 necessary for the purpose. 

Dr. John E. Owen, the Medical Director of the Exposition, 
has promised Mrs. Potter Palmer that women shall receive 
official recognition upon the medical staff. The number to be 
appointed has not yet been announced, but assurance has been 
given that women physicians will professionally rank equal with 
men, and share the duties of the Exposition hospital. 



The Humming Bird. 3 

The Hamburg-American Packet Company, of which Carl 
Schurz is the New York director, has subscribed $5,000 to 
Exposition stock. 

The Art Palace on the Lake Front Park, which will be built 
by the Art Institute, assisted to the extent of $200,000 by the 
Exposition Company, will cost about $700,000. The designs 
and plans of Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, of Boston, have been 
adopted. During the Exposition the building will be used by 
the World's Congress Auxiliary for some of its numerous 
meetings. 

California is the first state to respond to Chief Buchanan's 
request that each state contribute the trunks of three of its most 
characteristic trees, to be used in constructing a rustic colonnade 
for the Forestry building. California's contribution includes a 
sugar pine furnished by Towle Bros., Company, of Alta; a 
redwood, by J. F. Cunningham, of Santa Cruz ; and a sequoia, 
by Smith Comstock, of Tulare. 

The great imitation coast-line battle-ship, which is to consti- 
tute and contain the government's naval exhibit is in an 
advanced state of construction. It will be all inclosed before 
winter weather sets in, and all of the interior work will be 
completed by spring. 

A World's Fair transportation company has been organised 
by a number of moneyed men in Maine for the purpose of 
transporting New Englanders to and from the Exposition and 
paying their expenses while in Chicago. It issues certificates 
payable in installments, and these, when paid up, are transfer- 
able for round trip tickets to the Exposition, including all 
necessary expenses. 

The Carriage Builders' National Association, at its recent 
session in Cincinnati, appointed an influential committee to 
supervise the collection and preparation of a creditable exhibit 
of vehicles, and to co-operate with Chief Smith of the Trans- 
portation Department. 

The State Board of Commerce, of Oregon, has employed 
canvassers to raise $25,000 to be turned into the State's 
World's Fair fund. 

E. R. L. Gould, the American delegate to the International 
Statistical Institute, recently held in Paris, writes to Chief 
Fearn saying that the congress has accepted an invitation to 
meet in Chicago in 1893. 

The Quebec Steamship Company, operating the New York, 
Bermuda and West India Line, has agreed to bring government 
exhibits to the Fair free. Half rate is granted on the exhibits 
of individuals. 



4 The Humming Bird. 

Quaritch, the noted London book-dealer, intends to send to 
the Exposition an autograph letter of Christopher Columbus, 
for which he paid $5,000. 

Thomas A. Edison, the famous electrician, has applied for 
35,000 feet of space, or about one-seventh of all that the 
Electricity building contains. " I have it from Mr. Edison 
himself," said Chief John P. Barrett, " that his display at the 
Fair is to be the. greatest achievement of his life. In talking 
of his application for space Mr. Edison admitted that he was 
asking for a large section of the building ; ' but every inch will 
be put to good purpose,' he added. ' I shall not waste a foot 
of the area assigned to me, but will present a series of the 
most interesting electrical inventions ever produced.' I happen 
to know," Professor Barrett added, " that Mr. Edison is doing 
just as he says. He is making an almost innumerable list of 
novel and spectacular exhibits. Other electricians are not idle. 
We are already crowded for space in our building, and if the 
demand continues as it has begun I don't know how we will 
accommodate all the exhibitors." 

Customs regulations for foreign exhibits to the Fair are being 
prepared by Assistant Secretary Spaulding, of the Treasury 
Department. These regulations are substantially the same as 
were asked for by the foreign commissioners who recently 
visited Chicago. Mr. Spaulding says that he has no doubt 
that the regulations will be found entirely satisfactory to foreign 
exhibitors. 

The Agricultural Society of France has decided to offer a 
number of premiums for the best French horses shown at the 
Fair. 

The number of intending exhibitors who have applied for 
space at the exposition reached 1,623 on Oct. 24. This 
is a much larger number than the Centennial had at a 
correspondingly early date. The number does not include any 
foreign applications, all of which are made to their respective 
national commissions. 

Seventy-four cases of relics of the Indians and Mound 
Builders have been received by the Department of Ethnology 
of the Exposition from Chillicothe, Ohio. They contain a 
great variety of prehistoric implements and utensils, such as 
axes, arrow-heads, pipes, bowls, jars, etc. They were exhumed 
by a party acting under the direction of Chief Putnam. 

One acre of ground within the Horticultural building has 
been reserved for an orange grove from Florida and the same 
amount for a grove from California. These trees will be 
brought to Chicago next year and planted, so that they will bear 
fruit while the Exposition is open. These two acres constitute 
two interior courts of the building. 



The Humming Bird. 5 

The State of Idaho has applied for 10,000 square feet of 
space in the Mines and Mining building for a display of 
minerals. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer is to drive the last nail in the Woman's 
building. The lady managers of Montana, at the suggestion 
of Mrs. J. E. Richards, are having the nail made of gold, silver 
and copper. It will be forwarded to Chicago as soon as 
completed. 

Wisconsin's building at the Exposition will be 80 by 90 feet, 
three stories high, and of the Queen Anne style of architecture 
Its cost is estimated at $29,600. 

Sir Henry Wood, the British Commissioner to the 
Exposition, who recently visited Chicago, has made a report to 
his government. The cable dispatches report that it is very 
elaborate, that it is about 10,000 words in length, and deals 
with a great variety of details concerning the Exposition. Sub- 
joined to the report are plans and descriptions of the grounds 
and buildings, the regulations for installation, transportation, 
etc. ; mail facilities, and other important data. In concluding 
his report, which is exceedingly favourable to the Exposition, 
Sir Henry Wood says that he has no doubt whatever of its 
ultimate success. 

Florida's Exposition building will be a full-sized reproduc- 
tion of Fort Marion, which was built at St. Augustine in 1620, 
and is believed to be the oldest building in the United States. 
It is of stone and covers a space of about 150 feet square. The 
walls are twenty feet high and nine feet thick at the base. It is 
a rectangular structure, the interior court being about seventy- 
five feet square. Within the fort are some twenty-four rooms. 
The reproduced structure on the Fair grounds will be frame, 
covered on the outside with the phosphate rock of Florida, to 
give it the appearance of stone. The walks on the parapet 
and within the inner court will be covered with the celebrated 
pebble phosphate of Florida. This use of the material will 
constitute the State's phosphate exhibit. The old fort is en- 
compassed about with a deep moat. This moat will also be 
reproduced, and will constitute a sunken garden in which will 
be shown all the tropical plants of Florida — the pine-apple, 
banana, rice, sugar cane, oranges, etc. It is contemplated to 
partition off a portion of the moat and fill it with water and 
have there several alligators and, perhaps, crocodiles. Several 
of the old Spanish cannon that once did service at the fort will 
be taken to Chicago. The Florida building promises to be 
one of the most unique of the State structures. 

New York, Dec. 19. — Messrs. Chance, of Birmingham, 
England, have notified the World's Fair authorities that they 



6 The Humming Bird. 

are willing to erect a duplicate Eddystone lighthouse as a 
beacon light for steamers carrying passengers to the Fair. In- 
vitations have been sent to famous men of letters of all 
countries inviting them to prepare contributions in prose and 
verse for the World's Fair congresses. It is hoped that Sir 
Edwin Arnold will write the hymn for the opening of the con- 
gress on religion. Contributions are also expected from Lord 
Tennyson, John G. Whittier, Oliver W. Holmes, and others. 

The Council of the Society of Arts, which is the Royal 
British World's Fair Commission, after listening to the highly 
favourable report of Commissioners Sir Henry Wood and 
James Dredge, relative to their investigation of Exposition 
matters at Chicago, decided to appoint committees on finance, 
fine arts, Indian, colonial, engineering, manufactures, electricity, 
agriculture, mines and metallurgy, textile industries and trans- 
portation, and also a committee on women's work to co-operate 
with the Board of Lady Managers in Chicago. It also voted 
to invite the assistance of chambers of commerce and local 
committees throughout England. 

(To be continued?) 



Review of New Scientific Books. 

A Handbook of the Destructive Insects of Victoria, with Notes 
on the Methods to be adopted to check and extirpate them. 
By C. French, F.L.S., Government Entomologist. Part I. 
Melbourne, 1891. 

This handbook, prepared by order of the Victorian Depart- 
ment of Agriculture is a practical and popular work, intended 
to be of much use to Farmers, Orchardists, Vignerons, Horti- 
culturists, and all other persons interested in agriculture. The 
woodcuts and coloured plates, twenty-seven in number, have 
been executed by Mr. C. C. Brittlebank, of the Field Naturalist's 
Club, and the well known Melbourne firms of Messrs. Troedel 
and Co., and Messrs. Sands and McDougal. The printing of 
the letterpress, by the Government Printing Office. 

A short introduction to Entomology is given. This has been 
taken from Miss Ormerod's well-known and valuable work, 
A Manual of Injurious Insects. 

A brief account of the classification of insects has been taken 
from Professor Westwood's well-known work, A Guide to 
Modern Classification of Insects. 

The First Part contains a systematic description, with an 
account of the noxious insects of the Colony, which attack 
apples, pears, apricots and cherries. 



The Humming Bird. 7 

The fourteen coloured plates inserted in this part are very 
neat and well executed. They enhance greatly the value of 
the work. 

I congratulate the authorities of the Victorian Department of 
Agriculture, Mr. Chas. French, and all those who have con- 
tributed to the preparation of this valuable hand-book, and I 
hope that the following parts will appear as speedily as 
possible. 

I shall call the attention of the authorities of the British 
Museum (Department of Natural History) to this book, and 
I hope that they will soon follow the example given to them by 
the Canadian and Australian Colonies. 

Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France, T, iv. pp. 209- 
480, 1891. 

Contents '-—Résultats d'une excursion zoologique en Algérie, 
by R. Blanchard. Concluded. 

Faune des lacs salés d? Algérie, Ostracodes, by R. Moniez. 

Stelléndes nouveaux des campagnes du yatch l'Hirondelle, by 
Edmond Perrier. 

Monographie des Francolins, by F. de Schaeck. 

Etude de quelques paguriens recueillis par M. Jules de Guerne 
sur les côtes de France et de Norvège, by E. L. Bouvier. 

Diptères nouveaux ou peu connus, by T. M. F. Bigot. 

Notices helminthologiques, by Doctor Raphael Blanchard. 

I will call the attention of Ornithologists to the excellent 
Monograph of the genus Francolinus, by Mr. F. de Schaeck, 
cited above. 

This memoir of 120 pages, 272-392, begins with the 
geographical distribution of all the species of the Genus 
Francolinus, after which it continues by giving a full description 
of the internal and external characters of the genus, their 
habits, acclimatation, and classification, then follows a com- 
plete description of all the species known to date. Fifty-live 
species are described, but Mr. de Schaeck is of opinion that 
several species may turn out to be only local varieties or races. 
He thinks that many surprises are still in store for us, in the 
discovery of many new species, by future explorers. 

Among the species described in this Memoir 49 are African, 
1 from N. Africa and W. Asia, and 5 from S. Asia, Malay 
Archipelago, and Madagascar. 

Histoire naturelle de la France, Oiseaux, by Emile Deyrolle, 
Paris, 1891. 

This book on the Birds of France is profusely illustrated 
with woodcuts and 2 7 coloured plates representing the heads of 
287 species. They are very good and especially so, when we 



8 The Humming Bird. 

consider that this volume is offered to the public at the very 
moderate price of 5 francs, 50 centimes. 

It is quite a revelation in printing. 

The volume begins with an introduction, giving the names 
and a woodcut of all parts of bird. It follows with a method 
of skinning and mounting birds, after which comes the classi- 
fication of the families and the description of all the species 
found in France. It is a pity that in the preparation of this 
volume M. Deyrolle did not ask the collaboration of a competent 
Ornithologist, because there are some things which may appear 
strange to modern Ornithologists. 

To begin with, page 44 is a woodcut said to represent 
Syrnium aluco. Instead of that, it is a good representation of 
Strix flammea, which is again badly represented in page 46. 

In the family of Picid^e, p. 49, he includes Cuculidae ! 

In the family of Alcedinid^e, p. 57, he includes Merops 
apiaster, "Meropidse," which has nothing to do with the former. 
, In the family of Gallinaccés, p. 168, he includes the 
Pteroclidœ and Columbidce. 

In the family of Echassiers, p. 185, he includes all the 
families of the Orde?s Ralli, Herodiones and Grues, and 
several families of Limicol^e. 

In the last — that of Palmipèdes, p. 226, which he divides 
in six groups as follows : — Totipalmes, Longues- Pattes, Becs- 
crochus, Becs-lamellés, Grandes Ailes and Plongeurs, he 
includes the remaining families of Limicol.,e, and all the 
families of the Orders Phœnicopteri, Anseres, Pygopodes, 
Impennes, Gavi^e and Steganopodes. 

It is regrettable, because this book has been prepared 
especially for the use of Schools in France. It would have 
been just as easy to make it, as excellent as it could be, so as 
to give to students an exact notion of Ornithological Science 
as it stands at the present moment. 

JVotions Générales et Pratiques sur les Musées Scolaires, by 
J. Touchet, Naturaliste, Saintes, 1883. 

This pamphlet of 31 pages is excellent, and ought to be in 
the hands of every one interested in Natural History. 

It starts with a description of what ought to be a Museum 
of Natural History for the use of children, and it follows with 
narratives on the origin of Collections, the size of a Museum 
and its arrangement, the exhibition of Collections of Mammals, 
and Birds, Eggs, Fishes and Reptiles, Shells, Crustaceœ, Insects, 
Worms, Plants, Minerals, etc. 

M. J. Touchet seems to be quite at home on all these 
subjects, and I have been very interested with the contents 
of his pamphlet. 



The Humming Bird. 



PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the 
collecting of Mammals and Birds' Skins, 
Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid... 


quart 2/- 


Rectified Benzoline 


„ 2/- 


Boucard's Insecticide ... 


lb. 4/- 


Ammonia 


4/- 


Collecting corked Box. . . . 


from 1/- to 5/- each. 


Pocket corked Box, 


... from 1/- 


Corked Box for Museums 


24/- doz. 


„ „ and glazed, spier 


idid make. 36/- „ 



Larger sizes can be supplied. 
Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collecting bottles with large opening from 6d. 

Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 



Curved „ ... 


... „ 2/- 


Taxidermist knifes 


... „ 1/6 


Long Forceps 


••• » 3/- 


Small „ 


... „ 1/- 


Insects' Nippers, 


... „ 1/6 


Sieve 


... „ 2/- 


Blowpipe for cleaning eggs . . . 


... „ 2/- 


Digger 


... „ 2/-& 4 /- 


Folding ditto ... 


... „ 61- 


InsectPins,English, French orGermanfrom 1/6 per 100c 


Steel Pins for setting butterflies 


... ,, 4/- per 1000 


Setting Boards 


... 1/- to 3/- each 


Butterfly Nets complete 


... from 1/6 to 6/- 


Sweeping and Water Nets 


... „ 2/6 


Cork in sheets 


... „ 3/- doz. 


Magnifying Glasses ... 


... „ 1/- to 5/- 


Hammers 


... „ 1/6 to 5/- 


Napthaline ... 


... „ 4/- per lb. 


Botanical Grey paper. 


... ,, 6/- ream. 


Folding Umbrella for collecting 


Insects,, 10/- 


Steel Perforator for making holes 


ineggs,, 1/- 


Cutting pliers 


... „ 2/- 


Flat „ - 


... „ 1/- 



Yl 



The Humming Bird. 



Price List — Continued. 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells „ 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto .. . ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... ... ... ... „ 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... „ 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from „ 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ...from 12/- to 40/- . 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a short 
notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C., by ordering at the 
Naturalist's Agency. 





STANDS, NEW 


STYLE. 




Wholesale Price. 






No. 


1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. 


per hundred 


55 


2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers 


at 24s. 


?» 


)> 


3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies 


at 28s. 


Î? 


5» 


4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 








Hawks 


at 32s. 


?) 


3J 


5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 








and Owls 


at 40s. 


) ) 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 

Wholesale Price. 





Black 


Coloured 




Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 


per gross 




per 


doz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 


6d. 


Is. 6d. No 


4 to 6 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„ 5„ 8 


8d. 


2s. 6d. „ 


7„ 8 


5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 


,', 9 „ 10 


ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ H 


2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 


10 


7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 


„ 12 


2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 


11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


„ 13 


2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 




doz. of pairs 








„ 14 


3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 


13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 


3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 


14 


lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 


„ 16 


4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. „ 


15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


,. 17 


8s. Od. 


3s. Od. 


Larger sizes can be made 


„ 18 


12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 




to order. 



No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size 
of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



The Humming Bird. 



PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the 
collecting of Mammals and Birds' Skins, 
Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid ... 
Rectified Benzoline 
Boucard's Insecticide 
Ammonia 

Collecting corked Box. 
Pocket corked Box, 



quart 2/- 
„ 2/- 

lb. 4/- 
4/- 
from 1/- to 5/- each, 
from 1/- 



Corked Box for Museums ... ... 24/- doz. 

„ „ and glazed, splendid make. 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 
Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 

„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collecting bottles with large opening from 6d. 

Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 



Curved „ ... 


... „ «/- 


Taxidermist knifes 


... „ 1/6 


Long Forceps 


... » 3/~ 


Small „ 


.- ,, 1/- 


Insects' Nippers, 


... „ 1/6 


Sieve 


... „ 2/- 


Blowpipe for cleaning eggs . . . 


... „ 2/- 


Digger 


... „ 2/-& 4 /- 


Folding ditto ... 


... „ 61- 


InsectPins,English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 100c 


Steel Pins for setting butterflies 


... ,,4/- per 1000 


Setting Boards 


... 1 /-to 3/- each 


Butterfly Nets complete 


... from 1/6 to 6/- 


Sweeping and Water Nets 


... „ 2/6 


Cork in sheets 


... „ 3/- doz. 


Magnifying Glasses ... 


... „ 1/- to 5/- 


Hammers 


... „ 1/6 to 5/- 


Napthaline ... 


... „ 4/- per lb. 


Botanical Grey paper. 


... ,, 6/- ream. 


Folding Umbrella for collecting 


Insects,, 10/- 


Steel Perforator for making holes 


ineggs,, 1/- 


Cutting pliers 


... „ 2I- 


Flat „ 


... „ 1/- 



vr The Humming Bird. 

Price List — Continued. 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for srrlall Insects and shells „ 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto .. . ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... ... ... ... n 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... ,, 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from „ 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermists Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ... from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

All other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a short 
notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C., by ordering at the 
Naturalist's Agency. 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 

No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 

,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagers at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 
,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 
,, 5 ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. 



ARTIFICIAL EÏES. 

Wholesale Price. 





Black 


Coloured 




Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 


per gross 




per 


doz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 


6d. 


Is. 6d. 


No. 4 to 6 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„ 5„ 8 


8d. 


2s. 6d. 


' >) 7 ,, 8 


5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 


„ 9 „ 10 


ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


,. 9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ H 


2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 


„ 10 


7s. Od. 


9s. Od. 


„ 12 


2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 


H 11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


„ 13 


2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


„ 12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 




doz. of pairs 








„ 14 


3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 


„ 13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 


3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 


„ 14 


lis. Od. 


13s. Od. 


„ 16 


4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. 


» 15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


„ 17 


8s. Od. 


3s. Od. 


Larger sizes can be made 


„ 18 


12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 




to order. 



No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size 
of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Mappies. 

No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 

No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND DIRECTORS OF 

MUSEUMS. 



FOR SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea Price 20s. 

African Khinoceros War Club Price 30s. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very nicely 
carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New (J-uinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what appear 
to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and six small ones 
round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is quite unique, and no 
Museum in the world possesses anything like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central America, 
in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala from 3s. 

Hats, Baskets, Mat* and various Objects made with palm leaves and 
various textile plaDts, from Central America, Madagascar, N,ew Guinea, 
etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal Plants, eta., 
from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 

Apply to the Director, at Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C., England. 



CONSIGNMENTS OP 

BIRD SKINS 

JUST ARRIVED AT 

Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London.W.C. 



A fine lot of pale red small Osprey Skins. 

A nice small lot of small white Osprey Skins. 

A fine lot of large Bee-Eaters. 

A large lot of splendidly made skins of Japanese 
Birds, from 10s. per 100 specimens. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, 
or the Isle of Wight, 

Several PROPERTIES at SAN REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
40 Minutes from MONACO. 



1° VI LLA MARIA LU I G I A. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated Coeso 
Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at about 15 minutes' 
walk from the centre of the town and 20 from the station. Splendid 
view in all directions, beautiful garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which 
a large space has been laid purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, Sçc. 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay windows 
opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor,— Five large and fine rooms, three full south, two on the 
north side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for Receptions, 
Soirées, &c. Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Seven large, rooms, four full south, one of them with 
dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak Room. 
Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 metres, width 10 metres. 

Price francs 60,0Q0 

2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27, 

CORSO GARIBALDI. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own ground of 
1,000 mètres, situated on the Cokso Garabaldi, (the most pleasant walk 
of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk from the central part of the town 
and 15 of the station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor.— Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, and Cellar. 
First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly the same, with Underground floor containing kitchen 
and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately — No. 25 ... francs 25,000 

No. 27 ... ... ... ... francs 30,000 

3° A PIECE OF LAND, about 350 metres. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from the station and 

the port, in the central part of the town. Splendid position. 

Price •• •• ••• francs 15,000 

For further information, apply to — 

A, BOUCA RD, 225, HIGH HOLB ORN, LONDON, W.C. 

Two of the Villas are actually let Unfurnished for 
3,200 francs yearly ; but they would fetch more if 
Proprietor was not abroad. It is expected that, if 
properly attended,, an Income between £200 and £300 
yearly could be secured, and more if let furnished. 

London : J. S. Levin, Printing Works, 75, Leadenhall Street, fi.C. 



V 




Vol. II., No. 2.] FEBRUARY, 1892. 




[PRICE SIXPENCE. 




m 





ira 



A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 

EDITED BY 

A. BOUCARD, 




OLsiAswux/ Jb-CHXcasulC< 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America, &> Canada, 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings. 

All other countries, 7 shillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. Vol. I. complete, Ten Shillings. 
Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Whole Page, £2. Half-Page, £1 2s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or continuous Advertisements, per contract. 




Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 




OTTIER & Co. 



Naturalists and Feather Merchants, 

225, HIGfl HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND. 

COMMISSION. EXPORTATION. 



Messrs. BOUCaRD, POTTIER & CO. offer to sell on 
commission all kinds of Objects of Natural History, Collec- 
tions of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skeletons, Human and 
Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Beptiles 
and Fishes in spirit; Crustaceas and Arachnidae in spirit; 
Ethnological collections from all parts ; Showy Bird Skins 
and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal 
Skins for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial 
Florists ; Bare old Stamps, used and unused ; Curios of all 
sorts, Pictures and Works of Art, etc., otc, etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them 
without consulting Messrs, Boucard.Pottier & Co., who having 
a large connection with Amateurs in all parts of the world, 
are able to get the very best prices for them. 

Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co. beg to advise Directors of 
Museums and private Amateurs that they undertake to stuff 
from a Humming Bird to a Whale at very reasonable prices. 
Only experienced and scientific Taxidermists are employed by 
the hour for that work, which will always be of the best 
class. 

An inspection of their Galleries, where a large number of 
specimens are always on show, is solicited. 

Special fabrication of Mammals and Birds Eyes at whole- 
sale prices which defy all competition, either as quality or 
price. See special Advertisement. 

New Stands for Birds, suitable for Museums and Scientific 
Institutions. No one should be without them. The appear- 
ance of the Birds on these stands is unequalled, and every- 
one should adopt them and renovate the old ones. See 
Advertisement. 



The Humming Bird, iii 

AMERICAN FOSSILS 

from SOUTH DAKOTA, U.S.A. 

Dealers supplied. Cretaceous Invertebrates : — Placenticeras, 

Scophites, Bacilli tes, Pryonocylus, Nautilus, etc. Tertiary 

Vertebrates: — Titanotherium, Aceratherium, Hyrocodon, 

Oreodon, Mesohippus, Elothe*ium, Metamynodon, Hyaenodon, 

etc. Fishes. 

Priced Catalogues free. Write for one. 

L. W. STILWELL, Deadwood, S.Dak., U.S.A. 

FOR SALE.— Shells. 

Private Collection of Mr. Boucard. 
Land, Fluviatile and Marine Shells. 
Glandinidae, u. each. Helicidas, 6d. each. Bulimidae is. each. 
Achatinidae, is. each. Cylindrellidae, is. 6d. each. Clausilidse, 
$d. each. Ampularidae, 6d. each. Lymmea, Physa, and 
Planorbis, 3d. each. Cyclostomidae, 6d. each. Helicinidse, 
3d. each. Unio, Anodonta, and Ostrea, 6d. each. 

Marine Shells — All the Collection including 
Argonauta, Murex, Fusus, Triton, Ranella, Nassa, Oliva, 
Marginella, Harpa, Terebra, Conus, Sfrombus, Cypraea, 
Neritina, Patella, Chiton, Haliotis, Turbo, Venus, Cardium, 
&c, 6d. each. 

Can be divided if required. 

All applications to be made at the Journal's Office. 

FOR SALE. 

One of the most magnificent Collections of Marine, Fluviatile 
and Terrestrial Shells formed during the last forty years. 

It contains 9,761 species by 37,686 specimens, all of them in 
the most perfect condition. 

Species Specimens. 
Marine and Fresh Univalves 5238 21,314 
Bivalve, Marine and Freshwater 1850 5,900 

Foreign Land Shells 2673 ) 9,442 

European „ f 950 

Rare Shells in glass Cases 80 



9,761 37,686 

Very nearly all the rare species known aie represented in 
the Collection and sometimes by several specimens. 

For further informations and price, apply to Mr. A. Boucard, 
225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

a 



iv The Humming Bird. 

FOR SALE. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the 
world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty years work. Will be sold at 
a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most per- 
fect condition. 23 specimens at 5s. each. 



FOR SALE. — From Kina Balu (Borneo). 

Calyptomena whitehead^ male, 100s. A magnificent bird, 
discovered lately by Mr. Whitehead in the interior of Borneo. 
Many other species from the same collector (magnificent skins). 



FOR SALE. 

JUST RECEIVED. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Madagascar. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Ecuador. 

A fine lot of Reptiles from Guiana. 

A fine lot of Lepidoptera from Darjeeling, India, including 
Armandia, Teinopalpus, and all the rare species of Bafli/ios, 
all in splendid condition, to be sold at a bargain. 



FOR SALE. 

Some Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, 
Mexico, and Central America, etc., etc. 



Postage Stamps 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare «tamps and New Issues from all parts of the 
World. 

For prices <&c. apply to Naturalists A#enc>, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwardb, to which none 
have beeu added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially 
Colonials and old German states. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on stamps. 

Proofs 01 stamps, etc. etc. 




umminj §iù. 



Notes on the rare Pheasant, Rheinardius 
ocellatus, Verr. 

By A. Boucard. 



In 1889, 1 met Captain Rheinard in the house of our mutual 
friend Mr. Anatole Maingonnat. In the course of an interest- 
ing conversation on Tonkin, that gentleman told me he had 
brought with him several long feathers used as head 
ornaments by the native chiefs of the interior of Tonkin. 

I told him that I was very anxious to see them ; as I thought, 
by the description he made, that they ought to belong to a new 
species of the rare genus Argus. 

Next day I was in possession of the said feathers, which I 
have still. No one, unless he be an enthusiast Naturalist like 
myself, can have an idea of the extreme pleasure I felt when 
these feathers were handed to me. There was one long feather 
about three feet long, and several smaller ones. I thought at 
once of a magnificent new species of Argus, and told so to 
Captain Rheinard, insisting upon him to do all what he could 
to procure as many specimens as possible, as I was certain that 
it should prove one of the greatest ornithological discoveries of 
this century. 

As he was returning to Tonkin a few days after, I made an 
appointment with him for the next day, and I went at once to 
the Library of the Jardin des Plantes, where I asked for the 
beautiful Monograph of Phasianidse, lately edited by D. Elliot. 
At once, I found in that magnificent work one coloured plate 
figuring some feathers, the property of the French Museum 
of Natural History, which undoubtedly belonged to the same 
species as those which I had with me. It was at the 
same time a great pleasure and a great disappointment, see- 
ing that the bird had already a name given, that of Argus 
ocellatus, Verr. Nevertheless, I thought what a grand thing it 
would be to have the bird. So the next day, when I met 
Captain Rheinard, I told him what I had discovered about 
the feathers, and told him to procure the bird by all means. 

b 



10 The Humming Bird. 

It was agreed between us that he should try to get as many as 
he could, and to send them to Mr. Maingonnat for me. 

Two years after, at the end of June, 1882, returning from 
the Riviera, where I had passed the winter, I was quite sur- 
prised to learn that Mr. Maingonnat had received from 
Captain Rheinard one specimen of the bird and that he 
exhfbited-itrat the meeting of the Zoological Society of France 
on the 1 2th of June, 1882, giving it the name of Argus 
Rheinardi. 

A few days after, I was at "Mr. Maingonnat, and he con- 
firmed me what I had heard. I was quite vexed at the time, 
as it was a well understood thing between Messrs. Rheinard, 
Maingonnat and myself that I should describe this bird if 
Captain Rheinard could get it. 

But the thing being done, I could not help it ; but when I 
saw the bird, I said immediately to Mr. Maingonnat that it 
was not an Argus, but an extraordinary form of Pheasant 
between Pavo, Argusianus, and Phasianus, and I suggested 
the name of Rheinardia ocellata for the bird, a name still more 
honorific for the discoverer of this magnificent species. 
Mr. Maingonnat took the hint at once, and without any more 
advice of mine he made a poor description of this new genus 
in La Science pour tous, July, 1882, p. 210, under the name of 
Rheinardia ocellata. 

The skin from which the description was taken by Mr. 
Maingonnat was sold by him to the Paris Museum for 
2,000 francs. 

A little while after, another male specimen was sent by 
Captain Rheinard, then French Resident in Tonkin, and was 
offered by him to the Paris Museum. 

In 1883 Capt. Rheinard sent six more specimens, among 
them one female, which 1 believe is still unique and undes- 
cribed. It is now in the collection of the British Museum. 
Of these six specimens, one male and one female are exhibited 
in the Ornithological Gallery of the British Museum, where 
they show extremely well. One male specimen is in the 
Museum of Natural History at Lyon, France. Another male 
specimen is at the Museum of Natural History of Saint Omer, 
Pas de Calais, France, whose collections have increased 
wonderfully under the direction of Mr. Ch. Van Kempen. 
The other two, also males, are now the property of the 
Honourable Lionel Walter de Rothschild. 

Since 1883, although I have offered a good price for some 
more specimens, I have been unable to get one. 

Mr. E. Oustalet in a pamphlet, which I possess, having for 
title Description du Rheinardius ocellatus, Gallinacé voisin des 
Argus, has given a very good description of the bird, taken 
from one of the specimens in the Paris Museum. 



The Humming Bird. 11 

In this pamphlet he states that Mr. D. G. Elliot is the first 
author who mentioned the difference between the feathers of 
this bird and those of Argusianus giganicus. 

I quite agree with him, as I consulted that plate myself, and 
it is due to it that I was able to identify the feathers brought 
by Capt. Rheinard in 1880 ; but I am in doubt about the name 
which must be selected as the author of the species. 

I will be greatly obliged to modern Ornithologists to give 
me their opinion about it. 

Now I will give the description of a fine male specimen of 
my Collection, now the property of the Hon. Lionel Walter 
de Rothschild. 



Rheinardius ocellatus, Verr phoenix ? 

Argus R/ieinardia, Maing. No description. 
Rheinardia ocellata, Maing Sci. pour. tous. July, 1882, 
p. 210. 

Rheinardws ocellatus, Oustalet. 

Habitat Buih-Dinh (Tonkin). 

Male : — Head black, Lores pale silvery white, under which 
runs a black line. Ear-coverts nearly black. Crest blackish 
in front, then dirty rufous, then silvery white. It is over two 
inches high. Chin silvery white. Throat deep rufous, paler 
near the chin. Upper and under surface black covered all 
over with small irregular white and pale rufous spots, dark on 
back, lighter on wing-coverts, and reddish-brown on breast, 
abdomen and flanks. The median rectrices are four feet long, 
and five inches wide at base, terminating gradually at a point. 
Lateral are also very wide at base, but generally shorter, the 
last being scarcely over one foot and a half long, all of them 
terminating to an acute point. The colour of the median rectrices 
is slate coloured in centre, somewhat darker on each side, pro- 
fusely covered all over with conspicuous round silvery white 
spots, intermixed with irregular rufous ones. Along the shaft, 
to the two thirds of its length, there are two rows of white 
ocellated .rufous spots, black in centre. These gradually 
disappear. The lateral feathers, which are of a darker colour, 
are marked in a similar way, and the round spots are pale 
rufous instead of silvery white, the ocellated spots along the 
shaft and the irregular spots between are also darker. All 
the tips are black. Bill, flesh colour at base, then yellow. Legs, 
flesh colour. 

Total length, 5 feet. Wing, 1-2 ineh. Tail, 4 feet. Cul- 
men, 2 inches. 

This remarkable species inhabits temperate countries at 



12 The Humming Bird. 



* 



an altitude of about 1,000 feet ; but it is probable that it is 
also found in warm climates. 

It frequents the densest forests, and is a very wild bird. 
Hence the difficulties of getting specimens. In nuptial season, 
February — April, they pair and are seen occasionally in the 
glades of the forest. It is the best time to get at them. It 
lays only two eggs, pure white, larger than a hen's egg and 
longer in shape. Some of these, hatched by a hen, were fifty 
days to come out. 

The young are quite familiar and can be easily domesticated. 
I have been told that even adults caught in traps are some- 
times domesticated. What a splendid game it would be if it 
was imported to Europe ! 

Its cry resembles somewhat that of the Peacock, but is 
more harmonious. When on the soil, it is with the greatest 
difficulty that the male can take its flight, in consequence of its 
long tail. The wild natives of the interior of Tonkin, well 
aware of that fact, catch them by running after. It gets tired 
quickly enough, and is easily secured. Females are much 
more difficult to obtain, as they can take their flight easily. 
They live on Insects, Reptiles, and probably Seeds and Fruits. 
In the oesophagus of one of the birds sent to Europe frogs and 
toads have been found. 

The wild natives hunt them a great deal when they are in full 
plumage, and put a great value on the long tail-feathers, which 
are used as a head-dress ornament by their chiefs. I don't 
know if they eat the flesh, but it is probable, as it must be 
delicious. According to Captain Rheinard, it is with the 
greatest difficulty that he could procure the specimens he sent 
to Europe. 

All the above informations were given by those who pro- 
cured the specimens for him. In my opinion, it is very likely 
that this bird is the fabular Phœnix, a bird well known to the 
Chinese from the remotest time. My authority for saying so 
is that I have seen many drawings on pieces of furniture, on 
table carpets and other clothes, and on earthenware from 
China and Japan, which agree entirely with the general faciès 
of this bird. In that case its proper name should be 
Rheinardius phœnix !! 

Science is greatly indebted to Captain Rheinard for the dis- 
covery of this magnificent bird. 



Tlie Humming Bird. 13 

THE WORLDS FAIR. 

Royal Commission for the Chicago Exhibition, 1893. 

THE COUNCIL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF 
ARTS, MANUFACTURES AND COMMERCE. 



Under date of the 27th August, 1891, Her Majesty was 
pleased to issue a Commission to the Council of the Society 
of Arts, authorising them to act as Commissioners for the 
Universal Exhibition, which, pursuant to an Act of Congress, 
and in accordance with a Proclamation made by the President 
of the United States of America, will be held at Chicago from 
May 1 st to October" 30th, 1893. 

The Royal Commission are now prepared to receive appli- 
cations from Artists, Manufacturers, and others desirous of 
taking part in the Exhibition, to afford them all necessary 
information, and to offer them all available facilities which 
they may desire for this purpose. 

Such applications must be made upon forms to be obtained 
from the Secretary of the Commission at their Offices, Society 
of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, London, W.C. They must be 
sent in properly filled up, not later than February 29th, 1892, 
and addressed to the Secretary as above. 

As the funds granted by H. M. Government will not suffice 
to defray all the expenses of the Section, it is necessary that 
they should be supplemented by payments from the Exhibitors. 
A charge will therefore be made to each Exhibitor, based on 
the amount of space occupied, and calculated on the following 
scale : — 

Per sq. ft. 
s. d. 
For spaces not exceeding 100 sq.ft. ... ... ...50 

4 6 
4 o 
3 6 
3 © 
2 6 



For spaces exceeding iopsq.ft.and notexceeding2oo sq.ft. 



200 „ „ „ 300 



» » 3°° » » r> 5°° » 

» » 5°° » „ » 75° » 

„ „ 750 ,, and upwards 

The minimum charge will be £$. 

It is not expected that the total receipts from all sources 
will more than suffice to defray the cost of an adequate 
representation of British Industry; but should there be a 
sufficient surplus after the payment of all the costs of the 
Section, the Royal Commission will refund the balance pro rata 
with the amounts contributed by the several Exhibitors. The 
amount produced by the payments of Exhibitors will therefore 



14 The Humming Bird. 

be treated as a guarantee fund, to be expended if necessary, 
but if not, to be refunded to the contributors. 

The Exhibition is situated in Jackson Park, within the 
southern limits of the city of Chicago. The principal buildings 
are devoted to the following main divisions: — (i) Fine Arts; 
(2) Manufactures and Liberal Arts; (3) Agriculture; (4) 
Machinery ; (5) Electricity ; (6) Mines ; (7) Transportation ; 
(8) Horticulture. In all these, space has been allotted to 
Great Britain, though it is expected that the principal British 
Court will be that in the Building of Manufactures and Liberal 
Arts, since the privilege has been conceded to this country of 
massing all or most of its exhibits together, should such a 
course prove desirable. 

Exhibitors' goods will be transmitted direct in bond to 
Chicago, where the usual Customs examination will be made. 
Goods for exhibition only will not be liable to Duty, but on 
goods sold the usual rates will have to be paid. Goods can be 
sold in bond, at prices independent of the tariff, the duties 
being payable by the purchaser. 

The American Railroad Companies propose to carry goods 
back from the Exhibition free, charging the usual rates fort he 
outgoing journey. These rates, it may be noted, are low in 
comparison with those usual in European countries. It is 
hoped that special terms for Exhibition goods traffic may be 
obtained from the Atlantic Steamship Companies. Full 
information as to routes, traffic, rates, &c, will be provided in 
due course. 

A general Official Catalogue will be published in English, 
French, German, and Spanish. A special catalogue will also 
be published for the British Section. 

Exhibitions of Live Stock will be held, and Prizes will be 
offered in connection with them. A special circular has been 
issued, giving information about these. 

A limited quantity of steam and water power will be supplied 
gratuitously. Further supplies will be provided at a fixed 
rate. Countershafts, pulleys, belts, &c. must be provided by 
the exhibitor. Application for motive power must be made on 
special forms which will be supplied on demand. 

The general reception of articles at the Exhibition Buildings 
will commence on November 1, 1892, and no articles will be 
admitted after April 10, 1893. Foundations for heavy ma- 
chinery may be put in, and special constructive work com- 
menced, as soon as the state of the ground and the buildings 
permits. 

Special regulations will be hereafter issued for the organisa- 
tion of the International Juries. 

The Royal Commission are informed that the contract 
labour laws of the United States will not prevent Exhibitors 



The Humming Bird. 15 

from importing foreign labour, or from entering into binding 
contracts with their employés. Further information on this 
head will be supplied on application. 

Every person who becomes an exhibitor in the British 
Section thereby agrees to be governed by the rules and regula- 
tions laid down by the Exhibition Executive, or by the Royal 
Commission through its Executive Officer. 

World's Fair Notes. 

W. A. Alexander and Louis Gelder, representing the insur- 
ance associations of Chicago, have asked for space, 50 by 100 
feet, to construct a building at the Fair to constitute an exhibit 
of the most improved methods of fireproof construction and 
the appliances used in saving goods from burning buildings. 
The building, it is urged, can be occupied by a salvage corps 
during the Fair. 

One of the interesting exhibits from Montana will be a relief 
map of Butte, the greatest mining camp in the world. It is 
reported that Montana's appropriation of $50,000 will be 
doubled at the next session of the legislature. 

A splendid exhibit from Australia seems assured. Minerals, 
education, forestry and especially wool are to be represented. 
Wool growers and wool brokers, to the number of fifty, met 
recently in Sydney,. New South Wales, and took steps to make 
at the Exposition a very extensive collective exhibit of wools. 
New South Wales has selected its commission to the World's 
Fair. 

William Ordway Patridge, the great sculptor, has asked for 
space in the Art Palace for his statue of Shakespeare, which he 
is now making for Lincoln Park. His statue of Alexander 
Hamilton, which he is making for the City of Boston, will also 
be shown. Mr. Patridge is vice-president of the American 
Artists' Association in Paris. He gives assurances that the 
association is heartily interested in the Exposition. 

Leigh Lynch has been commissioned by Director- General 
Davis to visit the South Sea Islands in the interests of the 
Exposition. 

The Chicago Paper Trade Club, which includes the prominent 
manufacturers and dealers in paper in Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin, has decided to make the best exhibit 
of paper manufacturing and its machinery and appliances ever 
held under one roof. The display will show the actual manu- 
facture of paper in all grades from wood pulp to the highly 
finished book, and the exhibit will be conducted every day 
during the time of the Exposition. The finished product is 
to be run through a perfecting press and printed and sold as 
a souvenir. 



16 The Humming Bird. 

Mr. Sell, the London advertising agent, has applied for space 
to exhibit specimens of all the leading newspapers of the world 
which have been printed during the last two centuries. 

The Exposition Committee on Electricity has decided that 
the names of the following electricians shall appear over the 
entrances of the Electricity Building : Franklin, Galvani, 
Ampère, Faraday, Sturgeon, Ohm, Morse, Siemens, Davy, 
Volta, Henry, Oersted, Coulomb, Ronald, Page, Weber, 
Gilbert, Davenport, Soemmering, Don Silva, Arago, Daniell, 
Jacobi, Wheatstone, Gauss, Vail, Bain, De la Rive, Joule, 
Saussure, Cooke, Varley, Steinheil, Guericke, La Place, 
Channing, Priestly, Maxwell, Coxe, Theles, Cavendish. It was 
concluded best not to honour thus any electricians who are now 
living. 

Mr. Takahira, Japanese Consul-General in New York, who 
was specially commissioned by the Mikado to look into 
Exposition matters, has made a formal application to 
Director-General Davis, for 124,100 square feet in the several 
buildings on the Midway Plaisance, as follows : For an official 
Japanese building, 40,000 square feet ; in the Manufacturer's 
building, 35,000; Agricultural building, 4,000; Fine Arts, 
2,000; Mines and Mining, 750; Forestry, 350; Bazaars, 
42,000. Mr. Takahira was formerly secretary of the Japanese 
legation at Washington and speaks English fluently. He says 
the Japanese are greatly interested in the Exposition and will 
soon make a very large appropriation for participation. 



Books Received. 



The Antigua Observer; The Kansas City Scientist ; The 
Ornithologist and Botanist, Binghamton, New York ; Revista 
italifina di scienze naturali e Bollettino del Naturalisla, Siena ; 
Pearsorfs Weekly, London. In this last journal, one column 
is exclusively devoted to Natural History, Notes and Queries. 
In number 75, ending December 26, 1891, there are several 
interesting articles on Natural History, A curious rat-catcher, 
Fish from Volcanoes, etc. 

Index Generum Avium. A list of the genera and subgenera 
of birds, by F. H. Waterhouse, Librarian to the Zoological 
Society of London, 1889. 

This alphabetical list of about 7,000 generical names 
employed by various authors, with references to places and 
dates of their publication, is quite indispensable to Ornith- 
ologists. It will assist greatly the labours of working Scientists, 
and I congratulate heartily Mr. F. H. Waterhouse for the com- 
pilation of such a useful book. 

The Editor. 



The Humming Bird. 



PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the 
collecting of Mammals and Birds' Skins, 
Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid... ... ... quart 2/- 

Rectified Benzoline ... ... „ 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide ... ... lb. 4/- 

Ammonia ... ... ... „ 4/- 

Collecting corked Box. ... from 1/- to 5/- each. 

Pocket corked Box, ... ... ... from 1/- 

Corked Box for Museums ... ... 24/- doz. 

,, ,, and glazed, splendid make. 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 
Botanical box ... ... from 2/6 to 6/- each. 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different sizes ... 1/6 
„ with 1000 pins... ... ... 3/- 

Sea compass, ... ... from 2/- to 50/- 

Collecting bottles with large opening from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with two partitions 2/- 
Straight Scissors ... ... ... from 2/- 

Curved „ ... ... .... ... „ 2/- 

Taxidermist knifes ... ... ... „ 1/6 

Long Forceps ... .. „ 3/- 

Small „ ... ... .... ... ,, 1/- 

Insects' Nippers, ... ... ... ,, 1/6 

Sieve ... ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ... ,, 2/- 

Digger „ 2/-& 4/- 

Folding ditto ... ... ... .. „ 6/- 

InsectPins, English, French orGermanfromi/6 per 100c 
Steel Pins for setting butterflies ... ,, 4/- per 1000 
Setting Boards ... .. ... 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete ... ... from 1/6 to 6/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ... ... ,, 2/6 

Cork in sheets ... ... ... ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ... . .. „ 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers ... ... ... ... „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Napthaline ... ... ... ... ,, 4/- per lb. 

Botanical Grey paper... ... ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting Insects,, 10/- 
Steel Perforator for making holes in eggs „ 1/- 
Cutting pliers ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Flat „ „ 1/- 



VI The Humming Bird. 

Price List — Continued. 

Arsenical Soap ... ... ... „ 2/- per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small Insects and shells ,, 1/- doz. 
Pill boxes for ditto ... ... ... „ 4/- gross. 

Flax ... ... ... ... „ 6d. per lb 

Cotton wading per sheet ... ... ,, 6d 

Fishing rods with accessories from ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ... ,, 40/- 

Taxidermist s Case, containing 1 Pair of Scissors 
2 Knives, 1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 1 Ham- 
mer, 1 pair of Forceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc., complete ... ... ... from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-empting with handle ... ... „ 1/- 

AU other Utensils for Naturalists can be had at a short 
notice, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C., by ordering at the 
Naturalist's Agency. _ 

^^— » ■-...■■.— ■ ■ ■...1. 1 1 .^— — i— « 

STANDS, SBW STYLE. 

Wholesale Price. 

No. 1 for Humming birds and Small birds at 20s. per hundred 

,, 2 ,, Small birds up to Tanagere at 24s. ,, 

,, 3 ,, Tanagers up to Magpies at 28s. ,, 
,, 4 ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small 

Hawks at 32s. ,, 
,, 5 ,, Small Hawks to-Large Hawks 

and Owls at 40s. ,, 

ARTIFICIAL KIES. 

Wholesale Price. 



Black 


Coloured 






Cornered 


Cornered 
& Veined 


per qross 






per 


doz pairs 


per do z. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 6d. 


Is. 6d. 


No. 


4 to 6 


3s. 6d. 


4s. 6d. 


„ 5 „ 8 8d. 


2s. 6d. 


>» 


7„ 8 


5s. Od. 


6s. Od. 


„ 9 „ 10 ls.Od. 


4s. Od. 


>j 


9 


6s. Od. 


8s- Od. 


„ 11 2s. Od. 


5s. 6d. 


>» 


10 


7s Od. 


9s. Od. 


„ 12 2s. 3d. 


7s. Od. 


?» 


11 


8s. Od. 


10s. Od. 


„ 13 2s. 6d. 


10s. Od. 


»» 


12 


9s. Od. 


lis. Od. 


doz. of pairs 










„ 14 3s. Od. 


Is. 6d. 


»j 


13 


10s. Od. 


12s. Od. 


„ 15 3s. 6d. 


2s. 6d. 


»J 


14 


lis. Od. 


18s. Od. 


„ 16 4s. Od. 


2s. 6d. 


>? 


15 


13s- Od. 


15s. Od. 


,, 17 8s. Od. 


3s. 0à. 




Larger sizes can be rnade 


„ 18 12s. Od. 


4s. Od. 






to order. 



No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size 
of Tanagers. 
No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Mappies. 
No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 
No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. 
No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 



TO ETHNOLOGISTS AND DIRECTORS OF 

MUSEUMS. 



FOE SALE. 

Twenty finely carved An ows and 1 Bow from New Guinea Price 20a. 

African Khinoceros War Club Price 30g. 

Three distinct Zulu War Clubs, made of iron wood and very nicely 
carved Price 30s. each. 

Pagaie from New Guinea, made of palm tree Price 30s. 

Magnificent Gold Antiquity from Panama, representing what appear 
to be Musicians, two large figures in the centre and six small ones 
round. It weighs 6 oz. 187 grammes. It is quite unique, ami no 
Museum in the world possesses anything like it Price £50. 

A great variety of American Antiquities, chiefly from Central America, 
in hardstone, agathe, Idols, Vases, etc. from 5s. 

Modern pottery from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Statuettes representing the Indians of Mexico and Guatemala from 3s. 

Hats, Baskets, Mate and various Objects made with palm leaves and 
various textile plaots, from Central America, Madagascar, New Guinea, 
etc. from 6d. 

Samples of Textile Fibres, Seeds, Gums, Resins, Medicinal Plants, etc., 
from Mexico and Central America from 6d. 

Old and Modern Coins from Mexico from Is. 

Etc., etc., etc. 

Apply to the Directob, at Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, 
London, W.C., England. 



CONSIGNMENTS OF 

BIRD SKINS 

JUST AEEIVED AT 

Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, Londoo , W. C. 



A fine lot of pale red small Osprey Skins. 

A nice small lot of small white Osprey Skins. 

A fine lot of large Bee-Eaters. 

A large lot of splendidly made skins of Japanese 
Birds, from 10s. per 100 specimens. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, 
or the Isle of Wight, 

Several PROPERTIES at SAN REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 
40 Minutes from MONACO. 



1° VI LLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own ground, situated Corso 
Levante on one side and the Beach on the other, at about 15 minutes' 
walk from the centre of the town and 20 from the station. Splendid 
view in all directions, beautiful garden of about 2,000 mètres, in which 
a large space has been laid purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 
, Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, Sfc, 

Excellent water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay windows 
opening on the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Five large and fine rooms, three full south, two on the 
nor.th side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for Exceptions, 
Soirées, &c. Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Seven large rooms, four full south, one of them with 
dressing-room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak Room. 
Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : lerjgth 18 metres, width 10 metres. 

Price ... • francs 60,000 

2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27, 

CORSO GARIBALDI. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own ground of * 
1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Garabaldi, (the most pleasant walk 
of the town) hardly at 10 minutes walk from the central part of the town 
and 15 of the station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, and Cellar. 
First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27 — Exactly the same, with Underground floor containing kitchen 
and two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas francs 45,000 

Separately— No. 25 francs 25,000 

No. 27 francs 30,000 

3° A PIECE OF LAND, about 350 metres. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from the station and i 

the port, in the central part of the town. Splendid position. 

Price ... .. .. francs 15,000 

For further information, apply to — 

A. BOUCA RP, 225, HIGH HOLB ORN, LONDON, W.C. 

Two of the Villas am actually let Unfurnished for 
3,200 francs yearly; but they would fetch more if 
Proprietor was not abroad. It is expected that, if 
properly attended, anr Income between £^00 -and £300 
yearly could be secured, and more if let furnished. 

London : J. S. Levin Printing Works, 75, Leadenhall Street. B.C. 



y&r 



5X 

Vol. II., No. 3.] 




MARCH, 1892. 



[PKICE SIXPENCE. * 




h Jamming 




A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 

EDITED BY 

A. BOUCARD. 




ûbwrvuX/- JJovtccvuiv' 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America, & Canada , 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings. 

All other countries, 7 'hillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. Vol. I. complete, Ten Shillings. 

Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Whole Page, £2. Half-Page, £1 2s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d\ per line extra. 

Repeated or continuozis Advertisements, per contract. 




X' 




Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BODCARD, POTTIER & Co., 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of Objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Orustaceae and Arachnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of -such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK, 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species of Colcoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, 
Freshwater, and Marine Shells, a large number of species ; Reptiles and Fishes in 
spirit ; Crustaceae, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED WEEKLY FROM ALL PARTS 
OF THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE, 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many Types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. . 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, &c, apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially Colonials and 
old German States. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on Stamps. 

Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



Win Ssttmmmj 




ART. 

Celebrated Gallery of Old Masters of the late 
General Marquess de Garbarino. 

This is a small gallery, but I think that it can compare 
with any. It consists only of thirteen paintings, but all of 
them are gems. 

The first is a Masaccio, celebrated Italian painter, born 
in 140 1 at Valdurno, and died at Florence in 1443. It 
represents the Wedding of the* Virgen. According to 
Marquess Garbarino, it comes from the Royal Gallery of 
Madrid, where his uncle André de Montebruno, a great 
expert and collector of paintings, then a General in the 
service of Napoleon the First, bought it, after the conquest 
of the capital by the French army. It is signed Opus 
Masaccio, 1435. 

In this painting can be seen the coat of arms of Cardinal 
de Monti, who during the fifteenth century was sent as 
Nuncio to Spain. It is probable that it was given to the 
King of Spain by his Holiness the Pope, or by the Cardinal 
himself. It is the finest and the best preserved Masaccio 
existing. 

Tne subject of the second, which is not inferior to the 
first, but even more exquisite in design, and antiquity is 
a Presentation to the Temple, by the most illustrious 
painter Raphael d'Urbino. His master Perugino has also 
worked on it. 

This magnificent masterpiece was bought in 18 r5 by 
General Montebruno, from the parson of the noble church 
of Prince's Larmarmora, at Biella, Piedmonte. Money was 
wanted to rebuild the roof of the church, hence the sale of 
this picture to the General. The painting was formerly on 
wood, and from old age it was decaying, when the painter 
Merani of Genoa saw it and convinced the father of the late 
Marquess to have it restored. It was an easy work being 
painted on canvas called peaud'œuf. It was transposed on 
a new canvas with all the perfection desired. The third 
painting on wood is from Leonardo da Vinci, one of the most 
celebrated painters of the fifteenth century, 1452— 1519. 

It represents Santa Catarina with her wheel. If you 
look at it carefully, the eyes of the Saint seem to be life-like 



The Humming Bird. 



and staring at you. It is one of the fine paintings of that 
distinguished artist. 

The fourth is an handsome painting by Giulo Pipi, known 
also as ^ules Romain, celebrated Italian artist of the 15th 
and 16th centuries, 1492 — 1546. It represents the Lapida- 
tion of St. Etienne. These four paintings are the most 
precious of the gallery and are worth a princely fortune. 

The other nine are two Holy Families on wood by Gian 
Bellini, celebrated painter of the 15th and 16th centuries. 
Giorgon, Titien, and Sebastian del Piombo, were among 
his pupils. 

Two Portraits by the celebrated Italian painter, Andrea 
del Sccrto, known also as Andrea Vannuchi, 1488 — 1530. 

Les Epousailles de Jésus, enfant, by Sodoma, 1479 — 1554» 
or his pupil Cesare de Cesto. 

One Holy Family by Quand Juannes, celebrated Spanish 
master. This painting is very fine and looks like enamel. 
It is round and on wood. 

The Descent of Jesus from the Cross, attributed to 
Mantegna, celebrated painter of the 15th and 16th centuries, 

Agar by Corregio, 1494 — 1534. It was taken or bought 
by General Montebruno, from the Napoli Gallery, when the 
French conquered that place. It is very fine and painted 
on wood. 

The thirteenth and last is from Gaundensio Ferrari. 
It represents St. Jérôme in the Desert. It is one of 
the best of that master. All the above paintings are more 
or less masterpieces and there is not a gallery in the 
world where they should be misplaced. If they were 
exhibited in London or in other capitals, I have no doubt 
that thousands and thousands of visitors would pay 
willingly a good entrance fee to be able to admire them ; 
but unfortunately the family, although willing to sell, is 
adverse to an exhibition. Any one of the four principals by 
itself would attract great crowds in London or elsewhere. 
Measures of the paintings : — 



Masaccio 


on 


wood . 


Personages. 
. 11 half nat. size 


French measure. 

Mètres. 
Height. Width. 
• I '63 I -30 


Raphael 


on canvas . 


• 5 


> ) >3 


. 1*28 


1*29 


Leonardo 


on 


wood . 


1 


)) >> 


0-64 


0-52 


Guilo Romano or Pi 


Pi 


)> • 


. 10 


J) }) ' 


I-2I 


PI3 


Gian Bellini 




>> 


• 3 


>> JJ 


• o - 45 


0-51 


Andrea del Sarto 




■>■> • 
>> • 


• 4 
2 


>> >> 


• °"34 
. 0-65 


o - 45 
0-5 1 


Sodoma C. da S. 




> > 


1 

5 


half nat. size 


. o- 54 
. 0-89 


0-41 
0-89 


Quand Juannes 




>' 


2 


nearly full size . 


0*64 


0-64 


Corregio 




>> 


2 


small size 


. 0-51 


0*42 


Gaudknzio Ferrari 


on canvas . 


1 


full size 


• 1-54 


118 



The H m i uuing Bird. 19 

Amateurs willing to purchase this unique Gallery, or part 
of it, are requested to communicate immediately with Mr. 
A. Boucard, Editor of the Humming Bird, 225, High 
Holborn, London, W.C., who has instructions for the dis- 
posal of same, and can supply all particulars about it. 

Photographs of the paintings can be seen at the above 
address, by appointment only. 

INDUSTRY. 

Customs Tariff of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Now that so many countries in Europe and elsewhere 
have gone back to protective tariffs, prohibitive in many in- 
stances, I think it will interest the readers of the Humming 
Bird to be able to compare the said tariffs with the English. 
It is noteworthy that England is the only one important 
country in Europe who has not altered its tariff, and I 
think that it is the only country which understands its own 
interests best, and it is not necessary to be a prophet to say 
that in the long run, the advantages of such a system will 
be in favour of that country. 

In England, less than twenty varieties of goods pay 
import duties, and none pays export duties. Hence the 
immense shipping of goods to England, and making all 
other countries its tributaries. 

Not only I hope that England will not follow suit with 
the European and American countries which have raised 
their tariffs ; but I expect that at an early date, it will do away 
altogether with the Customs tariffs, and I firmly believe that 
if such a thing may come to pass, the prosperity of England 
will increase considerably yet. 

A. B. 
Ordinary Import Duties. 

£ s. d. 

Cocoa per lb. o o i 

Husks and shells . per cwt. 020 

Cocoa or Chocolate Ground, Prepared or in anyway Manufactured per lb. o o 2 

Coffee, Raw per cwt. o 14 o 

Kiln-dried, Roasted or Ground per lb. 002 

Fruit, Dried. 

Currants, Figs, Fig Cake, Plums not preserved in Sugar, Prunes and 

Raisins per cwt. 070 

Tea per lb. 006 

Tobacco. 

Unmanufactured, Stemmed or Unstemmed, containing in every 100 lbs. 
weight thereof 10 lbs. or more of moisture ... ... ... per lb. 056 

Ditto, containing less than 10 lbs. of moisture ,, o 3 10 

Manufactured : — 

Cigars 

Cavendish or Negrohead 

Snuff, containing in every 100 lbs. weight thereof more than 

moisture 

Not more than 13 lbs. of moisture 

Other Manufactured Tobacco and Cavendish or Negrohead Manufactured 

in Bond from Unmanufactured Tobacco per lb. 044 

Wine. 

Containing less than 26 degrees of Proof Spirits per gallon 010 

Containing 26 and less than 42 degrees of Proof Spirits ,. 026 

With an additional duty of 3d. per gallon for every degree of strength beyond the 
highest above specified. 



>> 





5 6 


lbs', of 





4 10 


per lb. 





4 1 


m 





4 10 



20 The Humming Bird. 

Import Duties to Countervail Excise Duty upon British Beer. 

£ s. d. 

Beer and Ale, the Worts of which were, before fermentation, of a specific 

gravity of 1,057 degrees per barrel of 36 galls. 066 

And so on in proportion for any difference in gravity. 

Bber, Rum, and Spruce. 
The Worts of which were, before fermentation, of a specific gravity : 

Not exceeding 1,215 degs per bbl. of 36 galls. 160 

Exceeding 1,215 degs. ,, ,, ,, 1 10 6 

Import Duties to Countervail Excise Duty upon British Spirits. 

£ s. d. 
Spirits and Strong Waters. 

Rum, Brandy, Geneva, and Unenumerated Spirits ... per proof gall, o 10 4 
Liqueurs, Cordials or other preparations containing Spirit?, in bottle, not 

tested for strength per gall, o 14 

Perfumed Spirits and Cologne Water ,, o 16 6 

Chloroform per lb. 030 

Chloral Hydrate ,, 013 

Collodion per gall. 140 

Ether, Sulphuric ,, 150 

Ethyl, Iodide of ,, o 13 o 

Naphtha, purified so as to be potable per proof gall, o 10 4 

Soap, Transparent, in the manufacture of which Spirit has been used perlb. 003 

Varnish, containing Alcohol per gall. 

See Spirit Duties. 

Import Duties to Countervail Excise Duty on British-made 

Articles. 

£ s.d. 

Plate, Gold per oz. Troy o 17 o 

,, Silver „ ,,016 

Playing Cards per doz. packs 032 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

World's Fair Notes. 

More than one and one-half million pounds of steel 
and iron will enter into the construction of the Mines and 
Mining Building. 

The .Royal Agricultural and Commercial Society of 
British Guiana has decided to hold a local exhibition of its 
resources preliminary to the display it intends making at 
Chicago. 

The imitation battleship " Illinois," at the naval pier, in 
the Exposition grounds, is now rising from the water. Work 
is progressing satisfactorily on the hull. The deck will 
measure over all 348 by 69! feet. The structure is to cost 
$100,000 and is the most original illustration of naval 
architecture ever worked out. 

A company has been ormed, embracing several very 
wealthy men, to inaugurate and operate in Chicago a per- 
manent circus after the style of the Hippodrome in Paris. 
A building, with seating capacity of 5,ooo ; and having a 



The H un lining Bird. 21 

garden on the roof, will be erected, and the attraction will 
be in operation to entertain World's Fair crowds. 

Charles W. Rolfe, of the Illinois University, at Cham- 
paign, has been elected to take charge of the relief map of 
Illinois, which is to be a part of the State exhibit. He will 
be assisted by a corps of ten engineers, who will go in the 
field soon. The map is to be made on a scale of one inch to 
three miles. It will be six by ten feet and cost $15,000. 

One of the largest bicycle factories in America has written 
to Chief Smith, of the Transportation Department, that it 
will exhibit at the Fair " bicyles and tricyles of every style 
of the trade, showing the rise and progress of the art of 
making 'wheels,' from the first ' bone shaker' built in this 
country up to the highly finished ' safety ' of the present 
day." 

Chief Ives of the Art Department, now in Europe, writes 
most encouragingly concerning the prospects of the Art 
exhibit of the Exposition. He has conferred with artists 
and art societies in many of the principal cities of Europe 
and has found them greatly interested in the Exposition, 
and anxious to send paintings and other art productions for 
exhibition. He reports his success much greater than he 
anticipated. 

A stock company with a capital of $100,000 has been 
formed to place a paper exhibit at the Columbian Exposition. 
Every American paper maker or American manufacturer of 
paper-making machinery will be allowed to take stock. The 
entire capital has already been secured, but the pledges will 
not be called for until the outsiders have been given a 
chance, in order to do away with any idea of a money- 
making scheme. A Committee of Five has been appointed 
by President M. J. Fitch to take the matter in hand and to 
send a representative to the meeting of the Boston Paper 
Trade Club on the third Wednesday in November. 

All of the restaurants in the Mines and Mining and 
Electricity buildings will be in the galleries. This was 
determined in order to leave the ground floor free as far as 
may be for intending exhibitors. It is thought also that 
restaurants on the second floors of the buildings would 
prove an attractive feature. It was also decided that the 
restaurants in the Electricity building be located in the two 
bays at the north end of the hall. In each bay there is to 
be one large dining-room, surrounded by several smaller 
rooms twenty-three feet square. The balcony connecting 
the two is to be fitted up for serving temperance drinks and 
ices. In the great Manufactures Building about 40,000 
square feet have been set apart for restaurants. 



22 The Humming Bird. 

The President of Uruguay has designated the Associa- 
tion Rural of that country as the National Commission to 
have charge of Uruguay's exhibit at Chicago in 1893. 

Vilmorin & Co., of Paris, who made the largest horti- 
cultural exhibit at the Paris Exposition, have had a repre- 
sentative in Chicago conferring with Chief Samuels and 
perfecting arrangements for making a similar exhibit at the 
World's Fair. 

A 10,000 dollar model of a stamp mill for reducing copper, 
now the property of the State Museum of Michigan will be 
shown at the Fair. This model was made and presented 
by the Calumet and Hecla Copper Company. 

The Atlantic Transport Company, operating a line ot 
steamers between London and New York, has agreed to 
carry exhibits from London to either New York, Philadelphia 
or Baltimore free of charge, except the actual expenses of 
loading and unloading. This generous proposition makes 
it possible for European exhibitors to have their displays 
brought to the American sea-board practically free of 
charge. 

The budget committee of the German Reichstag has 
voted a World's Fair appropriation of 900,000 marks, or 
$214,200. 

Chief Putnam, of the Department of Ethnology, has 
thirty agents in North, Central, and South America, col- 
lecting material for the Ethnological exhibit. 

One hundred and twenty car loads of glass, enough to 
cover twenty-nine acres, will be used in the roofs of the 
various Exposition structures. More than forty-one car 
loads, or eleven acres, will be required by the great Manu- 
factures Building alone. 

Edison's electrical exhibit at the Exposition will represent 
an expenditure of something like $100,000. 

The women of Texas have organized a State World's 
Fair Board of Lady Managers, with an executive committee 
of thirty -one, and Mrs. Wm. H. Tobin, of Austin, president 
and Mrs. Sidney Smith, of Dallus, as secretary. 

The London and North-Western Railway will send to the 
Exposition an exhibit illustrating the English railway 
system. 

The Austrian Government has postponed, until 1894, tne 
International Jubilee Art Exhibition, so that it will not 
interfere with the World's Fair. 

The Exposition Commission, which will visit the countries 
of Southern Europe and Northern Africa, is composed of 



The Humming Bird. 23 



's 



Ex- Secretary of State Thomas F. Bayard, Vice-President 
Thomas B. Bryan, National Commissioner James Hodges, 
of Maryland, and Director H. N. Higinbotham. 

A miniature model of the town of Pullman, 30 by 80 feet, 
will be a part of the exhibit made by the Pullman Palace 
Car Company. 

The Queen Isabella Association has requested space in 
the Exposition grounds, near the Lake, for the statue of 
Queen Isabella, which Harriet Hosmer is making, and also 
space for a building. 

The contract for the construction of the Illinois State 
Building at the Exposition has been let to William Harley 
& Son, for $195,800. This does not include statuary work 
and interior decoration. The total cost is expected to reach 
$275,000 or more. 

The validity of California's World's Fair appropriation of 
$300,000 has been affirmed by the State Supreme Court. 

Philadelphians are discussing the question of exhibiting 
at the Exposition the mammoth bronze statue of William 
Penn, which is to surmount the tower of the Quaker City's 
new city hall. The statue is thirty-seven feet high, and of 
such monster proportions that a man could ride a horse 
around the rim of Penn's hat. It is proposed to have the 
statue a part of the official exhibit of Philadelphia. 

About ten million pounds of iron will be used in the con- 
struction of the gigantic Manufactures Building. The 
Edgmore Bridge Company, of Wilmington, Del., was 
awarded the contract at a price which will bring the 
aggregate amount up to §460,000. 

Princess Christian, third daughter of Queen Victoria, 
has been chosen President of the English Committee on 
Women's Work for the World's Fair. 

Several merchants of Smyrna have asked for 1,000 square 
feet of space in which to exhibit the finest specimens of 
Turkish rugs and carpets. 

The Baltimore and Ohio railroad proposes to make an 
exhibit showing the progress of its development from a 
primitive tramcar to a fully equipped railway. 

The headquarters of the Texas World's Fair Association 
have been moved from Fore Worth to Waco, and changes 
have been made in its officers. Près. T. J. Hurley has 
resigned, and has been succeeded by Col. H. B. Andrews 
of San Antonio. Col. R. B. Parrott of Waco was elected 
to succeed Col. Andrews as Vice-President. Hon. Frank 
R. Lubbock, ex-Governor and ex-Treasurer of the State, 
has become the financial agent of the Association, and will 



24 The Humming Bird. 



s 



canvass the State to assist in raising the $300,000 desired. 
Nineteen Texas architects submitted plans for the Texas 
building - , and the best five of the plans have been forwarded 
to the Exposition Construction Department at Chicago. 

Pennsylvania's World's Fair Board has appropriated 
S 1, 000, to be distributed in premiums in the Agricultural 
and Live- Stock Departments of the exhibit from that 
State. 

The Michigan State Horticultural Society intends to 
exhibit a peach orchard in full bearing. 

The project of establishing a Columbian Memorial 
Museum, which shall be a permanent attraction and which, 
it is expected, will be given many thousands of curios and 
other objects exhibited at the Exposition, is being warmly 
supported by a number of Exposition officials and others. 

It is announced that within thirty days the tearing down 
of the old Inter-state Exposition building on the Lake 
Front in Chicago will begin. On its site will be erected a 
permanent Art Institute building costing $600,000 or more. 
The Exposition authorities contribute $200,000 of this 
amount, and during the Exposition the structure will be 
utilized for some of the meetings provided by the World's 
Congress Auxiliary. 

Miss Alice Rideout, of San Francisco, has won the dis- 
tinction of having submitted the best designs for the 
statuary which is to adorn the Woman's Building. She 
submitted three designs in plaster, representing respectively 
"Woman's Virtues," " Woman as the Spirit of Civiliza- 
tion," and " Woman's Place in History." The first and 
last groups will stand free above the attic cornice, sixty 
feet from the ground, and will cost from $1,500 to $2.500 
each. The third, "Woman as the Spirit of Civilization," 
will be in high relief, and will fill the pediment over the 
main entrance of the Woman's Building. It will cost 
about $3,000. 



On the 16th February, Henry Walter Bates, 
F.R.S., Secretary of the Royal Geographical 
Society, aged 67 years. A widow, three sons and 
one daughter, remain to deplore his loss. The 
biography and portrait of this Naturalist will 
appear in April number of The Humming Bird. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, &c, &c. 



...quart 


2(- 




»» 


V- 




... lb. 


4/- 




.. ,, 


4/- 




from If- 1 


o 5'- 


each 


... from 1- 






24/- 


doz. 




36/- 


)> 



Bicarbolic Acid 

Rectified Benzoline ... 
Boucard's Insecticide ... 

Ammonia 

Collecting corked Box 
Pocket corked box 
Corked Box for Museums 
„ „ and gla2 

make... 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different 

sizes 1/6 

Pin box, with 1,000 pins ... 3/- 

Sea compass ... . from 2/- to 50/- 
Collecting bottles with large opening 

from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with 

two partitions 2,1- 

Straight Scissor* from 2/- 

Curved ,, ,, 2/- 

Taxirdermist knives ,, 1/6 

Long Forceps ,, 3/- 

Small ,, ,, 1/- 

Insects' Nippers „ 1/6 

Sieve „ 21- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ,, 21- 

Bigger „ 2- & 4/- 

Folding ditto „ 6/- 

Irisect Pins, English, French or 

German from 1 ; 6 per 1000 

All other utensils for Naturalists can be 
Naturalists' Agency. 



Steel Pinsfor setting butterflies,, 4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, l/-to5'- 

Hammers „ 1/6 to 5/- 

Naphthaline „ 4/-perlb. 

Botanical Grey paper ... „ 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting 

Insects ,, 10/- 

Steel Perforator for making 

holes in eggs ... ,, 1/- 

Cutting pliers ,, 2/- 

Flat „ *V- 

Arseni cal Soap „ 2/ per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells „ 1/- doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto „ 4/- gross. 

Flax „ 6d.perlb. 

Cotton wadding, per sheet ... ,, 6d. 
Fishing rods witn accessories ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. ,, 40/- 
Taxiderniist' s case, containing 

1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 

1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 

1 Hammer, 1 pair of Forceps 

1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc., 

complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle from 1/- 

had at a short notice, by ordering at the 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 



No. 



for Humming birds and Small birds 

,, Small birds up to Tanagers 

,, Tanagers up to Magpies... 

,, Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 
,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



No. 





Black 


Coloured 


per gross. 




No. 1 to 4 


6d 


Is 6d 


>> 5 ,, 8 


8d 


2s 6d 


„ 9 „ 10 


Is Od 


4s Od 


» H 


2s Od 


as 6d 


„ 12 


2s 3d 


7s Od 


13 


2s 6d 


10s Od 
doz. of pairs 


» 14 


3s Od 


Is 6d 


,, 15 


3s 6d 


2s 6d 


5 6 


4s Od 


2s 6d 


„ 17 


8s Od 


3s Od 


18 


12s Od 


4s Od 



• • * 




at 20s per hundred 







„ 24s 
„ 28s 
„ 32s 
„ 40s 


J» 
J» 


EYES. 








Cornered 


Cornered 
and Veined 




per 
4 to 6 


doz. pairs 
3s 6d 


per doz. pairs 
4s 6d 




7 ., 8 


5s Od 


6s Od 




9 


6s Od 


8s Od 




10 


7s Od 


9s Od 




11 


8s Od 


10s Od 




J2 


9s Od 


lis Od 




13 


10s Od 


13s Od 




14 


lis Od 


13s Od 




14 


13s Od 


15s Od 




Larger sizes can 


be made 






to order. 







No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, &c. No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls Herons, &c. 



Ethnological Specimens and Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, Mexico, 
Central America, &c, &c, at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty 
years work. Will be sold at a bargain . 

Fourteen species of Carabas from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 specimens at 
5s. each. 



TO BE SOLD OB EXCHANGED 

For Properties o£ equal value in London, Brighton, or the 

Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 



1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own grounds, situated Corso Levante 
on one side and the Beach on the other, at about 15 minutes walk from the 
centre of the town and 20 from the station. Splendid view in all directions, 
beautiful gardens of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been laid 
purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, fyc. 

Excellent Water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay windows opening on 
he Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Five large and fine rooms, three full south, two on the north 
side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for Receptions, Soirées, &c. 
Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Seven large rooms, four full south, one of them with dressing- 
room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 mètres, width 10 mètres. 

Price .. .. francs 60,000 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27, 

CORSO GARIBALDI. 
Two semi-detached Villas, full south,.. standing in their own grounds of 
1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Garab aldi, • (the most pleasant walk of the 
town) hardly at 10 minutes walk from the central part of the town and 15 of the 
station. , 

No. 25. — Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office^ and Cellar. 
First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27. — Exactly the same, with Underground floor containing kitchen and 
two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas , . . . . . . francs 45,000 

Separately — No. 25 . . . . francs 25,000 

No. 27 . . . . francs 30,000 



3° A PIECE OF LAND ABOUT 350 METRES. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from the station and the 
port, in the central part of the town. Splendid position. 

Price francs 15,000 

For further information apply to— 

A. B0UCARD, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

i 

Two of the Villas, the smallest and the largest, are actually let Unfurnished 
for several years at 3,600 francs yearly ; but they would fetch more if Proprietor 
was not abroad. It is expected that, if properly attended, an Income between 
£200 and £300 yearly could be secured, and more if let furnished. 

Loudon : Chas. Straker & Sons, Bishopsgate Avenue, E.G. 




Vol. IL, No. 4.] 



APRIL, 1892. 



[PRICE SIXPENCE. 



®fe gumming 




A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCABD. 




OU\A/YXUXs Jb-<MXCCVU)i' 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America, & Canada, $ shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings* 

All other countries, 7 ^hillings. - 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. Vol. I. complete, Ten Shillings. 

Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Whole Page, £2. Half- Page, £1 2s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or contitiuous Advertisements, per contract* 





'K 



Published by A. Bovcard, 225, High Holborn, London, "W.C. 




POTTIER & Co. , 



jîaturaltsts anir jftafytv Jftwrfjantg, 

225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, I.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCAED, POTTIES & Co., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of Objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Eeptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacea and Arachnidse in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins ,and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Eare old Stamps, 
used and unused ; Curios of all/sorts ; Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species of Colcoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, 
Freshwater, and Marine Shells, a large number \of species ; Eeptiles and Fishes in 
spirit ; Crustaceae, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ABE EECEIVED WEEKLY FEOM ALL PABTS, 
OF THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich ' in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many Types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, &c, apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially Colonials and 
old German States. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on Stamps. 

Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 




HENRY WALTER BATES. 1825— 1892. 



d 




mu gpmmmg 




Biographical Notes on Henry Walter Bates, 
F,R,S,, etc., etc. 



Henry Walter Bates was born at Leicester on February 
8th, 1825, where his father was engaged in one of the staple 
industries of the town. He was educated there, with a 
view to commercial life ; and his school education was 
supplemented by attending evening classes, where he ac- 
quired his knowledge of classics and the rudiments of 
modern languages. But his taste for Natural History soon 
predominated, and in 1843-1844, several notes by him on 
British Coleoptera were published in the Zoologist. In 
1845 ne ma de the acquaintance ot Mr. A. R. Wallace, who 
was then engaged as a tutor in Leicester, and this ac- 
quaintanceship proved fraught with events concerning his 
future career. 

In April, 1848, the two friends embarked in a ship for 
Para. At that time there were no steamers plying between 
England and South America, and it was really a voyage 
that Messrs. Bates and Wallace had undertaken. They 
were the only two passengers. They arrived at their 
destination many weeks after, suffering more or less with bad 
weather during their voyage. They remained for some 
months at Para, at the mouth of the Amazons, a place 
rather insalubrious. They soon had to contend with 
sickness. Bates was attacked by yellow fever, but 
happily recovered ; but during all his life he suffered 
more or less from the consequences of this terrible disease. 
Wallace lost his brother from the same plague. The two 
explorers separated shortly after. Wallace went and 
explored the Rio Negro, where he made some important 
discoveries, and Bates went up the main stream of the 
Amazons, exploring carefully all the places which he visited, 
on the shores of this mighty river. He spent il years on 
the Amazons, ascending up to a point over the Peruvian 



The Him un in g Bird. 27 

frontier, distant 1,800 miles from the Atlantic. This 
voyage of explorations was made in canoes, small boats 
used by the natives. Only those who have done it, can have 
an idea of how tedious and hard it is to make a voyage of 
that description, all day long teased by myriads of a small 
fly, Diptera, which sucks all your blood, causing a great irri- 
tation and leaving on your skin a small round red spot which 
gradually becomes black when it dries, so that in a short 
time all the exposed parts are minutely tattoed red and 
black. If you go on shore, even for a few minutes, a 
multitude of small and large species of Garapatas, 
11 Arachnidae " take possession of your clothes, and from 
there introduce themselves in every parts of your body, 
where they incrust their mandibles and remain fixed there 
until they are fat and full grown, ready to lay their eggs. 
Then they drop. Some are excessively minute and not 
easy of detection after taking possession of you ; but you 
are constantly reminded of their presence by the irritation 
they produce on your skin. Others are of medium and 
large size. These can be removed by hand, but it is a 
tiresome work and not always successful as they 
usually select the most inacessible places. If some days 
have passed when you detect them, you pull them out 
regardless of the consequences, but their mandibles are so 
incrusted in your flesh, that in many cases the body comes 
off but the head remains. Once the boat infested with 
these insects you will have to bear with them until the end 
of the voyage. These are the day pests, but as soon as 
twilight comes new tormentors arrive. The first is a small 
species of fly, Diptera, which is not injurious so far, but 
hovers around you in such quantities that they find 
their way in your eyes, nose, ears, and mouth and are 
very importunate. This lasts until night sets in, then comes 
Mosquitoes of all sizes, the pest known all over the world, 
even in Europe, but it is quite impossible to have an idea 
of the bites of these tropical species. Some are very large, 
some are not, but they are so abundant that you cannot 
have one minute of rest. Even with a mosquito net, which 
is rather hard to endure in consequence of the heat, 
and the small size of the boats, they find their way inside. 

The poison introduced in your blood by these tropical 
Mosquitoes is very irritating. So that, with the inflamma- 
tion produced by the bites of the day-pests, the heat, and the 
Mosquitoes, you can imagine what a life it is for the 
traveller, who risks himself on a journey of over one 
thousand miles on a tropical river. 

Well, that is what Bates did, for love of science, and he 
had to suffer this martyrdom for many months, until he 



28 The Humming Bird. 

settled at Ega, then a small village inhabited by some 
hundred people. 

It is there and in the neighbourhoods, not far from that 
place, that Bates did work for a number of years, and was 
very successful. 

He collected many thousand species of insects, chiefly 
Colcoptera and Lepidoptera, and most of them new to 
science. Even now, after the numerous descriptions made 
by him and others of the new species which he discovered 
on the Amazons, I think the matter is not exhausted, and 
many species remain still undescribed in his collection. Ega y 
at that time, was a real Paradise for an enthusiastic 
Naturialist like Bates. 

In 1859, he left Para on an American trading vessel and 
returned to England, via New York. A few years after, 
in 1863, he published a description of his travels under the 
title, the Naturalist on the River Amazons. This book, 
originally in two volumes, was a great success, and is still 
selling well, in a somewhat modified form, in one volume. 
It has been translated in several European languages. 

In this book he gives a vivid description of his travels on 
the Amazons. It contains very valuable information on 
the biology, ethnology, and geography of that country. 
Soon after that he married a Leicestershire lady, a great en- 
thusiast of travels, who hoped to accompany him in his 
future expeditions, but in that she was deceived, for many 
events occurred which did not permit to think of future 
travels, and compelled him to remain in England. 

His work on the Amazons attracted the attention of Sir 
Roderick Murchison, who had great influence at the Royal 
Geographical Society, and who became his warm friend and 
patron. A vacancy occurring in 1864 in the Assistant 
Secretaryship of the Society, the post was offered to Bates, 
who accepted and retained it to the last, for he was on duty 
up to a very short time before his death. His services to 
the Geographical Society will be fully acknowledged 
elsewhere, but it is only justice to say that during his time 
of office, Entomology has been greatly aided by him by 
sound advices given freely to a host of Explorers, whom he 
also materially assisted by equipping with apparatus for 
collecting. In this way he increased considerably his col- 
lections. 

During his stay on the Amazons he put together an 
enormous mass of biological notes, in manuscript, copiously 
illustrated by sketches, for he was no mean artist. These 
notes still exist but (with the exception of those on the 
Termitidac) unpublished. 

As a philosophical Naturalist he was a profound 



The Humming Bird. 29 

student of the bearings of the phenomena he witnessed 
in his investigations of the rich Amazonian fauna. 

On the question of the Origin of Species and 
cognate matters, a close friendship existed between him and 
Charles Darwin, as the writings of the latter abundantly 
show. That he was a thorough evolutionist is certain, that 
he remained a believer in natural selection as the sole factor 
in the Origin of Species may be not so certain. 

In 1862 he produced his memoir on Mimetic Eessem- 
blances as illustrated by the Heliconidac, which took the 
world by surprise. After that f nearly the whole of his spare 
time was devoted to Systematic Entomology. At first the 
Rhopalocera engaged his attention, especially the Papilioni- 
dae and Erycinidae, his Catalogue of the latter having been 
adopted as a basis by succeeding authors. 

About ten years ago he sold his collection of butterflies 
to Messrs. Godman and Salvin, "since liberally given by 
these gentlemen to the British Museum, with their own col- 
lection," and thenceforth occupied himself with Colcoptera; 
especially Cicindelidae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, and 
Cerambycidae. On these families his publications have 
been excessively numerous, for they concerned the whole 
world. They appeared chiefly in the principal scientific 
papers published in England, such as the Proceedings cf 
the Zoological Society, the Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History , and many others. 

There is scarcely a Volume of the Entomologist's 
Monthly Magazine in which his contributions do not 
appear. 

His last important work was his contributions in the 
Biologia Centrali Americana, in which he has described all 
the species of the four important families, Cicindelidae, 
Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, and Cerambycidae, which form a 
prominent feature in this very important work. This alone 
would satisfy the ambition of any Entomologist; but with 
Bates there were no impossibilities. 

A short time before his death he sold his collection 01 
Cerambvcidae to Mr. Charles Oberthur of Rennes. 

For a considerable time he had been engaged on a new 
classification of the Carabidae on certain oral structures. 
This was to have been his magnum opus, as he himself used 
to say ; but death prevented its completion, which is greatly 
to be regretted. 

Bates has also been a contributor to many other impor- 
tant publications. His work (chiefly anonymous) in this 
line was enormous at one time, and he was on the staff of 
the Athenœum and other scientific reviews. He edited and 
extended Stanford's book of geography and travels ; Central 



30 The Humming Bird, 

America, the West Indies, and South America, one volume 
of 572 pages. It is incredible that one man alone, in such 
a short space of time, " 32 years," has been able to do the 
amount of work done by Bates, and what is more extra- 
ordinary still, for one who knew him personally, is that he 
never seemed to be in a hurry, which proves that he was 
a methodical and very hard worker. Honour to his 
memory ! ! ! 

In 1861 he was elected a member of the Entomological 
Society of London, of which he was President in 1868 and 
1869, and again in 1878. In 1871 he was admitted to the 
Linnean Society under a rule that enables the council to 
waive the pecuniary contribution in especial cases. In 
1863 he had received a like distinction at the hands of the 
Zoological Society. In 1881 he became a fellow of the 
Royal Society, the highest distinction which can be con- 
ferred in England to a scientist. His official position 
caused him to be Secretary of the Geographical Section of 
the British Association for many years ; but he declined 
the honour of being president of the section. 

The late Emperor of Brazil, in one of his visits to 
London, made the acquaintance of Bates, and had several 
interviews with him. He was so delighted to meet with 
such a distinguished linguist and scientist, that he knighted 
him on the spot Commander of the Order of the Rose, a 
distinction rarely conferred on foreigners. 

In private life, Bates was a model husband, a good and 
loving father, and a true friend. 

I first made his acquaintance in 1864, just a little "before 
my third voyage in Mexico. In 1869 I met him again in 
London, and since that epoch I have visited him often, and 
I have always considered him as one of my best friends. I 
always found him modest, trustful, helping, and sociable, 
and few are the entomologists of the day who do not 
know the way to his house. 

During the many years that I visited him, especially on 
Sundays, the only free day he had, it was very seldom when 
I did not meet at his place one or another of the best known 
naturalists of the world. 

Delightful were the afternoons and evenings passed in 
company of Bates and his charming family. 

His conversation was always extremely interesting, and 
time with him did not pass but fly. It was time to part and 
we had never exhausted all that we had to say. It is true that 
we had the same tastes, and in many things we did agree 
entirely, but with all that, it shows what a sociable and 
good friend he was, always ready to help you in every way. 



The Humming Bird. 31 

Lately, for want of time, I did not see him as much as 
before, and I regret it, because I consider that I have lost a 
great deal. 

In the middle of last year, he lost his beloved daughter, 
Alice Bates, the eldest of his children, and he felt it 
immensely. In fact, at the time of his death he had not 
got over it. 

Here are some extracts of the last letter which he wrote 
to me shortly before his death. 

January 7th, 1892. 
Mon cher Boucard, 

I gather from your letter that you do not know that our 
much loved daughter Alice is dead. I felt sure that her 
husband's family had sent the funeral cards to you and 
dear friend Salle, for I gave your addresses to them; but it 
appears this was not the case. She died in May last, 
leaving an infant girl, who is now being brought up by her 
sister Sarah. We have not got over our grief, and I have 
been more or less ill since. 

Mrs. Bates and I went away after Christmas for eleven 
days and only returned last evening. I need not repeat 
what I have said in a former letter, that we shall be glad to 
see you whenever you find it convenient to come. But 
you will find it a dull household. 

Mrs. Bates desires me to send you her kindest regards. 

Many thanks for sending in the Humming Bird so 
regularly. You must work very hard. 

Yours sincerely, 

H. W. BATES. 

As I said before, during all his life he resented more or 
less the consequences of the attacks of yellow and inter- 
mittent fevers, from which he suffered during his expedition 
on the Amazons. His liver, being out of order, occasioned 
attacks of dyspepsia, which his robust constitution enabled 
him for many years to throw off, but lately symptoms of 
some organic gastric mischief appeared ; upon this influenza 
supervened, and his last illness was of brief duration. He 
leaves a widow, three sons (two of whom are in New 
Zealand), and a married daughter to deplore his loss. 

The death of this eminent naturalist, at the early age of 
68, is a great loss for science, to whom he was one of the 
most devoted adepts, but his memory will never fade. He 
has done much for science, and it is to be hoped that one 
or more of his sons will follow the brilliant career so well 
fulfilled by their father. 

A. BOUCARD. 



32 The Humming Bird. 

CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

World's Fair Notes. 

An Ohio World's Fair commissioner has estimated that 
the exhibitors from his State will spend upwards'of $5,000,000 
in the preparation of their exhibits for the Exposition. 

The California building at the Fair will be an imposing 
structure of the " old mission " type, no by 500 feet, with 
a dome, and costing about $75,000. It will be surrounded 
by a hedge of Monterey cypress. 

Denmark will spent about $5,500 in showing, as a lead- 
ing feature of its World's Fair exhibit, a Danish dairy, 
complete and in operation. The dairy interest is one of 
the most important in Denmark, and the most approved 
methods and mechanical appliances are utilized in the 
dairies of that country. 

W. L. Libby & Sons, of Toledo, intend to erect, on 
Midway Plaisance, a factory in which the manufacture of 
cut glass can be seen, from the furnace, on through the cut- 
ting, finishing and decorating departments, until the 
finished product is turned out> The factory plans call for 
a structure 125 by 200 feet, of stone, iron, and glass, and with 
imposing dome. The firm intends to spend $40,000 on the 
building alone. 

Italy will make no governmental display at the Exposi- 
tion. The king, however, has recognized the Fair, by 
appointing a commission, and Minister of State, Rudini, 
has informed Vice-President Bryan and Director Higin- 
botham, that the government will encourage individual 
exhibitors in every way possible. He intimated that it 
would even pay for the transportation of all exhibits. Mr. 
Higinbotham reports that there is throughout Italy much 
enthusiasm over the Exposition, and that the painters, 
sculptors and manufacturers of artistic wares are hard at 
work on intended exhibits. 

Baron de Berlepsch, German minister of commerce, has 
written to the chamber of commerce of Crefeld, the principal 
place in Prussia, for the manufacture of silk goods, that 
the Emperor ardentty desires that there should be as fine a 
display as possible of German silks and velvets at the 
Chicago World's Fair. A majority of the silk and velvet 
manufacturing firms in the Rhenish provinces will comply 
with the wishes of the Emperor, whose interest in Germany's 
share of the exhibition is having a stimulating effect in all 
directions. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holbora, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting" of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolie Acid 

Rectified Benzol ine ... 
Boueard's Insecticide ... 
Ammonia 

Collecting corked Box 
Pocket corked box 



...qua it 


2/- 




11 


2/- 




... lb. 

11 


4/- 
4/- 




from 1/- to 


5/- 


each 


... iron 


1/- 





24/- doz. 



Corked Box for Museums ... 
„ ,, and glazed, splendid 

make 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/(3 to 6/- each 

Pin 1 ox, for 12 grosses of different 

sizes .. ... 1/6 

Pin box, with 1,000 pins ... 3/- 

Sea compass .. . from 2/- to 50/- 

Colkcting bottles with large opening 

from (3d. 
Boueard's tin collecting box with 

two partitions 21- 

Straight Scissors from 2/ - 

Curved ,, ,, 2/- 

Taxirdermist knives ,, 1/6 

Longlorceps „ 3/- 

Muall ,, ... ... . . ,, ]/- 

Insects' Nippers ... ., 1/6 

Sieve ... „ 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... ,, 2/- 

Digger ,, 2/- & 4/- 

Folding ditto „ 6/- 

Insect Pins, English, Trench or 

German from 1'6 per 10C0 

All other utensils for Naturalists can be 
Natukalists' Agency. 



Steel Pinsforsettingbutterilies ,, 4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... „ 1/- to 5 - 

Hammers... ,, 1/6 to 5/- 

Naphthaline ,, 4/-perlb. 

Botanical Grey paper ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting 

• Insects ,, 10,'- 

Steel Perforator for making 

holes in eggs ... ,, 1/- 

Cutting pliers ,, 2/- ' 

Flat ,, 1/- 

Arsenical Soap .: ,, 2/ per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ... ,, 1/- doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto ,, 4/- gross. 

Flax ,, 6d.perlb. 

Cotton wadding, per sheet ... ,, 6d. 
Fishing rods with accessories ,, 2/- 
Di edge for collecting shells, &c. ,, 40°/- 
TaxidermisV s case, containing 

1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 

1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 

1 Hammer, lpairof Forceps 

1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc., 

complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle from 1/- 

had at a short notice, by ordering at the 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 



No. 1. 

9 

ii "• 

., 3. 
„ 4. 



for Humming birds and Small birds 

,, Small birds up to Tana ger s 

,, Tanagers up to Magpies... 

,, Magphs up to Crows or ^mall Hawl<s 
,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Qwls 



at 



20s per hundred. 

24s 

2*8 

32s 
40s 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 



No. 





Black 


Coloured 


per gross. 




1 to 4 


(id 


Is 6d 


5 „ 8 


8d 


2s 6d 


y „ 10 


Is 0d 


4 s Od 


il 


2s Od 


?& 6d 


12 


2s 3d 


7s Od 


13 


2s 6d 


10s Od 
doz. of jmirs 


14 


?s Od 


Is 6n 


15 


3s 6d 


2s 6d 


"'6 


4s Od 


2s tid 


17 


8s Qd 


3s Od 


18 


12s Od 


4 s Od 



Cornered 



No. 



to 6 

-, 8 

9 
10 
11 
,2 



Cornered 
and Veined 

per doz. pairs per doz. pairs 



3s 6d 
5s 0d 
6s Od 
7s Od 
8s Od 
9s Od 



4s 6d 
6s Od 
8s Od 
9s Od 
10s Od 
lis Od 



13 10s Od 13s Od 

14 lis Od 13s Od 
14 13s Od 15s Od 
Larger sizes can be made 

to order. 



No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, &c. No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls Herons, &c. 

Ethnological Specimens and Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, Mexico, 
Central America, &c, &c, at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty 
years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabas from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 specimens at 
5s. each. 



BODCARD, POTTIER 4" Co., 

Naturalists anô fftàfytx iWUrrijjantg, 

; 225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, I.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co., offer, to sell on commission all kinds 
of Objects Of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water, and Land Shells ; Eeptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustaceœ and Aracbnidae in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists ; Bare old Stamps, 
used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., who having a large connection with ; Amateurs 
in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species of Colcoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New G-uinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, 
Freshwater, and Marine Shells, a large number of species; Beptiles and Fishes in 
spirit; Crustaceae, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED WEEKLY FROM ALL PARTS 
OF THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fise collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many Types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc.-, 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALT?, 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, &c, apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

H Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially Colonials and 
old German States. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on Stamps. 

Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



Ste littmttmtg liri 



SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY. 



American Pearls, 

Pearls are found all over America ; but actually, the only 
fisheries carried on successfully, are on the Pacific Coast, 
between Mazatlan and Tehuantepec, Mexico. In former 
times, many fine pearls were found at Panama, but the 
fisheries are entirely abandoned now. Occasionally some 
fine pink pearls are found on the Atlantic Coast, between 
Florida and Trinidad ; but these are produced by the large 
well known shell, Strombus gigas, a very common species 
on the Atlantic Coast of America. In Vera Cruz, Mexico, 
they are abundant, and are sold in the market for eating 
purposes. When living there, I bought some several times, 
and I tasted them, but I cannot say that they were to my 
taste. Either we did not know how to cook them or they 
were very old ; but what I can say is that they were very 
tough. I have only once seen a pearl found in these shells ; 
but I have heard that in the West Indies they are often 
brought for sale by fishermen who make their business of 
fishing these shells. The pearls are usually pink and are 
much valued by jewellers. In Bahamas, these shells are 
very abundant. As many as 500,000 have been exported to 
England in one year. The layers composing the shell being 
of different colors, it is extensively used in carving cameos. 
It is also ground to powder for the manufacture ot the finer 
kinds of porcelain. According to my experience, pearls 
exist more or less in all the species of Strombus and other 
allied genera, as in all species of Oysters, Anodontes, Unios, 
and even in Mussels ; but it is in oysters that they are more 
abundant. The American pearls sent to the United States 
and European markets are the produce of Ostrea macros- 
chisma Desk, a very common species on the Pacific Coast 
in Mexico. When living there, some thirty years ago, I met 
with fishermen who made their business of fishing for 
pearls. The divers gathered the oysters at the bottom of 
the sea with their hands, and after each dive generally 
brought one lump of shells in each hand. Two minutes 



34 The Humming Bird. 

was considered as the longest time that they could remain 
under water ; but they did not require even so much, the 
shells being plentiful. Two or three divers were on each 
boat and it was not an easy task for them to gather enough 
to fill the boat. Some banks are deep, some are not, and 
these last are the ones which were explored in my time. 
The shells were brought on land and left there to die. After 
that they were minutely examined for the pearls. The large 
ones are rather scarce and fetch a good price ; but the bulk 
of them were what they call in the country Mostacilla, 
scarcely larger than very small shot. These are sold at 
about threepence each. It is not so much the size, but the 
freshness and their beautiful orient which make their value. 
The roundest are the more valuable. A fine pearl, quite 
round, the size of an English pea, is worth between fifty 
and one hundred pounds sterling. On the Pacific Coast, I 
met on the beach several large heaps of empty oyster shells 
left there by the fishermen, who did not put any value on 
them ; but there is a good market for them in Europe and 
North America. It is with these shells that many industrial 
objects are manufactured, the principal being pearl buttons. 
I am certain that the establishment of good pearl fisheries 
on the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of America would pay 
well. 

A. BOUCARD. 

Fish from Volcanoes. 

Attention has recently been called to the fact that the 
volcanoes of the Andes eject large quantities of fish from 
the craters in the first stage of an eruption. The Indians 
hold that many of these fishes are alive when they are 
found on the sides of the mountain, and it is certain that 
few are either boiled or mutilated. The explanation is that, 
during the long period of quiescence, extending even to a 
century, the crater becomes choked up and turned into the 
bed of a lake, with subterranean channels to other crater 
lakes, from which the spawn probably comes. The fishes 
are generally blind, showing that they are of an underground 
variety. 

A very Large Tree. 

A very large tree, one of the largest in California, the 
country of big trees, was discovered near Arlington, 
Shohomish county, a few days ago. It is a cedar and 
measures 68 feet in circumference. Around the knotty roots 
the tree measures 99 feet. About 75 feet from the ground 
it forks into four immense branches, and just below the 



The Humming Bird. 35 

forks is a big knot hole. Five men climbed into the hols 
and explored the interior of the tree. It was found to be a 
mere shell, and about 45 feet down it would afford standing 
room for 40 men. The tree is still green, and a remarkable 
feature is said to be that it is barked on the inside and 
outside alike. 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

World's Fair Notes. 

A California " big tree " has been selected in Tulare 
county to be shown at the Exposition. A committee of the 
Board of Trade, after an extended tour of inspection, picked 
out a tree measuring 87 feet 9 inches in circumference at 
the base, 85 feet five feet above the ground, and 65 feet at a 
height of 16 feet. 

Denmark has made a World's Fair appropriation of 
867,000. 

A communication has been received from the British 
Commission asking for space to exhibit the rifle calibre 
guns manufactured by the Maxim-Nordenfeldt Gun Com- 
pany. The company wants to erect a building 30 x 15 feet 
to exhibit its guns in practice. One end of the building 
will be filled with sand bags, into which the projectiles of 
the guns will be fired. It is claimed that the arrangements 
are such as will insure perfect safety, and will be repro- 
ductions of a similar exhibit recently given at the Royal 
Naval Exposition in London. The request was referred to 
Chief Willard Smith of the Transportation Department, as 
the exhibit if allowed will come under the head of naval and 
marine display. 

A very complete, and doubtless an eye-opening diamond 
exhibit, will be made by Cape Colony, South Africa. The 
exhibit will include 10,000 carats of uncut stones, a large 
quantity of very fine cut and polished ones, together with 
all that is necessary to show the process of mining and 
washing. For this it will be necessary to transport to 
Chicago 100 tons of pulverized blue earth, 50 tons of 
unpulverized earth, and a complete washing machine, which 
will be operated by natives. The exhibit will also include 
a unique collection of crocidolite, special diamondiferous 
products, ostrich feathers, fleeces, etc. It is reported that 
a Bushman and Hottentot in native dress will accompany 
the exhibit. 

A continuous clam-bake will be one of the attractions 
which epicurean visitors will find at the Exposition. 



36 The Humming Bird. 

THAT WONDERFUL. LAST NAIL. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer will put the finishing 

touch on the Woman's Building with hammer 

and spike of costly make. 

Mrs. Potter Palmer, President of the Board of Lady 
Managers of the Exposition, as already announced, will 
drive the last nail used in completion of the Woman's 
Building. This nail will be furnished by the women of 
Montana, and will be a very wonderful one, as is indicated 
by this description of it given by the Helena, Montana, 
Independent :— 

The nail has been so made as to form the back or cross 
bar of a brooch, which is to be a shield bearing the coat of 
arms of Montana reproduced in native gold without a trace 
of alloy in its composition. The shield will be of gold, and 
the symbolical figures will be made of the same metal but 
of different colors. The waterfall in the foreground will be 
of light colored gold sunk into the shield, and the plow and 
pick, standing at the foot of the falls, will be of a darker 
shade, as will be the background or relief. The wreath 
surrounding the escutcheon v/ill be of native gold, and the 
figures of the two men supporting the whole on either side 
will also be of the same rich, yellow gold. Underneath 
will be the scroll, bearing the motto of the state, " Oro y 
Plata." In the two upper portions of the wreath two 
Montana sapphires will be inserted. Instead of merely 
engraving the figures, each will be wrought separately and 
then fastened together, making the task of shaping the 
brooch not only a delicate, but exceedingly difficult one, and 
one that will require much skill and patience. 

To Mrs. J. E. Rickards, of Butte, belongs the credit of 
the happy idea of making the last nail, one of such interest. 
In design, the nail, which is being made by a Butte jeweller, 
will be the counterpart of an ordinary twelve-penny nail 
and will be composed of three strips with silver in the centre 
and the gold and copper on either side. The nail and brooch 
are distinct articles and after the former has been driven, it 
will be drawn from the wood, fastened to the brooch and the 
whole presented to Mrs. Palmer. 

The women of Nebraska have undertaken to furnish the 
hammer with which this "last nail" will be driven. A 
description of the hammer has not yet been given, but it is 
the intention to make it worthy of the aristocratic nail with 
which it will be brought in contact by Mrs. Palmer. It has 
been suggested that it be made of native Nebraska woods, 
inlaid with gold, silver, and pearl. 



The Humming Bird. 37 

The World's Fair committee of the North American 
Turner Bund has made a personal application to Director 
General Davis for space for a display of gymnastic apparatus, 
literature on the subject of physical exercise and develop- 
ment, and representations of gymnastic organizations, as 
well as for outdoor gymnastic exhibitions, which the 
Turners desire to give eight days in each month during the 
Exposition. 

Pope Leo XIII. has written a letter strongly commending 
the Exposition, which it is believed will have a most 
favorable effect in stimulating interest in the Fair on the 
part of all Catholic countries and communities. 

More than 180 exhibitors are chronicled from Philadelphia 
alone. 

The (< San Francisco Women's California Book Exhibit 
for the World's Fair," is the name of a society recently 
organized in San Francisco. The object of the society is 
to collect a complete library of books by Californian writers, 
files of papers, scrap-books, scattered papers and sketches 
worthy of preservation. These will be taken to Chicago 
and exhibited during the Fair. After the Exposition 
the collection will be given to the Golden Gate Park 
Museum. 

The Board of Lady Managers is making arrangements 
for an extensive exhibit showing woman's share in the 
illustration of books, in engravings and other forms of 
picture production. During her recent visit to New York, 
Mrs. Palmer consulted with a number of publishers and 
received considerable assistance from them. A list of dis- 
tinguished women illustrators was secured and plans set on 
foot to obtain old volumes and manuscripts illustrated by 
women, together with historical data concerning woman's 
share in this line of work from ancient times down to the 
present. 

The New York Assembly has voted permission for 
the raising of one or two old sunken vessels in Lake 
George for the purpose of sending them as relics to the 
Fair. 

Saginaw, Mich., noted as a salt producing city, is con- 
structing in miniature a complete salt plant for exhibition 
at the World's Fair. 

The cottage in which George Fox, the founder of the 
Society of Friends or Quakers, was born in Leicester- 
shire, England, is being taken down to be re-erected in 
Chicago. 

The " wooded island " in the Exposition grounds is 



38 The Humming Bird. 

beginning to assume the character which in great part it 
will have during the Fair — that of a gigantic flower garden. 
Already the Floricultural Department has received 27,000 
rose bushes and other plants, several thousands of which 
came from abroad. These are being transplanted on the 
island. 

New York has made a World's Fair appropriation of 
$300,000. 

Dr. Bertolette, Commissioner to the La Platte Republics, 
has informed the Latin-American Department that he is 
endeavouring to secure for the Exposition a colony of lace 
makers and gold and silver workers from Paraguay. These 
people are ingenious, their product being equal to that of 
the Brussels working women, and the fact that they use 
vegetable fibre exclusively makes their work of even greater 
value and interest. It has been planned by the Latin- 
American Department to have a group of these lace-makers 
on the Exposition grounds ; also a group of workers in gold 
and filigree. 

The Great Western Railway of England will exhibit in 
the Transportation Building the famous old locomotive, 
" The Lord of the Isles," which was built at the Company's 
works in Swindon in 1851, from designs of the late Sir 
Daniel Gooch. This locomotive was a notable exhibit at 
the first World's Fair in London in 1851. From that time 
until July, 1881, it was continually in service, and ran 
during that period a distance of 789,300 miles without being 
fitted with a new boiler. As a pioneer of early railroading, 
and as a contrast to the powerful " Mogul'' ; this old loco- 
motive will attract much attention. 

The Washington State World's Fair Building will be 
constructed in sections at Tacoma and sent to Chicago next 
September. 

A number of owners of steam yachts in New York intend 
to utilize them to transport themselves and their friends to 
the Exposition by way of the St. Lawrence and Welland 
Canal. They believe it will be of great advantage to live 
aboard their yachts, and thus be independent of crowded 
hotels. It is reported that the owners of many steam 
barges in Canada will fit them with comfortable living 
quarters, and carry Canadian visitors to and from the Fair. 

A 100-year-old bearing orange tree, from San Gabriel, 
is one of the exhibits announced from California. 

Ostrich eggs, artistically painted in a prize competition, 
are to be a feature in the exhibit made by Cape Colony, 
South Africa. 

The main Exposition buildings require for their orna- 



The Humming Bird, 39 

mentation 160,678 separate pieces of staff work. Of these, 
108,000 have been cast and more than 59,000 have been 
put in place on the buildings. 

Italian Commissioner Alexander Del Nero writes from 
Rome to the effect that there will be a fine exhibit of the 
mosaics, tapestries, Columbian relics, and other treasures 
of the Vatican which have never yet been on exhibition. 
He further reports that the Ethnographic Museum of Rome 
will probably loan many Columbian antiquities to the 
Exposition. 

R. S. Moore, of Newburn, N. C, claims to have frag- 
ments of the chain which restrained Columbus when he 
was in prison, and he intends to exhibit them at the Fair. 
J. C. Calhoun, of New York, says he has pieces of the house 
in San Domingo in which Columbus was imprisoned, and 
he has a similar desire. 



A CURIOUS RAT-CATCHER. 

In certain parts of Brazil, where the climate is intensely 
hot, and where rats are a great nuisance, the common cat 
does not thrive, but is replaced by a domestic rat-catcher, 
whose presence causes a decidedly unpleasant sensation to 
visitors from abroad, when they first come in contaet with 
this creature. An Englishman who recently visited Brazil 
upon a business tour, and who spent a short time at the 
estate of a well-to-do Brazilian, writes this account of his 
observation of the Brazilian rat-catcher. 

On the morning after my arrival, in descending the stair- 
case from my room to go down to breakfast, I was 
frightened almost half to death at seeing an enormous 
snake curled up on the floor exactly at the foot of the stairs. 

The serpent was apparently asleep, but I was not at all 
sure that he might not be preparing to strike at me, so I 
ran back up the stairs with all the speed I could manage, 
and then proceeded to shout for help. 

In two minutes the hall was full of servants, all gazing 
at me in astonishment ; and my host rushed out of his 
apartment. 

"What is the matter?" he asked in his best English. 

" Why," said I, " look here ! Look at that snake ! " 

I pointed to the coiled-up monster at the foot of the 
staircase, which now had lifted up its head a little, and was 
looking sleepily about it. 

The servants held their hands to their mouths, and my 
host laughed outright. 

"Why," said he, "that's only Pedro; that's our giboia." 



40 The Humming Bird. 

" Oh," said I, gasping, " I thought it was a great snake." 

" It is a snake," said my host, " but it is perfectly harmless, 
except to rats. You will not find a house in this part of 
Brazil without one. They keep the premises clear of rats. 
Pedro won't hurt you." 

" But how am I going to get downstairs ?" I asked, 
uneasily. 

" Oh, you can step over him." 

I declined, however, to make this attempt; whereupon a 
servant came forward, and seizing the snake about the neck 
with both hands, dragged it out into the yard. 

I saw that the creature, as he was extended, was not less 
than four yards long and as thick as the arm of the negro 
who dragged him out. 

Before I left the place I found out a great deal about the 
giboias. They are a species of small boa-constrictor, and 
are employed very generally in Brazil to catch rats. They 
are inoffensive, apparently not at all venomous, and in 
their domesticated condition perfectly tame. 

In [his habits Pedro was a good example of his race, 
though he was of considerably larger size than the average. 
All day long he slept somewhere in the house, generally at 
the foot of the stairs. But when evening approached he 
began to wake up, and after nightfall he glided swiftly 
about the premises looking for rats. 

He even had holes which enabled him to get between 
the floors and ceilings, and into the space within the parti- 
tions. Whenever he found a rat he pounced upon him, 
wrapped him in his folds, and carried him out of the house, 
leaving him dead. The servants told me that the backbone 
of every rat he caught was broken in at least a dozen places. 

As to me, I preferred the rats to the snake, and took good 
care that my chamber-door was shut at night, and that 
there were no holes left open in the ceiling or the floor from 
which Pedro might emerge into my apartment. 

He never seemed to eat the rats ; indeed, I never saw 
him eat anything at all. The negroes said he killed the 
the rats for the fun of it. 

I afterwards saw the giboias for sale in the markets of 
Pernambuco and Bahia at prices ranging from four to ten 
shillings. I was told that they easily become domesticated 
to such an extent that if they are removed from one house 
to another they invariably return to the house from which 
they have been taken. 

In the country, therefore, the rat-snake goes with the 
house, and if you have occasion to purchase or hire a 
residence, the proprietor will brag about the virtues and 
skill of the giboia. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting' of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid 


...quart 2 - 


Rectified Benzoline ... 


•)'. 


Boucard's Insecticide . 


... lb. 4- 


Ammonia 


• • „ 4/- 


Collecting corked Box 


from 1'- to 5/- 


Pocket corked box 


... from 1/- 



each 



Corked Box for Must unis ... 24,- doz. 

„ ,, and glazed, splendid 

make 36/- „ 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different 

sizes .. ... ... ... 1/6 

Pin box. with 1,000 pins ... 3/- 

Sea compass .. . from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectiug bottles with large opening 

from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with 

two partitions 

Straight Scissors 

Curved ,, 

Taxirdermist knives 

Long Forceps 

Small „ 

Insects" Nippers 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... 

Digger 

Folding ditto 

Insect Pins, English, French or 

German from 1 '6 per 1000 

All other utensils for Naturalists can be 
Naicbalists' Agency. 





21- 


roi 


n2/- 




2/- 


)5 


1/6 


»» 


3/- 


»» 


V- 


»» 


1/6 




2/ 


»» 






21- 


>> 


2/- & 4/- 


» 


6/- 



Steel Pinsfor setting butterllies,, 4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in .Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, 1/- to 5/- 

Hammers ,, 1/6 to 5/- 

Naphthaline ,, 4'-perlb. 

Botanical Grey paper ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting 

Insects ,, 10/- 

Steel Perforator for making 

holes in eggs ... ,, 1/- 

Cutting pliers ,, 2/- 

Flat ,, 1/- 

Arseni cal Soap ,, 2/ per lb. 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ... ,, 1/- doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto ... ... ,, 4/- gross. 

Flax ,, 6d.perlb. 

Cotton wadding, per sheet ... ,. 6d. 
Fishing rods with "accessories ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collecting shells. &c. ,, 40/- 
Taxidermist' s case, containing 

1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 

1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Plier? , 

1 Ham mer, 1 pair of Forceps 

1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc., 

complete from 12,.'- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle from 1/- 

had at a short notice, by ordering at the 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 



No. 



1. for Humming birds and Small birds 

2. ,, Small birds up to Tanagers 

3. ,, Tanagers up to Magpies... 

4. ,, Magpi< s up to Crows or £mall Hawks 

5. ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 



at 



20s per hundred. 

24s 

2Ss 

32s 

40s 



ARTIFICIAL EYES. 



No. 1 



Black 


Coloured 


per gross. 




L to 4 6d 


Is 6d 


) „ 8 8d 


2s 6d 


) „ 10 Is 0d 


4s Od 


11 2s Od 


5s 6d 


12 2s 3d 


7s Od 


13 2s 6d 


10s Od 




doz. of pairs 


14 3s Od 


Is 6d 


15 3s 6d 


2s 6d 


"16 4s Od 


2s 6d 


17 8s Od 


3s Od 


18 12s Od 


4s Od 



Cornered 



No. 4 to 6 

„ 7 „ 

9 

„ 10 

„ H 

12 



Cornered 
and Veined 
per doz. pairs per doz. pairs 



3s 6d 
5s Od 
6s Od 
7s Od 
8s Od 
9s Od 



4s 6d 
6s Od 
8s Od 
9s Od 
10s Od 
lis Od 



13 10s Od 13s Od 

14 lis Od 13s Od 
14 13s Od 15s Od 
Larger sizes can be made 

to order. 



No. 1 to 4 are good for humming birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants. &c. No. 13 to 18 Hawks, Owls Herons, «fee. 



Ethnological Specimens and Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, Mexico, 
Central America, &c, &c, at rery reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty 
years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen specie* of Carabas from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 specimens at» 
6b. each. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the 

Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 



1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own grounds, situated Corso Levante 
on one side and the Beach on the other, at about 15 minutes walk from the 
centre of the town and 20 from the station. Splendid view in all directions, 
beautiful gardens of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been laid 
purposely for lawn tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Bathing Cabin, fyc. 

Excellent Water. 

Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay windows opening oil 
the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Five large and fine rooms, three full south, two on the north 
side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for Receptions, Soirées, &c. 
Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Seven large rooms, four full south, one of them with dressing- 
room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 mètres, width 10 mètres. 

Priée .. Âf .. .'. .. francs 60,000 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27, 

CORSO GARIBALDI. 

Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own grounds of 
1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Garabaldi, (the most pleasant walk of the 
town) hardly at 10 minutes walk from the central part of the town and 15 of the 
station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, and Cellar .' 
First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27. — Exactly the same, with Underground floor containing kitchen and 
two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas .. .. .. francs 45,000 

Separately — No. 25 ., .. francs 25,000 

No. 27 . . . . francs 30,000 



3° A PIECE OF LAND ABOUT 350 METRES. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from the station and the 
port, in the central part of the town. Splendid position. 

Price .. .". francs 15,000 

For further information apply to — 

A. BOUCARD, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Two of the Villas, the smallest and the largest, are actually let Unfurnished 
for several years at 3,600 francs yearly ; but they would fetch more if Proprietor 
was not abroad. It is expected that, if properly attended, an Income between 
£200 and £300 yearly could be secured, and more if let furnished. 



London : Chas. Strakeb & Sons, Bishopsgate Avenue, B.C. 



u> 




El 



Vol. II., No. 6.] 



JUNE, 1892. 



[PHICE SIXPENCE. 





lie lumming 




A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC, AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCAED. 




(XsiAsTxùx, jSlo^colkuu 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America, b* Canada, 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings. 

All other countries^ 7 -hillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. Vol. I. complete, Ten Shillings. 

Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Whole Page, £2. Half-Page, £1 2s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or continuous Advertisements, per contract. 




X 1 




'X 



[Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & Co., 

jîaîttraltsts an» jfratïjcr iWcrtïjants, 

825, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C, ENGLAND. 



Messrs. BOUCAED, POTTIER & Co., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of Objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh. Water, and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacese and Arachnidse in spirit ; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused ; Curios of all sorts ; Pictures and Works of Art, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs. Boucard, Pottier & Co., who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts of the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

I]S STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 species of Colcoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc. ; Land, 
Freshwater, and Marine Shells, a large number of species ; Reptiles and Fishes in 
spirit ; Crustacese, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED WEEKLY FROM ALL PARTS 
OF THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fime collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many Types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, &c, apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. 

Old stamps on their original letter sheet or envelope, especially Colonials and 
old German States. 

Mulready Wrappers and Envelopes. 

Old unused English and Colonials. 

Old works on Stamps. 

Proof « of Stamps, etc., etc. 



Sfe Ittmmmjj 




List of birds collected by M. Hardy at Porto 

Heal, Brazil, with description of one supposed 

new species, by M. M. Boucard and 

Count Berlepsch. 

A small collection of birds having been "received from 
Porto Real, " Brazil," we thought that the publication of a 
list of the species collected by Mr. Hardy in that country 
would be of interest to Ornithologists. Porto Real is 
situated at about 80 miles from Rio Janeiro, in the interior. 
It is surrounded by hills and is well watered. The ornitho- 
logical fauna resembles very much that of Rio Janeiro 
and Bahia. It seems to be the exact habitat of the rare 
Gallinago gigantea. Only one new species was sent, 
Formicivora stictocorypha, but it is very likely that if 
Mr. Hardy continues his explorations in that country he 
will be rewarded by the discovery of some new and interest- 
ing species. 

Ordo RALLI, Boucard 1876. 
Family Gallintjlidae, Bias. 

1. Ionomis martinica, Linné. 

One young specimen of this common species. 

Ordo OOLUMBAE, Lath 1790. 
Family Columbidae, Leach 1825. 

2. Columba rufina, Tern. 

3. Chaemepelia talpacoti, Tern. 

Two specimens of this lovely species. 

4. Engyptila chalcauthenia, Sclat and Salv. 

One specimen of this rare species. 

Ordo LIMIOOLAE. 
Family Scolopacidae, Yig 1825. 

5. Gallinago gigantea, Tern. 

Four specimens of this exceedingly rare species. 

/ 



42 The Humming Bird. 

Ordo HEEODIONES. 
Family Tantalidae, Bp. 1831. 

6. Molybdophanes coerulescens, V. 

Ordo ACOIPITEES. 

Family Falconidae, Leach 1825. 

7. Elanus leucurus, Vieill. 

Ordo STEIGES. 
Family Bubonidae, Sharpe 1874. 

8. Scops brasilianus, Briss. 

9. Syrnium suinda, Vieill. 

One specimen of this rare species. . 

Ordo PSITTACI. 
Family Psittacidae, Leach. 

10. Psittacula vivida, Ridgw. 

Two specimens of this rare species. 

Ordo COCCYGES. 

Sub Ordo Coccyges zygodactylae. 

Family Cuculidae, Leach 1829. 

11. Crotophaga ani L. 

12. Piaya pallescens, Cab and Heine. 

Ordo PICI. 
Family Picidae, Leach 1825. 

13. Picumnus cirrhatus, Tern. 

Several specimens of both sexes. 

14. Dendrobates maculifrons , Spix. 

Several specimens of this rare species. 

15. Melanerpes jlavifrons, Vieill. 

16. Colaptes campestris, Vieill. 

Ordo PASSEEES. 

Sub Ordo Oscines. 

Sect Oscines Dentirostres 

Family Turdidae, O. E. Or. 1860. 

17. Turdus rufiventris, Vieill. 

18. Turdus flavipes, Vieill. 

ig. Turdus amauro-chalinus, Cab. 



The Humming Bird. 43 

20. Turdus albiventris, Spix. 

Female : — Upperside olive-brown. Underside rufous- 
brown passing to grayish-brown on the abdomen, and 
pure white on anal region, chin paler-brown streaked 
with dark-brown. Under wing-coverts pale-chestnut, 
inner margin of quills glossy pale-brown. Wings 
brownish-black with the margins olive-brown. Feet 
yellow. 

Family Troglodytidae, iSclat 1862. 
2i, Thryophilus longirostris, Vieill. 

Family Coerebidae, Bp. 1849. 

22. Dacnis cyanomelas, Gmelin. 

Oscines Coxirostres Cuv. 
Family Taxagridae, Boié 1826. 

23. Procnias ter sa, L. 

24. Euphonia chlorotica, L 

25. Euphonia pectoralis, Lath. 

26. Pipridea melanonota, Vieill. 
rCalliste tricolor, Gmel. 

27. \ 

\Calliste seledon, Mull. 

28. Tanagra palmarum, Wied. 

29. Tanagra sayaca, L. 

30. Tanagra ornata, Sparm. 

31. Ramphocoelus brasilius, L. 

32. Tachypkonus cristatus, Gmel. 

33. Tachypkonus coronatus, Vieill. 

Several specimens of both sexes. 

34. Nemosia melanoxantha, Licht. 

35. Sattator pallidiventris, Berlepsch. 

Several specimens of this rare species. 

Family Fringillidae, Sw. 1831. 

36. Emberizoides herbicola, Vieill. 

37. Ammadromus manimbe, Licht. 



44 The Humming Bird. 

OsCTNES CULTRIROSTRES, CuV. 

Family Icteridae, Cab 1847. 

38. Molothrus bonariensis, Gmel. 

39. Aphobus chopi, Vieill. 

Sub Ordo Tracheophonae. 
Family Dendrocolaptidae, Selys 1842. 

40. Synnalaxis cinnamomea, Gmel. 

41. Anabatoides fuscus, Vieill. 

42. Dendrocincla turdina, Licht. 

43. Dendrocolaptes picumnus, Licht. 

44. Xiphorhynchus procurvus, Tern. 

Family Formicaridae, Sclat 1858. 

45. Thamnophilus guttatus, Vieill. 

46. Thamnophilus naevius, Gmel. 

47. Thamnophilus ruficapillus, Vieill. 

48. Formicivora stictocorypha, n.sp. 

Closely allied to F. squamata, from which species 
it differs in having the head black, spotted all over 
with white ; underneath, the lower part of abdomen and 
anal region are grayish-black, without any white as in 
F. squamata. Bill and feet black. Total length, 
5 in. Wing, 2£. Tail, 2^. Culmen, £. Type of 
species, in Museum Boucard. 

49. Pyr'iglena leucoptera, Vieill. 

50. Myrmeciza loricata, Licht. 

Sub Ordo OLIGOMYODAE. 
Family Tyrannic- ae, Cab. 1850. 

51. Taenioptera nengeta, L. 

52. Sisopygis icterophrys, Vieill. 

53. Copurus colonus, Vieill. 

54. Platyrhynchus mystaceus, Vieill. 

55. Serphophaga subcristata, Vieill. 

56. Phyllomyas brevirostris, Spix. 

57. Elainea pagana, Licht. 

58. Myozetetes similis, Spix. 

59. Pitangus sulphuratus, L. 

60. Pitangus maximiliani, Heine. 

61. Myodynastes solitarius f Vieill. 



The Hamming Bird. 45 

62. Megarhynchus pitangua, L. 

63. Empidochanes fringillaris, Pelz. 

64. Myarchus ferox, Gmel. 

65. Empidonomus varius, Vieill. 

66. Tyrannus melancholicus, Vieill. 

Family Cotingidae, Bp. 1849. 

67. Phibalura flavirostris, Vieill. 

Two specimens, male and female. 

Female : — Head grayish-brown with a black streak 
in the centre of each feather, centre of head greenish. 
Wings black, edged with green, wing-coverts olive-green. 
Chin yellow, minutely spotted with black. Lower part 
of breast, abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts 
white at base of feathers, then crossed with black and 
edged with greenish-yellow. Rest like the male. 

68. Illicura militaris, Shaw. 

69. Chiroxyphia caudata, Shaw. 
Two specimens, male and female. 

70. Chiromachaeris gutturosa, Desm, 

Ordo TEOCHILI, Boucard 1876. 
Family Teochilidae, Yig. 1825. . 

71. Grypus noevius, Dum. 

72. Clytolaema rubinea, Gould. 

73. Chrysolampis moschitus, L. 

74. Lepidolarynx mesoleucus, Tern. 



Description of a supposed new species of the 

Genus Manticora •' Cicindelidae," 

from Damara Land, South Africa, 

by A. Boucard. 

In the collection of Cicindelidae of the late Mr. Ferdinand 
Grut, of which I have acquired the greater part, I have 
found a remarkable species of Manticora labelled Manticora, 
n.sp. Having studied carefully this insect, I have come to 
the same conclusion as the late Mr. Grut, that it is 
undescribed, and I have a great pleasure to dedicate this 
fine species to the memory of this most esteemable 
Entomologist. 

Manticora gruti, n.sp. 

Habitat, — Damara Land, South Africa. 



46 The Humming Bird. 

Male. — Head, thorax and elytrae smooth and black, 
shining most brillantly, somewhat like M. latipennis, 
Waterhouse, but it is easily distinguishable from that 
species by its smaller size, and by the absence of granula- 
tions on the elytrae, which, excepting their extremities, 
are only faintly striated, the upper parts of the elytrae are 
acutely pointed, and terminates with a hook turned down- 
wards. A little lower down, there is another hook directed 
also downwards, followed by three more, but less apparent. 
Lower down can be seen, for all the length of the external 
margin, another feeble tinge of these hooks, having the 
appearance of a deep punctuation. The extremities of the 
elytrae are deeply granulated, and covered with long black 
bristly hairs above, and on the margins. These bristly 
hairs are also apparent on the margins of head, and on all 
the legs where they are abundant and conspicuous. It is 
smaller than M. latipennis, scarcely larger than M. tuber- 
culata, with the elytrae wider than in the last species. 

Length if in. Largest width of elytrae f . 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

World's Fair Notes. 

Applications for space in the Exposition buildings now 
aggregate more than 4,000,000 square feet, a little over 
one-third being from foreign applicants. 

Great Britain has added £35,000 to its World's Fair 
appropriation, making it now £60,000 or approximately 
$300,000. 

Victoria, Australia, has made a World's Fair appro- 
priation of $100,000. 

Arguments for and against Sunday opening of the 
Exposition will be heard by the National Commission on 
October 6. 

A young lad, son of the editor of the Florida Standard, 
is making, for exhibition at the Fair, a table upon which 
appears an inlaid map of the state, each county being 
accurately represented by a separate piece of native Florida 
wood. 

In the California building will be shown a growing 
specimen of every California domestic flower obtainable, 
and also paintings, in water and oil, of 600 wild flowers 
and grasses. 

In the Government exhibit will appear all the relics, 
which are obtainable, of various Arctic exploring expedi- 
tions. 



The Hamming Bird. 47 

The American Bible Society will make an exhibit in 
which will appear copies of Bibles in more than 200 different 
languages. 

The French Chamber of Deputies approved by a 

unanimous vote the credit asked by the government to be 

expended for the French exhibit at the Exposition. The 
appropriation amounts to 55675,500. 

Mexico's exhibit will include a number of fine works of 
art. Casts are being made of the sacrificial stone, the God 
of War, the Goddess of Water, the Calendar Stone and 
other Aztec relics, now in the Mexican National Museum. 
From the National Art Gallery, which has a very large 
collection of paintings, a number of the best works will be 
sent to Chicago. Among them will be the representation of 
Hidalgo, the " George Washington of Mexico," which was 
exhibited at the Paris Exposition. 

The number of men working on the Exposition buildings 
is now more than 6,000. On some of the buildings work is 
proceeding day and night. 

Prince George of Wales, who if he lives will some day 
be king of England, will visit the Exposition, a cablegram 
from London announces. 

In the Michigan exhibit will be a representation in wax 
of 500 specimens of fruit which grow in the state. It will 
be prepared by a Kalamazoo woman. 

E. S. Denison, of Alameda country, Cal., intends to send 
to the Exposition a pumpkin weighing 326 pounds, 

Ceylon will have at the Exposition several tea kiosks 
formed of native timber, including specimens of its 
exquisitely beautiful cabinet woods — ebony, satinwood, 
calamander, tamarind, nadun suriyamara, etc. Descrip- 
tions appearing in Ceylon papers indicate that these kiosks 
will be of most elaborate design and finish, and that the 
tea industry will spare neither pains nor expense in 
drawing the attention of visitors to the merits of the fine 
flavoured beverage. 

A complete collection of Ohio birds, including every 
variety known to live within the boundaries of the state, 
will be an exhibit at the Exposition. 

The salt manufacturers' association of Michigan has 
agreed to make the salt exhibit for the state, and will get 
up a display which, doubtless, will attract a great deal of 
attention. A Bay City man has made a life study of salt 
manufacturing, and has learned the methods practised in 
all ages for making salt. It is the intention to have him 



48 The Humming Bird. 

make models of all salt manufacturing apparatus used from 
the earliest days down to the present time, from the most 
primitive to the modern salt blocks, and in connection with 
the models, show all the processes now practised in 
producing salt. The association will, of course, show a 
full line of salt. 

The upper Michigan peninsula has applied for 20,000 
square feet of space, and will fill it with mineral and 
timber products. It is proposed to show several cords of 
natural copper as it comes out of the mine, and also the 
various sorts of iron. A complete working model of a mine 
with reduction works is also promised. Tn the state build- 
ing will probably be a mantel of rough beaten native copper 
and also a pillar of the same material, and the copper ore 
will be so chosen as to show the native silver that is often 
found with the copper. 

The exhibit of the harness-makers, which is in charge of 
the Wholesale Saddlery Association, will include not onlya 
trade exhibit, embracing specimens of the finest work, but 
also a collection of harness, trappings and cognate things, 
showing the evolution of the harness industry from early 
times to the present. The sum of $35,000 will be expended 
on this latter feature. In the collection will be a saddle used 
by Napoleon Bonaparte. 

President Nunez of Columbia, it is announced, has 
declared his intention of being present at the ceremonies 
dedicatory of the Exposition buildings next October. Sir 
Julian Paunceforte, British Minister at Washington, will be 
present to represent Great Britain. 

Tree trunks for the colonnades of the Forestry Building 
have been received from Wisconsin, Montana, West 
Virginia, California, Indiana, Ohio, Delaware, New Mexico, 
North Carolina and Connecticut. Thirty of the states will 
make contributions of this character. 

Lieut. Baker, recently Special Exposition Commissioner 
to Mexico, estimates that fully 10,000 Mexicans will attend 
the Fair. Throughout Mexico there is a great enthusiasm 
over the Exposition, and extensive preparations are being 
made to have that southern republic represented by a 
splended exhibit. 

Of the 75,560,000 feet of lumber required for the Exposi- 
tion buildings, docks and electric subways, 54,875,800 have 
been placed. Of iron and steel 39,490,900 pounds, or nearly 
20,000 tons, are required. Of this nearly half is in place, 
and the remainder will all be in position before the first of 
June. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holboro, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, &c, &c. 



Bicarbolic Acid 

Rectified Benzoline ... 
Boucard's Insecticide ... 


... quart 
'.'.'. lb. 


21- 

2/- 
4/- 




Collecting corked Box from 1/- to 5/- 

Pocket corked box from 1/- 

Corked Box for Museums ... 24/- 
,, ,, and glazed, splendid 
make 36/- 


each 
doz. 



Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of different 

sizes 1/6 

Pin box, with 1,000 pins ... 3/- 

Sea compass . from 2/- to 50/- 

Collectiug bottles with large opening 

from 6d. 
Boucard's tin collecting box with 

two partitions 

Straight Scissors 

Curved ,, 

Taxirdermist knives 

Long Forceps 

Small ,, 

Insects' Nippers 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs ... 

Digger 

Folding ditto 

Insect Pins, English, French or 

German from 1 '6 per 1000 

All other utensils for Naturalists can be 
Naturalists' Agency. 





21- 


from 2/- 


5> 


21- 




1/6 


)) 


2,1- 


>■> 


V- 


>} 


1/6 


J» 


21- 




21- 


>> 


2/- & 4/- 


)5 


6/- 



Steel Pinsforsettingbutterflies ,, 4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1/- to 3/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 

Sweeping and Water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... „, 1/- to 5 - 

Hammers ,, 1/6 to 5/- 

Naphthaline ,, 4/-perlb. 

Botanical Grey paper ... ,, 6/- ream. 

Folding Umbrella for collecting 

Insects 

Steel Perforator for making 

holes in eggs 

Cutting pliers 

Flat 

Arsenical Soap 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells 

Pill boxes for ditto 

Flax 

Cotton wadding, per sheet ... 
Fishing rods with accessories 
Dredge for collecting shells, &c. 
Taxidermist's case, containing 

lPair of Scissors, 2 Knives 

1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Plien, 

1 Hammer.1 pairof Forceps 

1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, etc., 

complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle from 1/- 

had at a short notice, by ordering at the 



10/- 

1/- . 
21- 

V- 

2/ per lb. 

1/- doz. 
4/- gross. 
6d.perlb. 
6d. 

21- 
40/- 





STANDS, 


NEW 


STYLE. 




No. 1. for Humming birds and Small birds 




at 20s per hundred. 


„ 2. ,, Small birds up to Tanagers 






„ 24s 


,,3. ,, Tanagers up to Magpies... 


... 


... 


„ 28s 


„ 4. ,, Magpies up to Crows or ^mall Hawks 


... ... ... 


„ 32s 


,, 5. ,, Small Hawks 


to Large Hawks and Owls 




„ 40s 




ARTIFICIAL 


EYES. 




Black 


Coloured 


■j 


Cornered 


Cornered 
and Veined 


per gross. 






per doz. pairs 


per doz. pairs 


No. 1 to 4 6d 


Is 6d 


No. 4 to 6 3s 6d 


4s 6d 


„ 5 „ 8 8d 


2s 6d 


• „ 7 ., 8 5s Od 


6s Od 


„ 9 „ 10 Is Od 


4s Od 


< 


9 6s Od 


8s Od 


11 2s Od 


rs 6d 




10 7s Od 


9s Od 


„ 12 2s 3d 


7s Od 




11 8s Od 


10s Od 


13 2s 6d 


10s Od 
doz. of pairs 


•j 


12 9s Od 


lis Od 


14 ?s Od 


Is 6d 




13 10s Od 


13s Od 


„ 15 3s 6d 


2s 6d 


' 


14 lis Od i 


13s Od 


)6 4s Od 


2s 6d 




14 13s Od 


15s Od 


„ 17 8s Od 


3s Od 




Larger sizes can 


be made 


18 12s Od 


4 s Od 




to order. 




No. 1 to 4 are good for 


mmming birds and others 


up to the size of Tanagers. 


No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. 


No. 


9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 


No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, 


&e. 


No. 


13 to J 8 Hawks, Owls Herons, &c. 



Ethnological Specimens and Curios from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New Guinea, Mexico, 
Central America, &c, &c, at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. Fifty 
years work. Will be 6old at a bargain. 

Fourteen specie» of Carabas from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 specimens at 
5s. each. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the 

Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN REMO, 

The celebrated Winter Resort on -the ]Riviera, 40 Minutes 

from MONACO. 



1° VILLA MARIA LUIGIA. 

A charming residence, standing in its own grounds, situated Corso Levante 
on one side and the Beach on the other, at about 15 minutes walk from the 
centre of the town and 20 from the station. Splendid view in all directions, 
beautiful gardens of about 2,000 mètres, in which a large space has been laid 
purposely for lawn, tennis and other games. 

Carriage and private entrances. 

Gymnastic, Summer Houses, Aviary, Batliing Cabin, fyc. 

Excellent Water. 

Ground Floor. —Three fine rooms, full south, with 7 bay windows opening on 
the Garden, Kitchen, Offices, Cellar, &c. 

First Floor. — Five large and fine rooms, three full south, two on the north 
side, all of them communicating. Magnificent for Receptions, Soirées, &c. 
Cloak Room. 

Second Floor. — Seven large rooms, four full south, one of them with dressing- 
room, three fine rooms on the north side. Cloak Room. Corridor in the middle. 

Size of Villa : length 18 mètres, width 10 metres. 

Price . . . . francs 60,000 



2° VILLAS RONDO 25, 27, 

CORSO GARIBALDI. 
Two semi-detached Villas, full south, standing in their own grounds of 
1,000 mètres, situated on the Corso Garabaldi, (the most pleasant Walk of the 
town) hardly at 10 minutes Walk from. the central part of the town and 15 of the 
station. 

No. 25. — Ground Floor. — Three fine rooms, Kitchen, Office, and Cellar. 
First Floor. — Six comfortable rooms. 

No. 27. — Exactly the same, with Underground floor containing kitchen and 
two large rooms. Front and back gardens. 

Price for the two villas , . . . . . francs 45,000 

Separately — No. 25 .. .. francs 25,000 

No. 27 . . . . francs 30,000 



3 e A PIECE OF LAND ABOUT 350 METRES. 

Full south, on the Corso Mezzogiorno, two minutes from the station and the 
port, in the central part of the town. Splendid position. 

Price .. . . francs 15,000 

For further information apply to — 

A. BOUCARD, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

Two of the Villas, the smallest and the largest, are actually let Unfurnished 
for several years at 3, 600 francs yearly ; but they would fetch more if Proprietor 
was not abroad. It is expected that, if properly attended, an Income between 
£200 and £300 yearly could be secured, and more if let furnished. 



London : Chas. Striker & Sons, Bishopsgate Avenue, B.C. 




2> Vol. II., No. I.J 



JULY, 1892. 



PRICE SIXPENCF. 





A MONTHLY 
SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 

EDITED BY 

A. BOUCAED 




OL/-iAyy\\xxy JOamaxxx^ÙC 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom, Europe, N. America and Canada, 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and South America, and West Indies, 6 shillings. 

All other countries, 7 shillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. — Vol. I, complete, Ten Shillings. 
Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS 

Whole Page, 40s. Half-Page, 22s. Quarter-Page, 13s. 

Lowest charge, 3s. 6d. up to five lines, and 6d. per line extra. 

Repeated or continuous Advertisements, per contract. 

tef) 






Published by A. Bouc.vhd, 225, High Holborii. Loudon, W. C. 



BO.UCARD, POTTIER & Co., 

ïtaturaltets auir JTeatI)er Jtterctyants, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND 



Messrs, BGUCARD, POTTIER, and Co., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crastacese and Arachnidse in spirit; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins aud Feathers for Plumassi^rs and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused; Curious of all sorts; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier et C ., whe having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts ot the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,ODO species of Birds, 30,000 of species Coleopteraand Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water, and Marine Shells, a large number of sped °s ; Reptiles and Fishes 
in spirit; Crustaceae, dried and in spirit; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 sp rimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at ^25, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, etc., apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W. C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especialy Colonials and old German States. Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes; Old unused English and Colonials. Old Works on Stamps. 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 

TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-RE MO 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo: the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi detached- 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigia consists of three floors, with 
hfteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of tue rooms are full south, facing 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more rooms on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo, n° 25, the smallest, are actually let uufur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n° 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about i 400 per annum. 

All applications to be made at 225, High Ilolborn, London, W. C. (England), 
where photographies of thé Villas can be seen. 



®f)e gumming tôirà 



DESCRIPTION 

D'UNE ESPÈCE NOUVELLE DE DIPTÈRE PARASITE 

DE COSTA RIGA 

Par M. J. Bigot. 



Genre Ornithomyia [sensu Latreille, Macquart, 
Rondani, Bigot). 

0. Geniculata, nov. sp. J. Bigot. 

Long, ç? 9, p 10 millimètres. 

O* Haustello palpisque fulvis, antennis, ejusdem coloris, 
nigro setosis, oculis fulvis, laie nigro notalis, capite fulvo, 
facie utrinque carinata , tergo nigro nitido, antice, utrinque, 
macula lata, quadrat a flavâ, Uneâque angustâ fulvâ,medianâ, 
pictis; icutello flavido, nigro setoso ; pectore flavido; abdo- 
mine obscure- fusco sat dense nigro velutino : pedibus pallidè 
fulvis, nigro parce setosis, geniculis nigris ; alis pallidissimè 
fulvid's, venis nigris, transversa interna pallida, p Paulo 
majore, abdomine, latiore, bilobato, oculis omnino fulvis, 
scutello fusco nigro, et nigro setoso. 

O*. Pipette et palpes fauves, antennes fauves à soies noires; 
tête fauve, face avec deux fortes carènes latérales et longitu- 
dinales; les yeux fauves avec une grande et longue macule 
noire ; tergum luisant, noir, en avant ; de chaque côté, une 
grande macule quadrangulaire, et, au milieu, une fine ligne 
médiane, longitudinale, jaunâtre; écusson jaunâtre à soies 
noires dissiminées ; flancs et poitrine fauves ; abdomen d'un 
brun noirâtre, assez densément, mais très brièvement muni 
de poils bruns; pieds d'un jaune fauve pâle avec quelques 
soies noires clair-semées, genoux noirs, tarses avec les seg- 
ments basilaires munis, à leur extrémité, de nombreuses et 
courtes soies noires; ailes d'un brunâtre fort pâle, les nervu 
res noirâtres, sauf la tranversale interne d'un blanc jaunâtre 
pâle. — p Taille un peu plus forte ; abdomen large, bilobé ; 
les yeux uniformément fauves ; écusson d'un noir luisant. — 
O* w 2 spécimens; p 1 spécimen. 

Trouvé sur un Pharomacrus costaricensis, tué par M. Bou- 
card à Cosla-Rica, Amérique Centrale. 

<J 



50 The Humming Bird. 

To the memory of the most Illustrious 
CHRISTOPHER COLOMB 

1492-1892. 

COMPLETION OF THE PANAMA CANAL 

By A. BOUGARD 



INTRODUCTION 

There are two projects for the completion of the Panama 
Canal, both protecting the interests of the original Share and 
Bond holders and leaving this valuable property in their 
own hands, if they choose. 

Further on, I give an explicative notice of these two pro- 
jects and I have not the least doubt that, if the original 
Bond and Share holders, know their own interests and help 
me thoroughly in the campaign which I am undertaking for 
the Raising up of the Panama, works can be resumed, not 
later than the 1 st of January 1893. 

The author of this pamphlet free of all parties, and all 
projects, excepting his own, is one of the largest Title hol- 
ders, titles which he bought mostly when every one had the 
most entire confidence in the words of Baron Ferdinand de 
Lesseps. 

In the purchase of these titles, he employed nearly all his 
wealth, painfully acquired after thirty years of scientific 
and industrial works. 

When the breaking up of the Company came to pass, he 
was obliged to begin afresh, and to resume his scientific and 
industrial works, but what would have been a great misfor- 
tune for many has not been so for him ; because he is one 
of those, who cannot remain inactive, and although very 
busy in directing his scientific and industrial undertakings, 
he found sufficient time yet to study the Panama question and 
to publish some adequate notices on the Canal during the 
year 1891 (1). 

The author was in scientific exploration in Panama when 

(1) See Humming Bird, 1891, pages 3, 10, 20, 21), H and 07. 



The Humming Bird. :>l 

the Commission presided by M. Napoleon Wyse Bonaparte 
arrived for the first time in the Isthmus, to study the routes 
where the Canal was feasible. He has travelled and explored 
the greater part of North America, Mexico, and Central 
America. He has crossed Cape Horn, and remained sometimes 
in Chili. He knows well all these countries and has been 
able to appreciate to its full value the importance of a 
direct communication between the two Oceans. 

In 1878, he was the delegate of the Republic of Guatemala 
at the International Geographical Congress of Paris, where 
the question of the Panama Canal was first studied. 

Since, he has followed with the utmost attention all w r hat 
has been done, either at Paris or in Panama, about the 
Canal, and more exclusively so, to a commercial point of 
view, and he is convinced that even if the Nicaragua Canal 
is done one day, the Panama Canal will be yet a good stroke 
of business, commercially speaking, and before long the net 
income of the two Canals will be in proportion to the 
efforts and costs made. He is certain that one day or ano- 
ther the two Canals will be made and opened to the traffic, 
to the satisfaction of the entire world, and an agreement will 
probably be made by the two Companies for the exclusive 
use of one of the Canals for the ingress from one Ocean to 
the other, and the other for the egress. 

But there is a great advantage to conclude at once the 
Panama Canal, which is already nearly half done, and can be 
certainly opened, at the latest, the first of January 1900, 
and the author hopes to be one of those who will assist to 
this solemn Inauguration, which will leave its mark in the 
history of the twentieth Century. 

I have only a few more words to say. According to telegra- 
phic messages just arrived in London, His Excellency Don 
Raphael Nunez, President of the Republic of Columbia, is 
expected at Chicago in October next for the official Inaugura- 
tion of the International Exhibition. For one who knows how 
to read between the lines, it is certain, if this news is tvue^ 
that M. Raphael Nunez, one of the most distinguished Diplo- 
mats of the day and the most eminent personality of Colum- 
bia, entirely devoted to the interests of his country, is not 
doing such a long journey, at his comparatively mature age, 
simply to assist to the festival ceremonies of the Inauguration 
of the Chicago Exhibition. 



52 The Humming Bird. 

It is much more probable that having lost much of bis faith 
in the possibility of the completion of the work by the Inter- 
national Panama Company, directed in Paris, he made up his 
mind to go to Chicago and there to confer with the american 
Government or with the american Capitalists with the inten- 
tion to pass, with them, a preliminary treaty valable imme- 
diately after the caducity of the one passed with the Panama 
Company, if this should come to happen. 

But in this, I foresee a difficulty, which, if my memory is 
not failing me, prevents either M. Raphael Nunez, the Ame- 
ricans or any other to come to a satisfactory conclusion, 
without the assent of the Panama Company, first obtai- 
ned. 

During my stay in the United States and in Panama, I 
have known some of the high personalities who directed at 
that time the Panama Railway Company, and when the 
Commission presided by M . Wyse Bonaparte came to Panama 
in 1876-1877, I was there as t said before, and I spoke many 
and many times with the Directors and Inspectors of the 
Panama Railway G°, and I remember, as if it was only a few 
days ago, that all these gentlemen always told me that no 
Canal could be made for sixty leagues, above or under the 
line of the railway, without the assent of the Company. 

That was the chief reason why, after selecting the actual 
site for the Canal, baron de Lesseps was compelled to buy the 
Railwa} r Company, purchase which 1 have always considered 
as the best stroke of business made by the Panama Canal 
Company. 

Actually, the Panama Canal Company is the owner of the 
Railway with all its charges and privileges. Therefore no 
one can continue the works of the Canal without the assent of 
the Panama Canal Compagny, first obtained. 

For my part, I shall defend this point to the last, and I hope 
that the majority of the Panama Share and Bond holders 
will support me in this revendication, if it was necessary. 

It is possible that the Panama Canal Company will have to 
abandon all its properties, machinery, etc., existing at Panama, 
but no one can compel the said Company to loose ils rights 
without a very substantial compensation, and it is to obtain 
the said compensation, if it should come to that, that I put 
myself entirely at the disposal of the Panama Title hol- 
ders. 



The Humming Bird. 



53 



TABLE OF DISTANCES 

m NAUTICAL MILES 

BETWEEN THE PRINCIPAL PORTS OF THE WORLD 

Via Cape Horn, 

Strait of Magellan, Cape of Good-Hope 

and Canal of Panama 

Shoiving the great advantage for sailing ships and steamers 

in passing via Panama. 



BETWEEN 


Via cape Horn 
per sailing shi, s 


Strait Of Magellan 
per steamers 


<u 

S 

CO 

cp — 

w a. 

r* '*> 

X W 

u » 

s 
a 


CO 
CO 

a 

-CO 

CO 

> 


en en 

— 

S S 

'ce 


Gain for steamers 


Havre 

Anvers 

Londres 


ret San - Fran- 
i cisco . . . 


15 620 


13 494 




7 627 


7 983 


5 867 


Liverpool 






11 875 




5 765 




6 110 


» 






12 357 




6 395 




5 962 


» 






10 620 




5 947 




4 676 


» 






9 960 




6 464 




3 493 


» 


Valparaiso . . 


9 380 


8 760 




7 734 


1 646 


1 025 


» 


Honolulu. . . 




13 610 




9 137 




4 472, 


» 








14 505 


11 947 


. . 


2 583 


New- York 


etSan-Francisco. 


15 650 


13 174 




5 000 


10 650 


8 174 


» 


Sitka . . . . 




14 439 




6 277 




8 162 


» 


Detr.de Behriug. 


. . . 


15 705 




7 495 


• 


8 2101 


» 


Acapnlco. . . 


. 


11 555 




3 138 




8 417 


» 


Mazatlan . . 




12 087 




3 768 




8 319 


» 


Hong-Kong . . 






13 750 


10 785 


2 965 




» 
» 


Yokohama . . 






15 217 

12 830 


9 320 
9 965 


5 897 
3 795 


2 895 


Melbourne . . 


13 760 


12 860 


» 


Honolulu. . . 


15 480 


13 290 




6 580 


s noo 


6 710 


» 


Guayaquil . . 




10 300 




3 083 




7 217 


» 


Callao. . 








3 600 


• 


5 OH) 


» 


Valparaiso . . 


9 420 


8 440 




4 870 


4 550 


3 570 


Nouv.-Orl 


et San-Francisco 


16 000 


13 539 




4 230 


11 770 


9 309 


» 


Acapulco. . . 




11 920 




2 968 




8 952 


» 


Mazatlan . 




12 402 




2 998 




9 404 


» 


Callao . . . 




10 005 

8 805 




2 884 
4 154 




7 121 


» 








. . . 


4 654 



54 The Bumming Bird. 

FIRST PROJECT 

Project of subscription for the formation of 
an anonymous Company, hereafter known as 
the Interocaanic Columbus Canal Company 
for the completion of the Canal, known as the 
Interoceanic Panama Canal Company. 

Capital : forty millions of pounds sterling, 

in two millions of £ 20 shares which are now offered for 
subscription, payable as follows : 10 shillings on application, 
10 shillings on allotment, and the balance by calls of 40 shil- 
lings per share, at intervals of not less than six months, part 
of the payment in cash, the rest in Shares or Bonds of the 
Company in liquidation, known as the Compagnie Universelle 
du Canal Interocéanique de Panama, on the following bases: 

Shares at €5 each; 

Bonds 5 % at #8 16 s each; 

Bonds 3 °/o at € 6 each ; 

Bonds 4 % at £ 6 12 s ; 

Bonds 6 Vo at € 8 16 s 
indistinctly, excepting those for which a sum has been depo- 
sited for the repayment of same. 

Bonds with primes (obligations à lots) wholly paid. ê 8, 
16 shillings. 

Bonds 6 °/oi payment warranted by a deposit of French 
rents will also be accepted at €8, 16 s , if it is possible to get 
back the deposit now existing in the hands of the Civil 
Society. 

The Bonds with primes (bons à lots) which are warranted 
by sums deposited at the Crédit Foncier, will also be accep- 
ted at € 4, if the deposit can be returned to the new Com- 
pany. The obligations with primes remaining in the hands of 
the liquidation will be annuled. 

From this source, a sum of 38 millions 744.602 francs 96, 
deposited with the Civil Society, on account of these Bonds, 
could be had back; as also 388.644 francs 23 cent., due by 
that Society to the Liquidation of the Panama Company, 
according to accounts rendered on the 31 of December 1891, 
if that sum has not been repaid already. 

The Share and Bondholders can subscribe as many new 
Shares of € 20 as they have of the old stock, in the following 
proportions : 

For every two Shares, one Share of the new Company; 

For one Bond 5 °/ Q , one ,, ,, ,, ,, 

,, two Bonds either 3 °/ et 4 °/ , one ,, ,, 

,, one Bond 6 °/o* one share ,, ,, ,, 

,, one Bond with primes, fully paid, one share ,, 



The Humming Bird. 55 

On the day of subscription, the bearer of two Panama 
Shares will deliver them to the new Company, in exchange 
of a receipt of € 5 each, or £ 10 for the two, to be deducted 
from the total amount due for the share of the new Com- 
pany. Then he will have te pay ten shillings on the day on 
application, ten shillings on allotment, and sixteen shillingsand 
five pence, instead of € 2, on each call, every six months. 

The same will be done with the Bonds 5 per 100, 3 per 
100, 4 per 100, 6 per 100 and the Bonds with primes, fully 
paid. As a compensation for the acceptance of the Panama 
Shares and Bonds at the prices fixed above, the Share and 
Bondholders forsake, of their own free will, the amount of 
the dividends due since the last three years, as well as 
their Shares and Bonds, which will be destroyed. 

The Bonds with prime in the hands of the Liquidation will 
be annuled. 

The Liquidation will deliver immediately to the new Com- 
pany, after its formation, all the assets existing, either in 
Paris or in Panama, including the Shares of the Panama 
Railway Company, the whole becoming the absolute property 
of the new Company. 

By this mean, all the assets of the Panama Co will remain 
in the hands of the original Panama Bond and Shareholders, 
who are certain to make good alltheir losses in a specified time. 

By the following calculation which ,has been done with 
care, it is easy to see that although every thing remains in 
the hands of the Panama Bond and Share holders, the new 
Company will be able to realize a sum varying between 500 
and 600 millions of francs, perhaps more, a sum which is 
quite sufficient to resume work and complete the Canal. 

Besides, the total amount of cost for the Canal being redu- 
ced to one milliard of francs, it will become again a good in- 
vestment, and the holders will receive a good revenue from 
the date of the opening of the Canal, and will keep in their 
own hands a property, which will be one day so valuable, 
that it is quite impossible to have an idea of its magni- 
tude. 

Table representing the value of the Panama Shares 
and Bonds received in payment by the new Company. 

600.000 Shares at £ 5 € 3.000.000. 

250.000 Bonds 5 per cent at € 8.16s. . . 2.200.000. 

600.000 Bonds 3 per „ at#6. ... 3.600.000. 

477.387 Bonds 4 per ,, at # 6. 12. . . 2.912.060.11 s 

438.802 Bonds 6 per ,, 1st série at € 8.16 3. £61. 457. 12 

258.887 Bonds 6 per ,, 2d série at £ 8.16 2.275.205.12 

Total. ... € 17.856.723.15 



56 



The Humming Bird. 



This leaves at the disposal of the new Company the sum 
of £22, 143, 276, h 8 . 

The Bonds 6 per 100 3d série, the Bonds with primes 
fully paid, the Bonds with primes, 110 francs paid, are not 
included in this account, because the first and last ones re- 
present about the same amount deposited with the Civil so- 
ciety. As to the Bonds with primes, fully paid, I believe that 
they are very few and would not alter much the sum acqui- 
red by the new Company. 

To meet this total of è 22. 143. 276. 5 s , the holders of the 
Panama Shares and Bonds will have to pay every six months 
very small sums as explained in the adjoining table. 

2 Shares of ê%0 (which have actually lost all their rights) will 

be received in payment by the new Company, at € 5. 10. 

1 Bond 5 0/0 subscribed at 437 fr., 50 . . . 8.16. 

2 Bonds 3 0/0 at 285 fr. , at € 6 each .... 12.0. 

6 2 ,,4 0/0 at 333 fr., at € 6 s 12 13.4. 

1 „ 60/0 , first série at 450 fr., £8. 16 . . . 8.16. 

1 ,, 6 0/0, 2d at 440 fr., at €8. 16 ... . 8.16. 

1 ,, 6 0/0 3 d série warranted, at €8. 16. . . 8 16. 

1 ,, with prime (fully paid), at 440 fr., 8. 16. . 8.16. 

Consequently, 2 Shares ofê 20 will have the right to sub- 
scribe to 1 Share of the new Company, payable as follows : 

2 Panama Shares received in payment ate 5 . 10. 0. 

Subscription 0.10. 

Allotment 0.10. 

11 Calls from the 1 st July 1893, to 1 st July 

1898 inclusive, at 16» 44- — 9. 0. 



Total £ 



20. 0. 



1 Bond 5 0/0 will have the right to subscribe to 1 Share 
of the new Company as follows : 

I Bond 5 0/0 received in payement, for. . ê 8.16. 

Subscription 0.10. 

Allotment 0.10. 

II Calls from 1 st July 1893 to 1 st July 1898 
inclusive, at 10 shillings 8 d 10. 4. 

Total. . . ê 20. 0. 
(7b be continued.) 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects , 
Shells, etc., etc. 



Bicarholic Acid quart 2/- 

Rectiûed Beuzoliue , 2/- 

Boucatd's Insecticide ... lb. 4/- 
Amnnonia .. ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked box from !/ to 3/- each 

Pocket corked box from 2/- 

Corked Box for Museums 24/- doz. 

— — and glazed, splendid 

make... 36/- ,, 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of diffe- 
rent sizes 1/6- 
Pin box, with 1,000 pins 3/- 

Sea compass . from 2/-to50/- 
Collecting bottles with large 
opening. from. 6 d. 

Boucard's tiu collecting box, with 

iwo partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors from. 2/- 

Curved ,, ,, 2/- 

ïaxidermist knives ,, 1/6 

Long Forceps „ 3/- 

Small ., ... ... ... „ 1/- 

Insects' Nippers ,, 1/3 

Sieve „ 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs... ,, 21- 

Digger „2/-et4- 

Folding ditto ... ., 6/- 



bteel Pinsforsettingbutterfl.4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1 to 21- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to o/- 
S weeping and water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork io Sheets , 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, 1/- to 5- 

Hammers ... -, 'A> to 5/- 

Naphthaline , 4/-per lb. 

Botanical grey paper ... ,, 6/-ream 
Fo'ding Umbrella for collec- 
ting Insects ... ... ,, 10/- 

Steel Perforator 

hobs in eggs 

Cutting Pliers ... 

Flat. 

Arsenical Soap.. 



for making 

,-, 1/- 
„2/- 

„ v- 

,,2/ per lb 
Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ,, l/-doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto „ 4/-gross 

Flax... ... ,, 6d.perlb 

Cotton wadding, per slieet.... ,, 6d. 
Fishing rods with accessories ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collet, shells, etc. ., 40/- 
T'ixidermist s case ^containing 
I Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 
1 Lime, 1 Grater. 2 Pliers, 
1 Hammer, 1 pair of For- 
ceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 

etc. Complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle, from 1/- 



Icsect Pins, English, French 

(.r German ... from 1/6 per 1000 
All other utensils for Naturalistes can be had dt a short notice, by ordering at 
the Naturalists' Agency. 









STANDS. NEW STYLE 






No. 


1. For Humming bird 


s and Small birds 


• • » 


at 20s per hundred 


j, 


2. r, 


Small birds up 


to Tanagers ... 


• • • 


„ 24s 


m 


J' 

i) 


3. ,, 


Tanagers up to Magpies... ... 

Magpies up to Crows or Small" Hawks 


... 


„ 28s 
,, 32s 


5 * 


) 5 


5. )3 


Small Hawks t 


3 Large Hawks and Owls 


... 


„ 40s 


?» 










ARTIFICIAL EYES. 










Black 


Coloured 


Cornered 


Cornered 
and veined 




No. 1 


per qross. 
to " 4 6d 


per doz 
Is 6d No. 4 to 


pairs. ' per 
6 3s 6d 


do z. pairs. 

4s 6d 







ïï 


8 8d 


2s 6d 


7 „ 


8 5s 0d 


6s Od 




"' 9 




10 Is Od 


4s Od 


9 


6s Od 


8s Od 




, » 


li 


2s Od 


5s 6d ,, 


10 


7s Od 


9s Od 




,, 


12 


2s 3d 


7s Od 


11 


8s Od 


10s Od 




> » 


13 


2s 6d 


10s 0d 


12 


9s Od 


lis Od 






14 


3s Od 


doz. of pairs 
Is 6d 


13 


10s 0d 


13s Od 




. , 


15 


3s 6d 


2s 6d 


14 


lis Od 


13s Od 






16 


is Od 


2s 6d 


15 


13s 61 


15s Od 




, 


47 


8s Od 


3s Od 


Larger size can b 


e made 




i » 


18 


12s Od 


4s Od 




to orde: 


'• 



No. 1 to 4 are good for Humming Birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

No. 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. No. 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No. 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. No. 13 to Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 

Ethnological Specimens and Curious from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New-Guinea, 
Mexico, Central America, etc., etc., at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods fi-om alt parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. 
Fifty years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 speci- 
mens at 5s. each. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & C ., 

Maturaltsts auîr Jtatl)er JHercl)antB 1 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND 



Messrs BOUCARD, POTTIER, and Co., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Bird, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacean and iVrachnidse in spirit; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins aud Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists ; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused; Curious of all sorts; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier et C ., who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts ot the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, o0,000of species Coleopteraand Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water, and Marine Shells, a large number of 'species ; Reptiles and Fishes 
in spirit; Crustaceee, dried and in spirit; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Priées, etc., apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especially Colonials aud old German States; Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes ; Old unused English and Colonials ; Old Works on Stamps ; 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight. 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo : the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi-detached 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigia consists of three floors, with 
fifteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Teu of the rooms are full south, faciag 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more rooms on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n° 25, the smallest, are actually let unfur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n° 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about £ 400 per annum. 

Ail applications to be made at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. (England), 
where photographies of the Villas can be seen. 



The Humming Blvd. 57 

Now I give the account of the sums to be received by the 
new Company, since its formation, up to the lo lh of July 
1898, date of the last call. 

On the 1 st of January 1893. 

300.000 Shares subscribed by the holders of 

600,000 Panama Shares, at 10/=. £ 150.000 

250.000 Shares subscribed by the holders of 

250,000 Bonds 5 0/0, at 10 /=. . 1-25.000 

300.000 Shares subscribed b v the holders of 

600,000 Bonds 5 0/0, at 10 /= . 150.000 

238.694 Shares subscribed by the holders of 

477,387 Bonds 4 0/0, at 10/ = . 119.847 

438 802 Shares subscribed bv the holders 
of 438,802 Bonds 6 0/0 l» 1 Série, 
at 10/= 219.401 

258.887 Shares subscribed by the holders 
of 258,887 Bonds 6 0/0 2 d Série, 
at 10/= 129.443 

1.786.383 Shares Total. . . . £893.691.10 

On the day of allotment, February 1 st 1893. 893.091.10 

Total. . . . 4.787. 383. 00 

!•» July 1893. 

CaIl.on300,000Sh.,atl4,6 : s-£246.000 11 Cal. £2.708.000 

» 250,000 » at 18/8 = 233.200 » 2.565.200 

» 300,000 » at 12/8— 196.000 » 2.150.000 

» 238,694 » at 10/6-1 = 126.004 8/8 » 1.386.048 15/4 

» 438.802 » at 18/8 = 407.208 5/1 { 4.479.290 6 4^ 

» 258,887 » at 18/8 = 240.247 2/4 2.642.718.10.3 

Each call = 1.448.659.16.1^ € 15.931.257.11.11 ~ 

Besides 213.617 Shares remain in the hands 
of the Company. At € 20 each, they represent 
a sum of 4.272.340 » » 

Total € 20.203.597.11. llj 

Which gives the following grand total : 

Subscription £ 893.691.10 

Allotment 893.691.10 

Eleven calls on Shares 15.931.257.11^ 

Amount of 316,619 Shares, at € iO . . . 4.272.340.00 

Total £21.990.980. l.lU 

h 



58 The Humming Bird. 

A sura which I consider more than sufficient to cover all 
the expenses and to pay an interest of 3 0/0 per annum on 
all the sums subscribed, either in cash, or in Shares and Bonds 
of the old Company. 

For the payment of the said inte:est, the Company will 
require a sum of about € 3.000.000; but I think that by 
investing judiciously part of the money received, and not 
immediately necessary, a good income could be made out of 
it, and reduce considerably the sums to pay as interests. 

It is also probable that a combination exists, by which in 
investing part of the capital, as received , and laid by for the 
last payments, enough could be made to pay nearly all the 
interests due during the completion of the work. 

Now about the cost of Promotion of the Company : Emis- 
sion, Publicity, Direction, Printing-, Delivery of Shares, 
Payments of interests, etc., « ali of which have been excessive 
with the Panama Canal Company d, 1 really think that it 
can be done at a very reasonable price. 

If we take as a basis, the last report published by the 
Civil Society for the repayment of Bonds and payment of 
primes, we find recorded in the Assets for 1891 : 

Expenses on money received fr. 4.579 52 

Expenses of direction and allocation to 
Commissioners 18.824 20 

Paid to Crédit Foncierfor the safe keeping 
of Titles 9.336 75 



Total fr. 32.740 47 



Or a little overê 1.300, which seems to me veiy moderate 
charges, and I don't see why the New Company could not 
do the same. Perhaps an arrangement could be made with 
that Society to take charge of the comptability of the New 
Company. 

The same could be done in Panama by taking care to 
appoint competent persons, always giving the preference to 
holders of the new Company Shares. 

The payment to Directors could be, at first, limited to 
£ 400 yearly, until a dividend of 10 0/0 should be paid to the 
Shareholders. When that time comes, 10 0/0 of the surplus 
dividend will be divided between the Directors, and from the 
rest, half will be put to a reserve fund, and the other half 
divided between the Shareholders. 

As to Publicity, the expenses will be reduced to their 
extreme limit. Several thousands bills and some appropriate 
notices in the newspapers sympathetic to the Panama, such 
as : le Petit Journal^ le Petit Parisien, la France, la Paix, etc., 
would be sufficient. 



7 he J I if mining ttird. 50 

An official weekly paper should be edited at once by the 
new Company, after its formation, and sold at the moderate 

price of 1 \ d. or \ shillings yearly. 

This paper dedicated exclusively to the business of the 
new Company will keep the Shareholders well informed of 
all what is being done in Paris and in Panama, and will be 
the indispensable tie between the Shareholders and the Com- 
pany, replacing profitably the ordinary annual meetings of 
Shareholders. A meeting of these last should be called only 
in case of absolute necessity. 

If the Boards of Directors should agree that for the promo- 
ting of the Company, it is necessary to apply to Bankers, it will 

be stipulated with the said Bankers that a commission of-^ 

per cent shall be, paid to them on all sums received for the 
account of the Company. € 50.000 will be required to pay 
the said commission on twenty millions pounds sterling. 

As will be seen by what precedes, the author has had only 
in view to prove that it is possible, and easy, to get the neces- 
sary sums for the completion of the Canal. He has not sail 
one word about the technical part of it, which belongs by right 
to the Engineers, firstly because he understands nothing about 
it, and secondly because he thinks that it has been done tho- 
roughly well by the various Commissions of Engineers sent 
in the Isthmus for that purpose, and especially so, by the 
last one, sent by the Liquidation, and whose Reports have 
been published and are well known by all. 

Now I give a list (1) of the competent persons, well known 
for their patriotism, and who would probably accept the for- 
mation of the new Company for the completion of the Canal, 
and whose personalities would probably be acceptable to all 
the Panama Bond and Shareholders, knowing well that if 
their concourse can be secured, the success is certain. 

COMMITTEE OF DIRECTION 

Mssrs Christople, 

BOUCARD, 

Hennet de Goutel, 

Marinoni, 

Rylski, 

MÉNIER, 

Wyse Bonaparte, 
Reclus, 

SOSA, 

Tbiébaud, 
Bunau-Varilla, etc. 

(1) This list can be altered or modified according to the will of the 
majority of the Panama Titleholdere. 



60 The Humming Bird. 

Immediately after the formation of the new Company, a 
special Delegate, with full pow T ers, will be sent to Colombia 
to confer with the Columbian Government and negotiate a 
modificalion to the last treaty concluded with Mr Wyse 
Bonaparte, by which the Cohnnbian Government should 
renounce to the payment of ten millions of francs asked 
from the new Company, and prorogate to twenty years the 
time allowed to the new Company for the termination of 
the Canal ; not because it is absolutely necessary, but to free 
the Company from the exigences of several Contractors, who 
may be ready to take advantage of the Company if they think 
that they are indispensable. 

In compensation for this, the new Company shall give to 
the Columbian Government, 10.000 Shares (free of all costs) 
and bearing the same interest as the ordinary Shares. The 
amount to be paid in interest on these Shares from January 
1893 to January 1900 would amount to about three millions of 
francs. 

Besides that, a small part of the profits should also be 
offered to the Columbian Government. 

It would be a very fair remuneration given to the Colum- 
bian Government, for maintaining the Security in the 
Isthmus during the completion of the Canal, and all the 
other services rendered by the said Government to the 
Company. 

This first project is the best in my opinion, because work 
could be resumed immediately after the formation of the 
new Company, and would guarantee the opening of the 
Canal for the first of January 1900. 

Since the publication of the first part of this pamphlet, the 
Bulletin Officiel du Comité Central des Actionnaires et Obli 
gataires de Panama, 15 June 1892, has published an extract 
of a work by Mr Rylski, Engineer, entitled le Canal à ni- 
veau pour 220 millions. 

I have studied this extract with the greastest care, and 
I am of the same opinion as the Redaction of the Bulletin 
du Comité. 

Here is the soluion of the problem. 

I can speak knowingly of this, having travelled in Cali- 
fornia in all the countries where these hydraulic works are 
carried on for the désagrégation of the mountains and the 
washing of the auriferous soil of these parts. 

By these means, mountains of great magnitude have been 
transformed in plains in a short time and at a very small cost. 

There is no doubt whatever that the application of hydraulic 
machines can be successfully employed at Panama, and it is 
with stupefaction that I have heard that on the 21 th of De- 
cember 1886, Mr Rylski proposed to the Director of the 
Panama works to employ that method for attacking the 



The Humming Bird, 61 

Culfbra, and that his, proposition was not accepted by the 
said Director . If it had been accepted, the opening of the 
Canal should certainly have been inaugurated in 1889. 

It is therefore important to investigate it thoroughly and 
to accepti it, if Mr Rylski can prove that it can be done, and 
is willing to undertake the work. An economy of at least 
two hundred millions of francs could be realized and the 
Completion of the Canal secured for the year 1899, or at the 
latest, the -1 st of January 1900. 

It is intended to call a meeting of the Panama Share and 
Bondholders very shortly. Letters of convocation will be sent 
as early as possible to all the Presidents of the Committees of 
France, to the Press, and to all the largest Share and Bond- 
holders; but is very important that immediate meetings 
should be called by all the Presidents of Committees, for the 
purpose of submitting to the Titleholders all the most impor- 
tant projects, technical and financiers, and to ask them to 
appoint a special Delegate, with full powers, representing 
the largest possible number of Shares and Bonds, to attend 
the general meeting. 

In this meeting, all the projects will be examined and the 
best one adopted, an J resolutions will be passed for the for- 
mation of a new Company. 

It is also important to advice all Bondholders not to sell 
their Titles, but to buy some, if they can. At the actual prices, 
they are worth less than a third of their value, even in case 
of bankruptcy. 

The Canal must be done by the Panama Bond and Share- 
holders. To them alone , it belongs to save the Canal and reap 
the honor and the profit. We accept every one with us, and 
those who are not Share or Bondholders, cannot do better 
than to invest small or large sums in it, before it is too late. 

Several Societies are formed and ready to start a new 
Company, but I don't see why it should not be done by the 
Titleholders themselves. By doing so, they would save 
expenses, and reap all the profits, which these Societies are 
suie to claim as Promoters and Savers? 

All the Présidents of the Committees, with whom I have 
had the honour to correspond lately, are unanimous in 
saying that all the Share and Bondholders of their region 
are willing to subscribe to the shares ol the new Company, 
and we can already foresee a subscription, to about 200,000 
new shares, by the Titleholders from Paris, Marseille, 
Bordeaux, Lille, Moulins, Blois, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, etc. 

Therefore it is time to be united, and to show that we 
want to keep all in our own hands. No abstentions ! 

If every one does what he can, and is willing to subscribe 
according to his means, in a few days, the new Company 
will be an accomplished fact. 



02 The Humming Bird. 



SECOND PROJECT 

Subscription exclusively reserved to the Panama Bond and 
Shareholders. 

Project of subscription for the formation of an 
anonymous Compaoy, hereafter known as the 
Panama Company, for the developping and 
cultivating of the property of 500,000 hec- 
tares of freehold lands granted by the Colum- 
bian Government to the Panama Company. 

CAPITAL : Four millions pounds sterling divi- 
ded in Four millions of Shares ofêl payable as follows : 

4 shillings on application, 4 shillings on allotment, and 
the remainder by calls of 4 shillings, at intervals of not less 
than two mouths. 

Each Panama Share or Bond has the right of subscription 
to one share of the Panama Company. 

All Panama Bond or Shareholders not having subscribed, 
at the time of the Emission or at the latest two months after 
the formation of the Company, will lose their rights, and 
the Shares not alloted, will be offered preferently to the 
first Subscribers. 

Thus with êl, every holder of one Panama Share or Bond 
will have the privilege of doing a good investment, and will 
contribute to the termination of the Canal, which will 
remain the absolute properly of the Panama Share and Bond- 
holders, who are certain to recuperate all their losses within 
a specified time. 

PROJECTED LIST of the Committe of Direction 

M ssrs Boucard, 
Rylski, 

Wyse Bonaparte, 
Reclus, 

SOSA, 

Thiébaud, 

Ménier, etc. 
Bankers ... X. 
Offices Paris. 

ABRIDGED PROSPECTUS 

This Company is formed with the object of developping 
the properly of 500,000 hectares belonging to the Panama 
Canal Company 250,000 of which are in their hands. 

The Panama Estate is of great agricultural value. 

Its lands are most prolific for the raising of Cocoa, Co/fee, 



The Humming Biro 1 . 03 

Cinchona (quinine), Sugar cane, Maize, Rice, Cassava, 
Tobacco, India rubber. Indigo, Cotton, Vanilla, Plantains, 
Oranges, Lemons, and all species of Tropical fruits and vege- 
tables, Medicinal plants, Gums, Resins, etc. Many of these 
plants yield two and three crops yearly. Labour is cheap 
easily obtained, and transportation inland and abroad very 
easy and inexpensive. In the United States and in Europe, 
there is a great demand for plantains and all tropical fruits 
and produces. Steamers are constantly running and stopping 
between all the Atlantic porls, and to Europe. 

Even if reduced to the growing of coffee, cocoa, tobacco, 
maize and plantains, magnificent returns could be obtained, 
as all these goods are in great demand everywhere. 

The property abounds also in valuable timber such as : 
Cedar, Mahogany, Ebony and others, for which there is a 
constant demand for house building, furniture, and other 
purposes, and which only require the introduction of saw- 
mills to be turned to valuable account. The erection of these 
saw-mills can be done at a very small cost, water being 
abundant on the property. 

Additionnai sources of income can be derived from the rai- 
sing of Cattle. Mules and Horses, for which there is a cons- 
tant demand in the country itself. 

There are also on the property valuables ores, such as : 
Gold, Lead, Copper, Cinnabar, etc., from which a large in- 
come may be derived afterwards, if it is thought convenient to 
work them. 

It is estimated than within twelve months, the Company 
will have 5,000 hectares in cultivation, and planted with 
products yielding rapid returns, at an outlay of £ 100.000. 

The following estimate, which is much under the real 
value will give an idea of the profits to be derived immediately 
from the first outlay : 

2,000 hectares of maize, loads, at 6 shillings or € 30 per 

hectare i 60.000.0.0 

1.000 hectares plantains, 500 bunches, at 

sixpence or # 120 per hectare . . 120.000.0.0 
1.000 hectares cassava, 12 loads, at 10 /= 

or € 50 per hectare 50.000.0.0 

1.000 hectares, beans, yams, etc., at $ 40 

per hectare 40.000.0.0 

270.000.0.0 
Cost of clearing planting cultivating, etc., 
€20 per hectare. 100.000.0.0 

Profit. . . . £ 170.000.0.0 
Or 4 per 100 on the whole capital subscribed. The second 



64 The Humming Bird. 

year, it is certain that the profits would reach about 8 per 
100 on the whole capital of the Company, 10,000 hectares 
being then under cultivation. During these two years, large 
plantations of coffee and cocoa covering another 100.000 hec- 
tares could be made, so that the third year, besides the 
8 per 100 profit, on the whole capital subscribed, there 
would be the net profit of the first crop of coffee to be added 
to it, and which could not be less than one million of pounds 
sterling or another 25 per J 00 on the whole capital of the 
Company. 

The fourth year, it is safe to report that the return of 
coffee alone will be 2 millions, or 50 per 100 of the whole 
capital of the Company, which makes a grand total of 
66 per 100, to which is to be added the amount of the first 
crop of cocoa, which can be calculated for that year at £ 40 per 
hectare or € 4.000,000 for 100.000 hectares, which means 
another 100 per 100 on the whole capital subscribed. The 
fitfh year, the revenue of the cocoa plantation can be esti- 
mated at £ 5.000.000, and each succeeding year £ 50 more 
per hectare until it reaches the grand total of £ 200 per 
hectare, or £ 20.000.000 pounds sterling for 100.000 hec- 
tares. 

The revenue of the coffee plantation would also accrue in 
the same proportions, up to the fifth year, at which time 
it would reach the fine total of € 3.000 per hectare, or 
£ 300.000 for 100.000 hectares. 

In the fifth year the revenue of the Company would be as 
follows : 

40.000 hectares cultivated in plantains, 

maize, etc., nett profit. ... 8 per 100 

100.000 hectares cultivated in coffee . . 75 per 1 00 

lCO.000 — cultivated in cocoa . . 125 per 100 

Total 208 per 100 

The tenth year, when the plantation of cocoa would give 
its full crop, the revenue of the Company would be as 
follows : 

10.000 hectares plantains, maize, etc . . 8 per 100 

KiO.OoO — . coffee 75 per 100 

100. 000 — cocoa 500 per 100 

Total 583 per 100 

There are no reasons why it should not continue so, for 
any length of time, as new plantations could always be 
made, so as to replace the old ones, and always securing full 
crops. 



The Humming Bird. 60 

Now if the Company instead of limiting itself to raising 
Co/fee, Cocoa, Maize, Plantains and Cassava, should also 
cultivate Saga?' canes, Tobacco, Rice and Indigo, it could 
obtain better results yet ; as competent authorities on these, 
matters have calculated therevenue of 100.000 hectares plan- 
ted in these commodities, as follows: 

In sugar canes £ 10.000.000 

In tobacco £ 1-2.000.000 

In rice £ 4.000.000 

Indigo £ 8.000.000 

It has also been calculated, that the products of 100.000 
hectares planted in maize, plantains and yucca, would be : 

In maize i 6.000.000 

In plantains £ 10.000.000 

In yucca. £ 4.000.000 

Therefore no better commercial entreprise could be offe- 
red to the public, and the Directors of the Company, are so 
confident in the success of the undertaking that they would 
undertake not to receive any money whatever for the pro- 
moting, planting and working of the Company, until a 
dividend of 10 per 100 has been paid to the Shareholders. 

After a repartition of 10 per 100 to the Shareholders, 
an adequate remuneration should be voted in favour of the 
Directors, and from the remaining benefit surplus, it is inten- 
ded to make another repartition of 10 per 100 to the Share- 
holders, 10 per 100 to the Directors, and the remaining 
80 per 100 to be paid, free of charges to the Panama Com- 
pany for the termination of the Canal. 

In consideration of this free gift, the Interoceanic Panama 
Canal Company would grant to the Panama Company, free 
of all charges and definitively, two hundred and fifty thou- 
sand hectares of the lands granted to the said Company by the 
Columbian Government. 

These 250.000 hectares of land, to be selected by the 
Panama Company, where it likes at any time, according to 
its wants, in one or several times, at its choice. 

Immediately afterthe openingof the Canal, no more money 
should be paid to the Interoceanic Panama Canal Company 
and all the profits, less the 10 per 100 attributed to the 
Directors, would reverse in favour of the Shareholders of 
the Panama Company. If the Share and Bondholders of 
the Interoceanic Panama Canal Company accept this se- 
cond project, in preference to the first, they should com- 
municate immediately with Mr Boucard, the promotor of 
the two projects, as he intends to start for Chicago, at the 
latest, in September next, to meet there, with His Excellency 



66 The Humming Bird. 

M. Raphaël Nunez, President of the Columbian Republic, 
to confer with him about the advisability to extend to 
twenty years, the time of the prorogation for the termination 
of the Canal, although M. Boucard thinks that it will be pos- 
sible to resume work in the Isthmus at once, with the money 
in the hands of the Liquidation, so as to open the Canal, 
officially, not later than in January 1900 or before. Every 
effort will be made to do so, and to inaugurate the twentieth. 
Century ivith the opening of this gigantic and marvellous Work 
of Art, which will certainly open a new Era of greatness, 
wealth, and prosperity, not only to America, but to all the 
"World, and will be a fit homage rendered to the manes of 
the immortal CHRISTOPHER COLOMB. 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION 

"Worlds Fair Notes. 

A monster panorama, 445 feet long and ftl feet high, 
representing the Bernese Alps, with the Jungfrau in the back- 
ground, hasbeen painted for exhibition at the Fair. A private 
exhibition of the work was recently given to the press in Ber- 
lin. 

Success is already assured to the project which an asso- 
ciation, under the auspices of the Board of lady Managers, 
has of erecting several dormitories where women, especially 
those of the industrial class, can obtain neat, respectable 
and cheap living quarters, while visiting the Exposition. 

The steamship lines covering the west coast of South 
America, have agreed to carry government exhibits free and 
private exhibits at half price, as far as Panama, Passenger 
rates also have been greatly reduced. 

The lofty stone monolith which Wisconsin will exibit at 
the Fair, will remain at Jackson park permanently, the 
commissioners having given their consent. The monolith 
is 107 feet high and cut from a solid block of stone. The con- 
tract for its erection has already been let. 

Baron de Jeune's valuable collection, of prehistoric relics, 
it is believed, will be secured for exhibition ad the Fair. It 
comprises many rares specimens from caves in France. De 
Maret, who made the collection, spent twenty live years in 
work. 

Owing to the recent increase of Great Britain's Wold's Fair 
appropriation to £ 300,000. British exibitors will not be 
charged for space, as at first determined. 

President Diaz has recommended to the Mexican congress 
that Oct. 12 of this year be made a national holiday in com- 



The Humming Bird. (>7 

memorationof the landing of Columbus in the new world, lie 
says in his message that the work of collecting the Mexican 
exhibit is progressing rapidly, and that a display of Mexican 
troops will be made at the dedicatory exercises. 

A company from the national military institute of Colum- 
bia, South America, wants to attend the Exposition and 
camp on the World's Fair grounds. The proposition to give 
the company camping space in Washington park, close by 
the grounds, is now under consideration. 

A collection of finely mounted birds and animals will be 
shown in the Pennsylvania building. 

It has been already stated that the Pope has promised to 
use all his influence to promote the Chicago Columbian Expo- 
sition. It is now announced that he will appoint a commission 
charged with preparing a plan whereby the Vatican will be 
officially represented at the Exposition. It is not thought 
improbable that a subsidy will be granted by the Vatican. 

W.-H.-H. Llowellyn, Executive Commissioner for New 
Mexico, has been in Chicago securing space in the various 
buildings for exhibits from the Territories. " We expect to 
show people who visit the World' s Fair", he said, " that new 
Mexico can raise something else besides cactus and sage- 
brush. One exhibit will be 100 watermelons, the minimum 
weight of each of which will be luO pounds. » 

The liberation of carrier pigeons and the keeping of a 
record of their flight will be an interesting feature of the live 
stock exhibit at the Exposition. A number of breeders of 
pigeons will exhibit birds, and they are now making arran- 
gements for the proposed contests. George-W. Childs, of Phi- 
ladelphia, and several others have offered prise for the win- 
ners in the contests. The apeed record now is 325 milles in 
329 minutes. 

William Saunders, Executive Exposition Commissioner for 
Canada, says that a large and excellent exhibit from the 
Dominion is assured. It will be especially notable in the lines 
of agriculture, dairying, minerals and manufactures. 

It is announced that the Pope has directed that speci- 
mens of the beautiful mosaic pictures, made at the mosaic 
works in the Vatican, shall be exhibited at the Exposition, 
and that at least one picture shall be made expressly for the 
Fair. 

A carnival of sports, in connection with the Exposition, 
is contemplated and quite likely to be established. It is pro- 
posed to provide a large arena or amphitheatre in which 
will be enacted, as far as possible, every kind of athletic 
sport known to the various nations and races of the earth. 

Leigh S. Lynch, World' s Fair Commissioner to the South 
Sea Islands, has cabled that he has completed arrangements 
for exhibit from the Phillipine Islands and is now devoting 



68 The Humming Bird. 

his attention to Java. There is every prospect that the 
exhibit will be one of great intetest. 

Mr Mc Cormick,the London agent of the Columbian Expo- 
sition, has forwarded to Chicago an application from Mrs M.- 
L. Mullinger, who wishes to establish a gypsy encampment 
within the grounds of the Exposition, probably upon the Mid- 
way Plaisance. Mrs Mullinger is alluded to as being remarka- 
bly well versed in gypsy lore, and proficient in gypsy learning. 
She manages a gypsy encampment near Liverpool, England. 

Costa-Rica has one of the largest and finest archaeological 
collections in the world, showing many Columbian relics and 
historic data relating to the discovery of America. This col- 
lection goes to Madrid this year for the Spanish Exposition 
and will afterwards go to Chicago. 

A circular has been issued by the Exposition authorities to 
all the railway passenger associations of the United Sates 
and individual roads, asking that a materially reduced rate 
be made by the railroads on the occasion of the dedicatory 
ceremonies next October. It is believed that 500,000 visitors 
will be in Chicago from different parts of the country. 

The construction of the Exposition buildings is progres- 
sing in the most satisfactory manner, and there is no reason 
for doubt that all will be completed in time for dedication. 
The rough carpentry work is practically finished on all of the 
large structures except, Machinery Hall and the Manufac- 
turers' building and on these it is in an advanced stage. Six 
or seven of the buildings have the exterior appearance almost 
of finished structures, and look like imposing marble palaces. 

Invitations are being sent to distinguished guests to attend 
the dedication ceremonies of the Exposition next October. 
The invitation lo the President of the United States was 
presented by a special committee representing both the Na- 
tional Commission and the Directory. The invitation to the 
President is a very elaborate and beautiful affair. It reads : 
The World's Columbian Commission invites you to parti- 
pate in the ceremonies attending the dedication of the buil- 
ding of the World's Columbian Exposition at Jackson Park in 
the City of Chicago, Oct. 11, 12 and 13 1892, and requests 
the favor of an early acceptance. 

To the President, Benjamin Harrisson, Washington. Dis- 
trict of Columbia. 

Some ; 2(),0U0 or 25,000 invitations are being sent out. Those 
receiving them include national, state and territorial officials 
and man}' distinguished personages. The invitations sent to 
these, are finely executed but not nearly so elaborate, as the 
one to the President. 

The model of the '•Victory' 1 Nelson's celebrated flag-ship, 
will be brought to the Exposition by Manager Abud of the 
Prince of Wales' theatre, London. A part model of the " Vic- 



The Humming Bird. GO 

tory", attracted much attention at the recent royal naval 
exhibition. Mr Abud is now completing the model so that it 
will represent exactly and completely the famous old war 
ship, which now lies in Portsmouth harbor. 

Messrs Hirst and Jackson, World's Fair Commissioners for 
Florida, report that the prospect is very promising for rai- 
sing f 100,000 for the representation of that State. The in- 
terest of the people has been greatly increased by the deci- 
sion to construct for the Florida building a reproduction of 
old "Fort Marion", claimed to be the oldest structure on the 
continent. The building is a very picturesque one. The exte- 
rior will be of coquina, a concrete made chiefly of shells 
and phosphate, and the interior will be finished in Florida 
woods, of wich there are no less than Ï240 different varieties. 
In a moat surrounding the fort will be sunken gardens where 
growing pineapples and the larger fruits will be shown. On 
the parapets will be hanging gardens to which the full 
wealth of the flora of the State will contribute. Adjacent to 
the building will be groves of bamboo and orange and lemon 
trees. 

Visitors to the Exposition will avail themselves of a Bureau 
of Public Comfort, managed by the Exposition authorities. 
This will have headquarters in a building on the grounds, 
and will provide for visitors means of information and almost 
every facility for convenience and comfort except lodging. 
The Bureau will be managed by W.-M. Kasson, who had 
charge of similar service at the Philadelphia Contennial, 
though on a much smaller scale than is now planned. A 
separate organization having arrangements with the hotels 
and lodging houses of the city, will extend its service to all 
visitors who wish it. It is the determination to protect visi- 
tors from imposition of every description, and to see that 
prices are kept down to a reasonable basis. 

A plan has been elaborated for making the Tyrolese sec- 
tion perhaps the most entertaining part .of Austria's exhibit 
at the World's Fair. The purpose in arranging this section 
will be to give as graphic a representation of Tyrolese life 
and scenery as possible for a background to the exhibits of 
Tyrolese manufacturers. The section will be circular, and 
the walls will be covered with a panoramic picture of the 
Rhaetian and Tyrolese Alpes, including the Gross-Glockner 
and Orter peaks and the largest ice fields. In two cottages 
at the foot of the mountains, two parties of Tyrolese will 
show their skill in spinning and weaving silk and in carving. 
Three women will make lace before the cottage doors. A 
Company of young men and women singers will give several 
concerts daily. The picturesque part of the exhibit will be 
under the auspices of the hotel and tavern keepers of the 
Tyrol, and the representations of Tyrolese scenery will be 



70 The Bumming Bird. 

made for the purpose of inducing American tourists in 
Europe to pass more of their time in the Rhaetian and Tyro- 
lese Alps. 

One of the marvels of the recent electrical exposition at 
Frankfurt was a six foot electric search light of 20,000 candle 
power. Schuckertt, the Nuremberg electrician, astonished 
Europe in its construction. Schuckertt is now at work on a 
larger light for the World's Fair. 

The numerous congresses to be held in connection with 
the Exposition are creating wide-spread interest, and un- 
doubtedly will be a very important feature of the Fair. Accor- 
ding to the general schedule now prepared the various con- 
gresses under the several departments will be held as follows : 

May. — Music and the drama, public press, medicine. 

June. — Temperance, moral and social reform, commerce 
and finance. 

July. — Literature, science and philosophy, education. 

August. —Engineering, art, government. 

September. — Parliament of religious, denominational con- 
gresses, sunday rest. 

October. — Labor, agriculture, real estate, merchants, etc. 

These great departments are in charge of general com- 
mittees, which with the advice and suggestions of persons 
and societies interested, arrange the programme and select 
the speakers, with the approval of the president of the 
Auxiliary. 

" The eighth and greatest wonder of the world", is what 
1 he World's Fair buildings and grounds, even in their pre- 
sent incomplete condition, are pronounced by major Woods, 
Executive Commissioner of the Connecticut World's Fair 
Board. 

In lighting the World's Fair, 92,612 incandescent lamps, of 
16-candle power each will be used, according to present esti- 
mates. The contract for furnishing and maintaining these 
lights has just been let to George Westinghouse, Jr., for 
$ 339,000. 

Commissioner Dredge writes that the collections of rare 
old lace and Venetian glass which will be exhibited from 
Venice will constitute a most valuable section of the exhibi- 
tion to be made of ancient italian art work. 

The Exposition is deriving quite a revenue from the visitors 
whose curiosity prompts them to see the grounds and the 
wonderful buildings now approaching completion. An ad- 
mission of twenty-five cents is charged, and on single days 
the number of visitors has exceded 14,000. With warmer 
and more pleasant weather, it is believed, the visitors will 
be much more numerous. Without exception all are enthu- 
siastic in their admiration and wonder at the magnificent 
spectacle. 



The numming Bird. 71 

A.-B. de Guerville, who was commisioned to go around the 
world and give illustraded lectures on the Exposition, has 
written from Japan that so great is the interest in. the Fair 
that he rarely fails to talk to full houses. He was cordially 
received by the Emperor and Empress of Japan, and deli- 
vered his lecture before the court. The Emperor expressed 
enthusiasm and delight over the magnificence of the Expo- 
sition buildings, wich were shown by fine screen views du- 
ring the lecture. 

An exhibit from Syrian women, consisting chiefly of beau- 
tiful and costly embroideries, has been received by the 
Board of Lady Managers at Chicago. 

The women of Belgium will be represented at the Expo- 
sition by an exhibit. A women's committee, with the 
queen as patroness, has been selected to have charge of the 
matter. 

In response to the thousands of invitations to distin- 
guished persons to attend the Exposition dedicatory ceremo- 
nies next October, the acceptance thus far has been almost 
unanimous. Among those who will be present are the Presi- 
dent and his entire Cabinet, the members of the Supreme 
Court, nearly every foreign minister at Washington, the go- 
vernors of the different States, members of Congress and spe- 
cial representatives of many foreign nations. 

The magnitude of the French exhibit at the Exposition can 
be surmised from the fact that in the calculations as to its 
transportation to Chicago it is estimated that it will aggre- 
gate fully 3,000 tons. The exhibit, it is unnecessary to explain, 
will consist chiefly of works of art and manufactures of the 
finer and lighter description, and will include very little in 
the way of heavy articles, such as machinery. 

A committee of insurance men has inspected the system 
and methods of fire protection established on the Exposi- 
tion grounds, and has reported that they are in all respects 
adequate and satisfactory. It found thousands of fire buckets 
in the buildings, Babcok extinguishers on every hand, che- 
mical engines at every necessary point, boose lines reaching 
to the top of the buildings, fire alarm boxes numerous and 
easily accessible, an efficient fire alarm service, a system of 
water works with a capacity of millions of gallons a day, 
watchmen on duty day and night, and steam engine houses 
and engines and a well-drilled force of firemen. 

The California Bee Keepers' Association is preparing a no- 
table exhibit for the Fair. Besides honey and bees, the exhibit 
will include pressed flowers of all the different honey flora, 
specimens of the birds and insects which are the enemies of 
bees, models and photographs of apiaries, and novelties in 
the shape of production distinctive to California, especially 
in the line of beewax and foundation. 



72 The Êumminy Bird. 

Arizona is planning to reproduce for its building at the 
Exposition the famous Casa Grande, which stands in the sou- 
thern part of the territory. The Casa Grande, which is proba- 
bly the most remarkable and interesting prehistoric ruin in 
North America, was first visited by Europeans in 1538, by 
Cabeza de Vaca and his followers, of the ill-fated Ponce de 
Leon expedition. Four years later Coronado, during his expe- 
dition to the Southwest, made it his headquarters. Then, as 
now, not even a tradition as tho the race that built it remai- 
ned among the surrounding tribes. The building was once the 
main gateway to an immense walled city, the ruins of which 
still cover the plains, and to such an extent that in the accu- 
rate estimation of scientists the city's population must have 
exceeded a hundred thousand. The remains of vast irrigating 
ditches and cemented reservoirs are found in the vicinity of 
the ruined city. By cleaning one of the irrigating ditches re- 
cently 150,000 acres of land were reclaimed. This ancient 
irrigation system will be shown by relief maps. The ruins of 
Casa Grande are between five and six stories high and fifty 
feet square. They are composed of sun-dried brick, with 
heavy buttressed walls, and, like all the other ancient ruins 
in that country, bear evidences of having been destroyed by 
fire, for the charred, remains of rafters still cling to the walls. 
All about for miles and miles are strewn broken pottery, 
arrow heads and stone axes, which tell scientists that one day 
thousands of years ago that city blazed with fire and was 
deserted by a panic-stricken people. Casa Grande is the most 
famous feature of all those old sun-baked ruins, and its un- 
known origin, the sudden and unaccountable flight and disso- 
lution of the city it guarded, and the deep mystery which 
has clung to it for ages, make it one of the most interesting 
subjects of scientific investigation. It will be, perhaps, 
on its reproduction at the Fair, the most interesting buil- 
ding in which any of the States or territories will make head- 
quarters. 

The Ecuador commissioners have had constructed a fac- 
simile of the famous palace of the Inca Perca, the ruins of 
which standnearthe city of Quito, and will exhibitit attheFair. 

The French government has consented that plaster casts 
be made for the World's Fair of the numerous art treasures 
in the Trocadero, Paris. The Exposition authorities will 
bear the expense, which will be something above $ 25,000. 
The collection will be a very fine one and will occupy a 
conspicuous place in the Fine Arts building. After the Fair, 
the collection will be placed in the projected Chicago Mu- 
seum, where, it is believed, it will prove of great benefit to 
American artists and of much interest to visitors. 

A. B. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, etc., etc. 



Bicarbolic Acid quart 2/- 

Rectified Beozoline ,, 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide ... lb. 4/- 
Ammonia .. ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked box from 1/ to 5/- each 

Pocket corked box from2/- 

Corkedbox for Museums 24/- doz. 

— — and glazed, splendid 

make... 36/- ,, 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of diffe- 
rent sizes 1/6- 
Pin box, with 1,000 pins 3/- 

Sea Compass . from 2/- to 50/- 
Collecting bottles with large 
openiug. from. 6 d. 

Boucard's tin collecting box, with 

iwo partitions 2/- 

Straight Scissors from. 2/- 

Curved ,, ... ... ... ,, 2/- 

Taxidermist Knives ,, 1/6 

Long Forceps „ 3/- 

Small ., „ 1/- 

Insects' Nippers „ 1/6 

Sieve ,, 2/- 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs... ,, 2/- 

Diffger ,, 2/-et4 - 

Folding ditto , 6/- 

Insect Pins, English, French 

(>r German ... from 1/6 per 1000 
All other utensils for Naturalistes can 
the Naturalists' Agency. 



bteel Pinsforsetting Butterfl.4/- per 1000 

Setting Boards 1 to 2/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 
Sweeping and water Nets ,, 2/6 

Gork in Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, 1/- to 5- 

Hammers ... ,, 1/6 to 5/- 

Naphthaline ,, 4/-per lb. 

Botanical grey paper ... ,, 6/-ream 
Folding Umbrella for collec- 
- ting Insects ... ... ,, 10/- 

Steel Perforator for making 

holes in eggs ... ,, 1/- 

Cutting Pliers ... ... ,, 2/- 

Flat... , ,, 2/- 

Arsenical Soap ,,2/ per lb 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ,, l/-doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto „ 4/-gross 

Flax ,, 6d.perlb 

Cotton wadding, per sheet.... „ 6d. 
Fishing rods with accessories ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collect, shells, etc. ,, 40/- 
Taxidermist's case,containing 

1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 

1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 

1 Hammer, 1 pair of For- 
ceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 

etc. Complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle, from 1/- 

be had at a short notice, by ordering at 







STANDS, NEW 


STYLE 




No. 


1. For Humming birds and Small birds 


• •• 


... 


at 20s per hundred 


)i 


2. ,, Small birds u 


p to Tanagers ... 


, . 


• . . 


,, z4S ,, 


si 


3. ,, Taoagers up 

4. ,, Magpies up 


to Magpies 

;o Crows or Small Hawks 


... 


,, 28s ,, 
, , o2s ,, 


ii 


5. ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls 


... 


,, 40s ,, 






ARTIFICIAL EYES. 






Black 


Coloured 




Corn 


, Cornered 
3re and veined 




per gross. 
N«. 1 to 4 6d 


Is 6d 


per doz 

No.. 4 to 


pairs. per doz. pairs. 
6 3s 6d 4s 6d 




" 5 " 8 8d 


2s 6d 


, , 


7 „ 


8 5s Od 6s Od 




" 9 ,, 10 Is Od 


4s Od 


5 , 


9 


6s Od 8s Od 




,, 11 2s Od 


5s 6d 


, > 


10 


7s Od 9s Od 




12 2s 3d 


7s Od 


; , 


11 


8s Od 10s 0d 




,, 13 2s 6d 


10s Od 


] » 


12 


. 9s Od lis Od 




14 3s Od 


doz. of pairs 
Is 6d 


, , 


13 


10s Od 13s Od 




,, 15 3s 6d 


2s 6d 


> 5 


14 


lis Od 13s Od 




16 4s Od 


2s 6d 


«J 


15 


13s Od 15s Od 




17 8s Od 


3s Od 




Lar 


ger size can be made 




18 12s Od 


4s Od 






to order. 



N° 1 to 4 are good for Humming Birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

N° 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. N° 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

N° 11 to 12 Pheasants, etc. N° 13 to Hawks, Owls, Herons, etc. 

Ethnological Specimens and Curious from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New-Guinea, 
Mexico, Central America, etc., etc., at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. 
Fifty years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 speci- 
mens at 5 s. each. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & C ., 

Katttraltetô aaîr JFeatljer iBercljcmts, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDOiN, W.G., ENGLAND 



Messrs BOUCARD, POTTIER, aadO., offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Birds, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacese and Arachnidse in spirit; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused; Curious of all sorts; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier and C ,, who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts o't the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, oO.OOO of species Coleoptera and Lepidoptera , 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water, and Marine Shells, a large number of specks; Reptiles andFishes 
in spirit; Crustacea, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 223, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

fTA large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
" For Prices, etc., apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which noue have 
been added since tbe last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especially Colonials and old German States ; Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes ; Old unused English and Colonials ; .Old Works on Stamps ; 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight. 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo : the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi-detached 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigia consists of three floors, with 
fifteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Tea of the rooms are full south, facing 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more rooms' on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n° 25, the smallest, are actually let unfur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n° 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about £ 400 per annum. 

All applications to be made at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. (England), 
where photographies of the Villas can be seen. 



The Bumming Bird. 73 

A complete list up to date of the Humming-birds 
found in Columbia, with descriptions of several 
supposed new species. 

By A. Boucard. 
Order TROCHILI, Boucard. Gat. Av. 1876. 



1. Trochilus colibris, L. Syst. Nat. 1766, t. I, p. 191. 

Volcan de Ghiriqui, Veragua, Columbia. 

2. Selasphorus scintilla, GouldMon. Troch., vol. Ill, p. 138. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

3. Selasphorus ardens, Salv. P. Z. S., 1870, p. 209. 

Veragua, Columbia. 
4\ Selasphorus torridus, Salv. P. Z. S., 1870, p. 208. 
Volcan de Chiriqui, Columbia. 

5. Acestrura mulsanti, Bourc. Ann. Sc. Phys., Lyoo, 1842, 

t. V, p. 342. — Acestrura decorata, Gould. P. Z. S., 
1860, p. 309. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

6. Acestrura heliodori, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 275. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

7. Myrtis fanny, Less. Ann. Sc. Nat., 1838, t. IX, p. 170. 

Buenaventura, Colombia. 

8. Dorycha bryanthje, Lawr. Ann. N.-Y. Lye. Nat. Hist. 1887, 

vol. VIII, p. 483. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

9. Calliplox mitchelli, Bourc. P. Z. S., 1847, p. 47. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

10. Lophornis adorabilis, Salv. P. Z. S., 1870, p. 207. 

Chiriqui, Columbia. 

11. Lophornis verreauxi, Bourc, Rev. Zool. 1853, p. 193. 

Bogota Colombia. 

12. Lophornis stictolophus, Salv and Elliot, Ibis. 1873, 

p. 280. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
13.*Lophornisdelattrii, Less. Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 19. 
Veragua, Panama and Bogota, Columbia. 

j 



74 The Humming Bird. 

14. Gouldia popelairii, Du Bus. Esq. Ornith., 1845, pi. VI. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

15. Gouldia gonversi, Bourc. and Muls. Ana. Sc.Agr., Lyon, 

1846, p. 313. 

Veragua and Bogota, Columbia. 

16. Klais guimeti, Reich. Aufz., der Colib., 1853, p. 13. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

17. Klais mebriti, Lawr. Ann., N. -Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 1860, 

vol. Ill, p. 110. 

Veragua and Panama, Columbia. 

48*. ANTHOGEPHALAFLORiGEPS,Cab.Mus. Hein, 1860, t. Ill, p. 72. 

Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

49. Migroghera albocoronata, Lawr. Ann. N.-Y. Lvc. Nat 
Hist., 1855, vol. II, p. 137. 

Veragua, Columbia. 
20. Chrysolampis moschitus, L. Syst. Nat. 1776, vol. I, p. 192. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

21*. Metallura williamii, Bourc. and bel. Rev. Zool., 1846, 
p. 308. 

Popayan, Columbia. 

22. Metallura smaragdinigollis, d'Orb. and Lafr. Syn. Av., 

t. II, p. 31. 

North Columbia. 

23. Metallura tyrianthina, Lodd. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 6. 

Bogota Columbia. 

24. Avocettinus eurypterus, Lodd. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 7. 

Popayan and Bogota, Columbia. 

25. Adelomyia melanogenys, Fras. P. Z. S., 1840, p. 18. — 

Adelomyia cervina, Gould. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1872, t. X, p. 453. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

26. Chalgostigma heteropogon, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1829, 

p 355. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

27. Eupogonus herrani, Del. and Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1846, p.309. 

Pasto, Columbia. 

28. Oxypogon guerini, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 7. — Oxy- 

pogon stuebeli, Meyer. Mad. Zeitsch. ges. Ornith. 1884, 
vol. I, p. 204. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

29. Oxypogon GYANOLAEMus,Salv. and Godm. Ibis, 1880, p. 172. 

Sierra-Nevada of Santa-Marta, Columbia. 



The Humming Bird. 75 

30. Oxypogon lindeni, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 253. 

Columbia? 

31. Rampiiomigron microrhynchum, Boiss. Rev. Zool. 1839, 

p. 354. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

32*. Ramphomicron dorsale, Salv. and Godm. Ibis, 1880, 
p. 172. 

Sierra-Nevada of Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

33. Lesbia eucharis, Bourc. Rev. Zool. ,1848, p. 274. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

34. Lesbia gouldi, Lodd. P. Z. S., 1832, p. 7. 

Popayan and Bogota, Columbia. 

35. Lesbia yictorle, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr.,Lyon, 

1846, t. IX, p. 312. 
Bogota, Columbia. 
36*. ZoDALiAGLYCERiA,Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 252. 
Popayan, Columbia. 

37. Gyanolesbia mogoa, Del. and Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1846, 

p. 311. 

Antioquia and Popayan, Columbia. 

38. Gyanolesbia gorgo, Reich. Aufz der Col., p. 8-24. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

39. Cyanolesbia gœlestis, Gould. Int. Troch., p. 102. 

Popayan, Columbia. 

40*. Neolesbia nerkhorni, Berl. Beisch. eines. Newen. Colib. 
Zeift. fur Ornith, 1887, p. 178. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
41. Thalurianafannle, Bourc. and Del. Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 3 10. 

Quindiu and Popayan, Columbia. 
-i2.THALURANiACOLUMBiGA,Bourc.andMuls.Rev.Zool.,1843,p.2. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
42 Ms. Thalurania nigrofasciata, Gould. P. Z. S., 1846, p. 89. 

Andes and Bogota, Columbia. 

43. Heliodoxa jagula, Gould. P. Z. S., 1849, p. 96. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

44. Heliodoxa berlepsghi, n. sp. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

Male. — Crown of the head, throat and breast glittering 
metallic green with golden reflections. UppBrside dark green 
passing to shining green on rump, aid golden-green on uppar- 
tail-co verts. Median rectrices steel-blue, margined with g^eanis h 



76 The Hum mini) Bird. 

bronze, lateral steel-blue. Abdomen, flanks, and undertail- 
coverts golden-green. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 5 in. Wings, 3. Tail, 2 \. Gulmen, §-. 

Female. — Upperside shining green with golden tinge on 
head and neck. Median rectrices bronze-green passing to bluish- 
black at tips, lateral bluish-black tipped white. Underside white, 
each feather tipped with golden-green. Wings dark brown. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 4 fin. Wings, 2f. Tail, 2. Gulmen, |. 

Young male. — Upper and underside golden-green with 
sides of throat rufous. 

This species is closely allied to H. Jamesoni, but it is much 
brighter on flanks, the crown is totally metallic, the bill is 
shorter, and the female has not the rufous abdomen of H. Jame- 
soni. 

I collected my specimens at Naranjo, and on the Volcan of 
Irazu, Costa-Rica; but I have also some specimens from Vera- 
gua, Columbia. I have the great pleasure to dedicate this fine 
new species to count von Berlepsch, the celebrated German 
Ornithologist. 

45. Heliodoxa. leadbeateri, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 102. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

46. Heliotrypha exortis, Fras., P. Z. S., 1840, p. 14. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

47. Heliotrypha barrali, Muls. and Verr. Ann. Soc. Lin., 

Lyon, 1868, vol. XVII, p. 106. 
Antioquia and Bogota, Columbia. 

48. Heliotrypha spegiosa, Salv. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1891, p. 376. 
Bogota ? Columbia. 

49. Heliotrypha simoni, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Spot on forehead luminous golden-green. Upper- 
side shining green with bronze reflections. Median rectrices 
bronze-green, lateral and outermost ones steel-blue. Throat 
luminous pale golden-green, very brillant, sides of throat very 
dark green appearing almost black. Breast, abdomen and flanks 
shining green. Undertail-co verts gray with green tips. Wings 
bluish-purple. Bill black. 

Total length, 4 § in. Wings, 2 % Tail, % Oilmen, \ 

It is closely allied to H. speciosa; but the colour of throat is 
quite distinct. I compared my specimens with that type, now in 
the British Museum. 

I have the pleasure of naming it after my friend, Mr K. Si- 
mon, the well known Entomologist, and an enthusiastic collector 
of Humming-birds. 



The Hamming Bird. 77 

50. Heliaxgelus clariss.e, Long. Rev. Zool., 1841, p. 306. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

51. Heliaxgelus mavors, Gould. P. Z. S. f 1848, p. 12. 

Postachuela, Columbia. 

52. Heliangelus rotschildi, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside, including tail, lustrous purple, with a 
brillant spot on forehead. Outermost rectrices slightly tipped 
with grayish-buff. Throat luminous coppery-gold with reddish 
reflexions, sides of throat silky-black. Upper part of breast gray- 
ish-buff. Lower part of breast and abdomen dark gray washed 
with bronzy-green. Sides of breast and flanks purple. Under- 
tail-coverts buffy- Avhite with a greenish line in centre of each 
feather. A white spot behind the eye. Underside of tail shining 
bluish-purple. Wings purplish- brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 3 | in. Wings, 2 i Tail, 1 1. Culmen, jf. 

Female. — Unknown. 

This magnificent species is quite distinct from all the others 
by its general purple colour, and the peculiar colour of its 
throat. 

I have great pleasure to dedicate it to the Hon. Lionel Wal- 
ter de Rothschild, who, duringthe last few years, reg-ardless of 
time and expenses, has formed at Trixg a very fine Zoological 
Museum, which he intends to open to the public in a few days. 
I hope that many other wealthy persons will follow such a 
good and philanthropic example. 

53. Agl.eactis cupripexxis, Bourc. and. Muls. Ann. Soc. 

Agr., Lyon, 1848, t. VI, p. 46. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

54. Oreopyra leugaspis, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, 

p. 264. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

55. Oreopyra calol.ema, Salv. P. Z. S., 1864, p. 584. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

56. Panterpe ixsigxis, Cab and Hein. Mus. Hein., 1860. 

t. Ill, p. 43. 

Volcan de Chiriqui, Columbia. 

57. Clytol.ema rubixoides, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. 

Agr., Lyon, 1846, p. 322. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

58*. Clytol.ema ceryixigularis, Salv. Ann. and Mag. Xat. 
Hist., 1891, p. 377. 

Columbia ? 



78 The Bumming Bird. 

59. Clytol^ma flatescens, Lodd. P.Z.S., 1832, p. 7. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

60. JoImmk luminosa, Elliot. Ibis., 1878, p. 188. 

Bogota ? Columbia. 

61. Eriognemis vestita, Long. Rev. Zool., 1838, p. 114. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

62*. Eriognemis ventralis, Salv. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 
1891, p. 378. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

63. Eriognemis gupreiventris, Fras. P.Z.S., 1848, p. 15. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

64. Eriognemis albogularis, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside shining green, most brillant on upper- 
tail-coverts. Tail steel-blue. Throat pure snow white. Breast, 
upper part of abdomen, and flanks shining green. Lower part 
of abdomen metallic-golden. Tarsal tufts puru white. Undertail- 
coverts shining blue. Wings purplish-brown. Bill and feet 
black. 

Total length, 3 fin. Wings, 2 | Tail, 1^ Culmen, £ 

Female. — Unknown. 

This new species is allied to E. cupreiventris, but easily 
distinguishable by the colour of its throat. 

Unique in my Collection. 

65*. Eriognemis simplex, Gould. P.Z.S, 1849, p. 96. 

Bogota Columbia. 
66. Eriognemis dyselius, Elliot. Ibis, 1873, p. 294. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
67*. Eriognemis ingultus, Elliot. Auk., 1889, p. 209. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
68*. Eriognemis aurea, Meyer. Auk., 1890, vol. VII, p. 315. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

69. Eriognemis ghrysorama, Elliot. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1874, p. 375. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

70. Eriocnemis mosquer^:, Bourc. and Del. Rev. Zool., 1846, 

p. 306. 

Bogota, Pasto, Columbia. 
71*. Eriocnemis isaagsoni, Parz. Rev. Zool., 1845, p. 95. 
Columbia. 

72. Eriocnemis alin,e, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Agr. Lyon., 1842, 
p. 343. 

Bogota, Columbia. 



The Humming Itird. 79 

73. Erebenna derbiana. Delat. and Bourc. Kev. Zool., 1846, 

p. 306. 

Popayan, Columbia, 

74. Threptria aureli^, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr., 

Lyon, 1846, p. 315. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

75. Steganura underwoodi, Less. Troch.,1831, p/105. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

76. Chlorostilbon chrysogaster,* Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, 

p. 101. 

Chlorostilbon hœberlini, Cab. and Heine. Mus. Hein., 
t. Ill, p. 48. 

Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

77. Chlorostilbon inexpegtata, Berl. Ornith. Centralbl., 1879, 

p. 63. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

78. Chlorostilbon spegiosa, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside dark olive-green. Tail steel-blue. Wings 
purplish-brown. Underside including undertail-coverts shining 
olive-green. Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black 
tip. 

Total length, 3 ~ in. Wings, 2. Tail, 1 f. Culmen, ,|-. 

Female. — Unknown. 

The coloration of this species is unique among the Chloros- 
tilbon. 

79. Chlorostilbon pumilus, Gould. Ann. and Mag. N.-H., 

1872, t. IX, p. 195. 

Chlorostilbon comptus, Berlepsch, Ibis, 1887, p. 296. 
Medellin and Popayan, Columbia. 

80. Chlorostilbon angustipennis, Fraz. P.Z.S., 1840, p. 18. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

81. Prasitis atala, Less. Hist. Nat. Troch., 1831, p. 118. 

Valencia, Columbia. 

82. Prasitis melanorhynchus, Gould. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 308. 

Antioquia, Columbia. 

83. Prasitis assimiles, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N.-Y., t. VII, p. 292. 

Veragua and Colon, Columbia. 

84. Panychlora alicle, Bourc. and Muls. Rev. Zool., 1848, 

p. 274. 

Bogota, Columbia. 



80 The Humming Bird. 

85*. Panychlora migans, Salv. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891, 
p. 375. 

Colombia? 
86. Panychlora poortmani, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 2. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
87*. Panychlora russata, Salv. and Godm. Ibis, 1881, p. 597. 

Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

88. Panychlora euchloris, Reich. Aufz. der Colib., 1853, 

p. 7-23. — Panychlora poortmani major, Berl. J. fur. 
Ornith., 1884, p. 313. 
Bogota, Columbia. 

89. Panychlora stenura, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein, t. Ill, 

p. 50. 
Ocana, Columbia. 

90. Juliamyia typica, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 255. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

91*. Juliamyia panamensis, Berl. Journ. fur Ornith., 1884, 
p. 313. 

Panama, Columbia. 

92. Cyanophaia cgeruleigularis, Gould. P. Z. S., 1860, p. 163. 

Veragua, Panama, Columbia. 

93. Cyanophaia goudoti, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 100. 

Bogota, Colombia. 

94* Cyanophaia luminosa, Lawr. Ann. Lye. N.-Y., t. VII, 
p. 458. 
Baranquilla and Cartagena, Columbia. 

95. Damophila amabilis, Gould. P. Z. S., 1851, p. 115. — 

Polyerata decofa, Salv. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1891, 
p. 394. 

Veragua and Bogota, Columbia. 

96. Hylogharis guianensis, Boucard. Hum. -Bird., 189i,vol. I, 

p. 52. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

I have just received one female specimen from Columbia, 
which I refer to this species. 

97. Eugephala grayi, Delatand Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1846, p. 307. 

Popayan, Columbia. 
98*. Timolia lerghi, Muls. Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 23. 

Columbia. 

99. Amazilia fuscicaudata, Fras. P. Z. S., 1840, p. 17. — 

A?nazilia riefferi, Bourc. Ann. Se. Phys., Lyon, t. IV, 

p. 45. 
Bogota, Columbia. 



The Humming Bird. 81 

100*. Amazilia castaneiventris, Gould. P. Z. S., 1856, p. 150. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
101*. Amazilia layvrencei, Elliot. Auk., 1889, p. 209-210. 

Columbia? 

102. Amazilia viridigaster, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 105. — 

Amazilia viridiventris, Reich. Troch. Enum., p. 4, 
pi. 699. 
Bogota, Columbia. 

103. AMAzilia iodura, Sauc. M. S. Reich. Aufz. der Colib., 1853, 

p. 8. 
Bogota, Columbia. 
104*. Amazilia lucida, Elliot. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1877, 
p. 404, 

Bogota, Columbia. 

105. Amazilia EDWARDi,Delat. and Bourc. Rev. Zool.,1846 ; p. 305. 

Veragua, Panama, Columbia. 

106. Amazilia niveiventris, Gould. P. Z. S., 1850, p. 164. 

Veragua, Panama, Columbia. 

107. Eupherusaegregia, Sclat. and Salv. P. Z. S., 1868, p. 389. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

108. Callipharus nigriventris, Lawr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. 

Phil., 1867, p. 232. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

109. Elvira crtonura, Gould. P. Z. S., 1850, p. 162. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

110. Saucerotia sophle, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr. 

Lyon, 1846, t. IX, p. 318. — Saucerottia toarsze- 
wiczi, Cab. and Hein, Mus.Hein.t. Ill, p. 38. 

Santa-Marta, Valencia and Baranquilla, Columbia. 

This species is the truc S. sophice. That from Costa- 
Rica must take the mame of. S. hoffmanni^ Cab. and 
Hein 

111. Saucerottia saugerottei, Del. and Bourc. Rev. Zool., 

1843, p. 100. 

Caly, Columbia. 

112. Saucerottia chanterons, Bourc. Rev. Zool, 1843, p. 100. 

Hague, Columbia. 

113. Saucerottia nunezi, n. sp. 

Habitat. — Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside black with purplish reflections. Upper- 
tail-coverts purplish, each feather margined with grayish- 
green. Tail dark steel-blue. Wings bluish-purple. Throat 
shining dark purple, each feather with a white band above the 



82 The Hamming Bird. 

purple giving a scaly appearance to that part. Abdomen and 
flanks purplish margined with gray A patch on each side of 
flanks; margined with gray : Vent and tarsal tufts, pure white. 
Undertail coverts dark brownish-green margined with white. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3 | in. Wings, 2 Tail, 1 |.Culmen,|. 

Female. — Unknown. 

I have two specimens exactly alike. It is quite easy to dis- 
tinguish it from all the other species, in consequence of its par- 
ticular colour. I dedicate it to Don Raphael Nunez, the actual 
President of Columbia. 

114. Uranomitra francos, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr., 

Lyon, 4846, t. IX, p. 234. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

115. Uranomitra golumbiana, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Head and sides of neck metallic green. Upperside 
golden-green. Median rectrices-bronze, lateral purplish-bronze 
with a wide subterminal brownish-black bar. Throat, centre 
of abdomen, anal region, and undertail-coverts white. Flanks 
golden-green. Wings purple-brown. Maxilla black. Mandible 
flesh colour with black tip. 

Total length, 3 1 in. Wings, 2g-, Tail, 1 |. Culmen, \ • 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green passing to reddish-gol- 
den on rump and uppertail-coverts. Tail bronze, lateral bronze 
with a subterminal brownish black bar and gray tips. Throat, 
centre of abdomen, lower part of vent, aud undertail-coverts 
white. Sides of neck and breast shining-green. Flanks golden- 
green. Bill and size like the male. 

This species is closely allied to U. niveipectus from which it 
can be easily distinguished by the color of mandible. 

116. Uranomitra milleri, Bourc. P. Z. S., 1847, p. 43. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

117. Agyrtria terpna, Hein. Journ. fur. Ornith., 1863, p. 184. 

Bogota, Columbia. 
118*. Agyrtria apigalis, Gould. Int. Troch., 1861, p. 154. 

Columbia. 
119. Agyrtria cceruleiceps, Gould, P. Z. S., 1860, p. 307. 

Columbia ? 

Having studied with much care, the unique type of this 
species, in the British Museum. I have come to the conclusion 
that it is only a young male of Clirysuroma josephinœ. 



The Humming Bird. 83 

120. Chrysuronia iENONELONGiROSTRis, Berlepsch. Krit Web., 

1888, p. 20. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

121. Chrysuronia elicit, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr., 

Lyon, 1846, t. IX, p. 314. 

Veragua, Columbia. 
422. Polytmusthaumantias, L. Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. I, p. 489. 
Bogota, Columbia. 

123. Doleromya fallax, Bourc. Ann. Se. Phys., Lyon, 1843, 

t. VI, p. 44. 

Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

124. PlEETHORNIS PANAMENSIS, il. Sp. 

Panama and Veragua, Columbia. 

Male. — Head brownish-black. Upperside golden-green pas- 
sing to golden-rufous on rump and uppertail-coverts, each 
leather margined with brownish-black, the rufous of undertail- 
coverts very apparent. Tail bronze at base, then black with 
deep buff tips on lateral and outermost rectrices, tips of median 
white. Wings purplish brown Gular stripe deep buff margi- 
ned with brownish-black and passing to grayish white on 
breast. Stripe over the eye and line from end of maxilla passing 
under the eyes and ear-coverts deep buif. Ear coverts black. 
Sides of throat, breast and upper part of abdomen and flanks, 
bronzy-gray, passing to whitish in the centre of abdomen. 
Lower part of abdomen flanks and undertail-co verts buff'. 
Maxilla black. Mandible flesh colour with black tip. 
Total length, 5 -J in. Wings, 2 g- Tail, 3. Culmen, 1 ~ 
I discovered this species at Panama, January 1877. I have 
also some specimens collected at AguaDulce, Veragua. 

125. Ph.ethornis LONGiROSTRis, Less and Del. Echo du Monde 

Savant, 1843, p. 1070. 

Panama, Columbia. 

126. Ph.ethornis consobrinus, Bourc. M. S. Reich. Aufz. der. 

Col., 1853, p. 14. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

127. Ph.ethornis syrmatophorus, Gould. Contr. Ornitli., 1851 , 

p. 139. — Phcethornis colambianus , Boucard, Hum. 
Bird, 1891, vol. I, p. 17. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

128. Ph.ethornis anthophilus. Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, 

p. 71. 

Bogota, Columbia. 



84 The Humming Bird. 

129. Ph^thornis hispidus, Gould. P.Z.S., 1846, p. 90. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

130. Toxateuches emille, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Aqt., 

Lyon, 1846, p. 17. 

Veragua, Bogota, Columbia. 

131. Anisoterus pretrii, Less, and Del. Rev. Zool., 1839, 

p. 20. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

132. Anisoterus augusti. Bourc. Ann. Se. Phys., Lyon, 1847, 

vol. I, p. 623. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

133. Eremita griseigularis, Gould. P.Z.S., 1851, p. 115. 

Bogota, Columbia^ 

134. Eremita striigularis, Gould. Mon. Troch,, vol. I, 

p. 37. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

135. Eremita adolphi, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. I, p. 35. 

Veragua, and Panama, Columbia. 

136. Eutoxeres aquila, Bourc. P. Z. S., 1847, p. 42. — Euto- 

xeres salvini, Gould. Ann. and. Nat. Hist., 1888, t. I, 
p. 456. 

Veragua and Bogota, Columbia. 

137. Androdon ^quatorialis, Gould. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 

1863, p. 247. 

Antioquia, Columbia. 

138. Threnetes gervinigauda, Gould. P.Z.S., 1854, p. 109. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

139. Threnetes ruckeri, Bourc. P.Z.S., 1847, p. 146. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

140. Glaucis ^slea, Lawr. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., 1867, 

p. 232. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

141. Chalybura buffoni, Less. Troch., 1831, p, 34. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

142. Chalybura ^eneicauda, Lawr. Proceed. Acad. Nat. Sc. 

Phil., 1865, p. 38. 

Valencia, Columbia. 

143. Chalybura c^eruleiventris, Reich. Aufz. der Co lib., 

1853, p. 10. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

144. Chalybura melanorhoa, Salv. P.Z.S., 1864, p. 585 

Veragua, Columbia. 



The Humming Bird. S."> 

145. Chalyburaisaurje, Gould. P.Z.S., 18G1, p. 199. 

Veragua, Columbia. 
145\Chalybura urochrysea, Gould. P.Z.S., 1861, p. 198. 

Panama, Columbia. 

4 47. Lampornis violicauda, Buff. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
t. 1Y, p. 55. — Lampornis nigricollis^ Vieill. Nouv. 

Diet. Hist. Nat., 4817,vol., VII, p. 349. 
Bogota, Columbia. 
448. Lampornis hendersoni, Cory Auk., 1887, t. IV. p. 177. 

Old Providence Isl, Columbia. 
149. Lampornis yeraguensis, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. II, 
p. 76. 
Veragua and Panama, Columbia. 
170. Florisuga mellivora, L. Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. I, p. 193. 
Bogota. Columbia. 

451. Melanotroghilus fuscus, Pr. Max. Reis. Braz., Vol. I, 

p. 366. 

Bogota. Columbia. 

452. La fresnaya flavicaudata, Fraz. P. Z. S., 4840, p. 48. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

453. La fresnaya cinereo-rufa, Boucard. Hum. -Bird., 1894, 

vol. I, p. 25. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

154. La fresnaya gayi, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Sci Phys. et 

Nat. Lyon., 1846, t. IX, p. 325. 

Antioquia, Columbia. 

155. Petasophora gyanotis, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 104. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

156. Petasophora cabanisi, Lawr. Ann. Lye. Nat. Hist. N.-Y., 

t. IX, p. 426. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

157. Petasophora anais, Less. Troch., 1831, p. 146. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

158. Petasophora corruscans, Gould. P. Z. S., 1846, p. 44. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

159. Petasophora rubrigularis, Elliot. Ibis., 1876, p. 405. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

168. Petasophora delphinje, Less. Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 44. 

Veragua aod Bogota, Columbia. 

161. Heliothrix auritus, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, vol. I, 
p. 493. 

Bogota, Columbia. 



86 The Humming Bird. 

162. Heliothrix barroti, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1843, p. 72. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

163. Heliothrix violifrons, Gould. Int. Troch., 1861, p. 122. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

164. Schistes geffroyi, Bourc. and. Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr., 

Lyon, 1843, t. IV, p. 37. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

165. Sjspiopterus lazulus, Vieill. Tabl. Eocycl., part* II, 

p. 557. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

166. S^epiopterus PHAiNOPEPLUs, Salv. and Godm. Ibis., 1879, 

p. 202. 

Sierra-Neveda of Santa-Marta, Columbia. 

167. S^piopterus hemileucurus, Licht. Preiz. Verz. Mex. 

Thier., 1853, n° 33. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

168. Campylopteruscuvieri. Del. and Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1845, 

p. 315. 

Veragua and Panama, Columbia. 

169. Hemistephania ludovicle, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. 

Agr., Lyon, 1847, p. 136. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

170. Hemistephania veraguensis, Salv. P. Z. S., lSô^p. 154. 

Veragua, Columbia. 

171. Hemistephania johannje, Bourc. P. Z. S., 1847, p. 45. — 

Doryfera ev-phrosinoe p, Muls. and Verr. Ann. Soc. 
Linn., Lyon, 1870-71, t. XXVIII, p. 319. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

172. Heliomaster longirostris, Vieill. Ois. Dor., 1802, t. I, 

p. 107. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

173. Heliomaster pallidiceps, Gould. P. Z. S., 1871, p. 504. 

Veragua and Panama, Columbia. 

174. Pterophanes temminckii, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

175. Docimastes ensiferus, Boiss. Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 354. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

176. Bourcieria prunelli, Bourc. and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agri., 

Lyon, 1843, p. 36. — Bourcieria assimilis, Elliot. 
Ibis, 1876, p. 56. 

177. Bourcieria purpurea, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, p. 256. 

Bogota, Columbia. 



7 he Humming Bird. 87 

178. Bourcieria wilsoni, Delat. and Bourc. Rev ZooL, 1846, 

p. 303. 

Juntas, Columbia. 

179. Cœligena golumbiana, Elliot. Ibis, 187G, p. 57. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

180. Homophania torquata, Boiss. Rev. ZooL, 1840, p. 6. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

181. Homophania lawrexcei, n. sp. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

Male. — Crown metallic dark-green. Upperside dark bronzy- 
green, black in certain lights. Uppertail-coverts shining greea. 
Median rectrices, bronze-green, lateral pale-buff with broad 
bronze-green tips. Wings purplish. Throat and sides of breast 
metallic dark green, most brillant. Breast pure white. Abdomen, 
and flanks dark bronzy-green, almost black. Undertail-coverts 
shining green, with base of feathers pale buff. Bill black. Feet 
flesh colour with black nails. 

Total length, 4 \. in. Wing, 2 f. Tail, 2. Culmen, 1 §. 

It comes close to H. insectivora, but can easily be distin- 
guished from that species by the colour of its retrices. 

I dedicate this magnificent species to Mr Lawrence, the cele- 
brated American Ornithologist. 

182. Eudosia trayiesi, Muls and Verr. Ann. Soc. Linn., Lyon, 

1866, p. 25. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

183. Hypochrysia bonapartei, Boiss. Rev. ZooL, 1840, p. 6. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

184. Hypochrysia helianthea, Less. Rev. ZooL, 1838, p, 314. 

Bogota, Columbia. 

1&5. Calligenia lutetle, Delat. and Bourc. Rev. ZooL, 1846, 
p. 307. 

Volcan Puracé, Popayan and Bosota, Colombia. 

In all 186 species, and probably many more will be found, 
when all the valleys and mountains of this wonderful country 
will be thoroughly explored. 

I do not think that any other country in America will ever sur- 
pass it. 

I possess all the species except those marked thus : * 

A. B. 



88 The Humming Bird. 

CHICAGO EXPOSITION 



More than one thousand men are now at work on the 
mammoth Manufactures building for the world's Fair. The 
force was recently doubled by order of the Exposition autho- 
rities, who concluded that the contractor was not making 
as rapid progress as was desirable. The authorities are deter- 
mined that all of the buildings shall be completed in time for 
dedication in October, and the public may be assured that this 
will be done. The total number of workmen at Jackson Park 
now exceeds 7.000. It will probably be increased to 10,000 or 
more. 

A group of Garibs from the Lesser Antilles, descendants of 
the cannibal race discovered by Columbus on his second 
voyage, will be at the World's Fair, engaged in making baskets 
and in other native industries. 

« We were overwhelmed with the magnitude of the prepara- 
tions for the World's Fair. Yes, it is on a much grander scale 
than was the world's fair in Paris. We must admit it * * * Of 
course, I cannot give anything like definite figures, but the com- 
mercial display alone which France wil make will not fall short 
of s 20,000,000 in value. We will have over here an exhibit of 
everything the country of France produces. » These are the 
words of baron Alfred de Vialar, one of the three special French 
commissioners, who recently visited Chicago to arrange for 
the erection of the French building at the Fair. 

The American Ostrich Company has sent to Chicago for 
exhibition at the World's Fair thirty birds from its ostrich 
farm at Fall Brook, San-Diego county, California. The ostriches 
have been sent on thus early in order that they may become 
thoroughly acclimated by the time the Fair opens and appear 
at their best. 

It is reported that King Alexander of Servia has decided to 
visit the World's Fair next year. He is sixteen years old and 
son of the much talked of ex-King Milan and ex-Queen Natalie. 

Again the cable has announced that Emperor William of 
Germany has decided to visit the World's Fair at Chicago next 
year. This time the Allgemine Zeitung, a leading paper of 
Munich, furnishes the information, and claims that it is 
authentic. 

Yacht clubs and yacht owners, both on the lakes and 
seacoast, are to be invited to be represented at Chicago by their 
boats during the World's Fair. The invitations are to be offi- 
cial, and will be accompanied by detailed information concer- 
ning the depth of water in the various canals, the size of locks, 
etc. It is believed that several hundred yachts will accept this 
invitation. 



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or German ... from 1/6 per 1000 
All other utensils for Naturalistes can 
the Naturalists' Agency. 



steel Pinsforsetting Butterfl.4/- per 1000 



1 to 2/- each 
from 1/6 to 5/- 
,. 2/6 
,, 3/- doz. 

,, i/- to ;>- 

„ 1/6 to 5/- 
,, 4/-per lb. 
6/- re am 



10/- 



Setting Boards 

Butterfly Nets complete 

Sweeping and water Nets 

Cork in Sheets 

Magnifying Glasses ... , 

Hammers 

Naphthaline ... ... ,. 

Botanical grey paper ... ,, 

Folding Umbrella for collec- 
ting Insects ... ... , 

Steel Perforator for making 
holes in eggs ... ,, 1/- 

Cutting Pliers ... ... ,, 2/- 

Flat... „ , 2/- 

Arsenical Soap.. ... ,,2/ per lb 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ,, l/-doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto , 4/-gross 

Flax ;, 6d.perlb 

Cotton wadding, per sheet.... ,, 6d. 

Fishing rods with accessories ,, 2/- 

Dredge for collect, shells, etc. ,, 40/- 

Taxidermist's case,coutaining 
1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 
1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 
1 Hammer, 1 pair of For- 
ceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 
etc. Complete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptying with handle, from 1/- 

be had dt a short notice, by ordering at 



STANDS, NEW STYLE. 

No. 1. For Humming birds and Small birds 

„ 2. ,, Small birds up to Tanagers ... 

,,3. ,, Tanagers up to Magpies 

,,4. ,, Magpies up to Crows or Small Hawks 

,, 5. ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls ... 

ARTIFICIAL EYES. 



at 20s per hundred 
24s 
28s 
32s 
40s 



No. 



Black 


Coloured 


per gross. 
1 to 4 '6d 




is 6d 


o " 8 8d 




2s 6d 


9 „ 10 Is Od 




4s Od 


11 2s Od 




5s 6d 


12 2s 3d 




7s Od 


13 2s 6d 




10s Od 


14 3s Od 


do: 


:. of pairs 
Is 6d 


15 3s 6d 




2s 6d 


16 4s Od 




2s 6d 


17 8s Od 




3s Od 


18 12s Od 




4s Od 



Cornered 
per doz. pairs 



No. 4 to 6 

7 

10 

;; ii 

i\ 12 

„ 13 

„ 14 

15 



3s 6d 
Od 



OS 

6s 

7s 
8s 
9s 

10s 
lis 



Od 
Od 
Od 
Od 

Od 

Od 



Cornered 
and veined 
per doz. pairs. 
4s 6d 
6s Od 
8s Od 
9s 
10s 
lis 



Od 
Od 
Od 



13s 
13s 
13s Od 15s 

Larger size can be made 
to order. 



Od 
Od 
Od 



N° 1 to 4 are good for Humming Birds and others up to the size of Tanagers. 

N° 5 to 8 Tanagers to Magpies. N° 9 to 10 Magpies to Gulls. 

No U to 12 Pheasants, etc. No 13 to Hawks. Owls, Herons, etc. 

Ethnological Specimens and Curious from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New-Guinea, 
Mexico, Central America, etc., etc., at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. 
Fifty years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 speci- 
mens at 5 s. each. 



LIST OF BIRD SKINS AND INSECTS FOR SALE 

AT NATURALISTS' AGENCY 

225, High. Holborn, London, W. C. 
WHOLESALE PRICE (for «ash only) 



11 


10 


11 


20 


1 1 


25 


11 


8 




4 


!to 5 


h 


■7 


1 1 


1 




24 


h 


4 


to 


10 




4 



Yellow Bird of Paradise, at 20 sliiJ. each 
Red „ . „ 

Rifle Bird 

Long Tail Epimaque. . 

Prince Regent 

Kiug Bird of Paradise 
Paradise Bird various, 2 to 
Selected White Osprey 

skins ( short). .... 
Pale red (short) ,, 
Long white Osprey. . ,, 24 ,,perdoz 

Grey Heron. 4 ,, each 

Impeyan Pheasant . . 5 

Jungle Cocks 

Small Bustard -3 ,, ,, 

Long Tail Trogan .... 16 to 20 

Short „ „ 4 ,, „ 

Large Jacamar . . 4 ,. ,, 

Small ditto 1 „ ,. 

Metallic Blue Merle . . . . 2 ,, „ 

Long Tail ditto 2 ., 

Large Sea Gull ...... 1 shilling each 

Large and Medium Sea 

Swallows . 1 ,, ., 

Minuta 2 ., . . 

Red Partridge. ..... 2 ., ,. 

California Quail. . . . . 1 ,, ,. 

Sand Grouse 1 ,, ,, 

Ptarmigan . 1 ,, ., 

Gelinotte Tails ..... 2 ,, hundred 

Large Pitta 2 ,, each 

«Jay. ..... 1 ,, 

Woodpeckers sixpence ,, 

Metallic Starlings. . . . fourpence ,. 
Black and White Starl. . fourpence ,, 

Red Tanagers 1 shilling ,, 

Orange ,, ninepence ,. 

Beetles various, all colurs and sizes, fro 



Black Velvet with golden, orange 

rump eighteen pence. 

With criui son rump,. 2 shillings each 
Large Bee Eaters . . eighteen pence ,. 

Hoopers 1 shilling , 

Scops eighten pence .. 

Medium Owls. .... 1 shilling .. 

Large ditto 2 ,, „ 

Hawks sixpence each 

Coloured Finches ... 1 shilliug ,, 
Blue Creepers . ... . ten pence ,, 
Green ,, ..... sixpence ,, 

Swallows threepence ,, 

Cock of the Rock. . . . 4 shillings ,. 

Iudiau Crow 3 ,, ,, 

Alpine Crow 2 ,, ,, 

Manakins various. . . sixpence to one shilling 

Fly Catchers ...... threepence. 

Sparrows two pence ,, 

Titmouse sixpence ,, 

Large Birds various. . from sixp. ,, 

Medium ,,, ,, . . fromfourp- ',, 

Small ,, ,, . . fr. two pen.., 

Swan Skin flat .... 1 shilling ,, 

Red Macaw ,,..... 2 ,, ,,' 

Heron Necks „ .... 2 ,, ,. 

King Fisher , 1 ,, ,, 

Blue Jays ,, .... sixpence ,, 

Grebes ,, .... 1 shilling ,, 

Cock Feathers 

Humm. Birds var. males, from sixpence each. 

— — females two pence. 

Long Tail ditto males, from 1 shilling 
Blue Long Tail ditto . ,, 2 ,, ,, 

Fire Tail ditto ,, 20 ,, ,, 

Blue Opale Butterflies fr. three pence. 
Butterf. various . . from, three pence, 
m 4 shillings per thousand. 



JUST ARRIVED 

One fine stuffed specimen of Polar bear, one Troglodytes gorilla female, with 
skeleton, several specimens of Propithecus coronatus, cocquereli; Lemur rufus, and 
many other species; Argusianus grayi ; Semioptera gouldi ; Paradisea augusta-vic- 
toriœ, and maay other species of Paradise birds ; Calyptomena whiteheadi ; Cha- 
mœleon verrucosus ; Hippocephalus armatus ; Manticora herculeana, and Sicheli; 
Morpho yodarti and octavia, and many other rare species of Mammal and Bird- 
skins, Reptiles, Insects, etc., etc. 



tu«|<. i'all ii^LsKii/, vue ue L,ute, o, lout». 



jigiKs*- 



V@ Vol. II., N°10.] 



OCTOBER 1892. 



PRICE SIXPENCE. 




®fo[ gumromj 




A MO? 



T mTTT V 



SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND. INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



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SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS 

Whole Page, 40 s. Half-Page, 22 s. Quarter-Page, 13 s. 

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Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holborn, London, \Y. C. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & C ., 

Waturaltets aufr JFeatljer iïterctyatitô, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND 



Messrs BOUCARD, POTTIER aad Co offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Birds, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustaceee and Arachnidae in spirit; Ethnological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins aud Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused ; Curious of all sorts ; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc. , etc. , etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier and C°, who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts ot the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000of species Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water, and Marine Shells, a large number of species ; Reptiles and Fishes 
in spirit; Crustaceae, dried and in spirit; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collect! )n of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

; FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, etc., apply to Naturalists 1 Agency, 225, High Holsorn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especially Colonials and old German States ; Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes ; Old unused English and Colonials ; Old Works on Stamps ; 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight, 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO 

The celebrated Winter Rftsort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo : the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi-detached 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigiz consists of three floors, with 
fifteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of the rooms are full south, facing 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens aud two more rooms on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigiaaxid Villa Rondo n° 25, the smallest, are actually let unfur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo n° 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about £ 400 per annum. 

All applications to be made at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. (England), 
where photographies of the Villas can be seen. 



The Humming liird. 89 

CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 



Christopher Colonus, not Columbus, although I shall con- 
tinue to call him so, as being universally known under that 
name, was born in Arbizolo, a village near Savona, large 
town belonging to Genoa, and well known by all tourists 
going from the Riviera to Genoa or to Turin. His father was a 
fisherman. Peter Bezarus Colonus, his countryman, gives 
unquestionable proofs of his mean pedigree, saying amongst 
other things : that the Common Wealth of Genoa -refused to 
receive the great legacy, ivhich Colonus left them in his will; 
because they thought it a derogation to their honour being, so 
great a Republic, to take anything of bequest from a fisherman's 
son. Yet His Majesty of Gastille thought otherwise, not only 
enriching him with wealth, and a fair revenue for his dis- 
covery of America; but also raised him to great honour, 
ennobling him, the first of his family, with Dignities, Titles, 
and Escutcheon, which ranked him in place among his prime 
Nobility. 

Columbus spent his youth near the sea, where he studied 
the winds, considering their natures, the quarters whence 
they rose, especially with the setting of the current from the 
Allantica to the Mediterranea. The Western winds, which 
often as well as the Eastern ones, blow several days from 
the great Ocean gave him hints that there might be another 
World, and new places to be discovered beyond. He also 
spent much time in the emendations of charts and maps. At 
that time, the Portuguese had got the start in navigation 
from, all others, and were busy to find a passage by South 
Africa to the East Indies, and Columbus sailed with them, 
soon after his return, Columbus settled in the island of Ma- 
dera, where an accident happened, which Francis Lopez de 
Gome sa relates thus : « The Master of a ship, whose name 
and country lies buried in oblivion ; but which belonged 
either to Spain or Portugal, was surprised by a tremendous 
tempest from the East, which hurried him through dreadful 
waves, where at last he found himself engaged upon a wes- 
tern coast altogether unknown. The storm ceasing, without 
making further discoveries, he picked his way homeward, 
at last landing in the haven of Madera. All his remaining 
crew, but three and himself, with hardship want, and the 
long voyage, having died, and himself dangerously ill was 
carried into the house of Columbus, where lying on his 
death-bed, he bequeathed to him his maps, journals, and 
other observations of this unfortunate voyage. » 



90 The Humming Bird. 

Columbus, being by these papers, more confirmed than 
ever in his opinion of a new world in the West, declared 
what he really believed to the Republic of Genoa ; but they 
looked upon him as a vain and idle fellow; yet (Columbus 
full of his great pro,ect,thus flighted and scornfully rejected, 
addressed himself to the King of Portugal, where they 
wearied him, spending long time with dilatory answers to 
no effect, the opinion of a whole court of expert navigators 
having cast his declaration out as a chimera or mere fancy. 
Soon after, Columbus sent his brother to England to move 
the business to King Henry the Seventh, he being taken pri- 
soner by the way, which prevented him to arrive in time to 
the English Court. For meanwhile, Ferdinando and Isabella, 
Kings of Castille, having finished the war with the Moors, 
had furnished him out for the expedition, which he effected 
by the favour of Alfonso Mendotio and Alfonso Quintavilia, 
both great Ministers of State under Ferdinand and Isabel, 
and obtained so much, at last, that he was sent with a hun- 
dred and twenty soldiers, besides seamen, in two ships and 
one pinnace. Thus supplied, he set sail from Cadiz upon the 
King's account, the fourth of August 1492, and first reached 
the Canary islands, and from thence steering southwest, the 
wind in thirty three days scarce varying one point ; but 
although the weather blew so constant, yet the seamen 
changed their mind, and stormed quite contrary crying, that 
Colombus was guilty of all their deaths, « for, said they, after 
they had lost sight of the Canaries so many days, nothing- 
appearing but sea and sky. « Who can hope for any success 
or happy conclusion of so desperate a. voyage, so rashly under- 
taken and so full of eminent danger. » Yet Columbus bore 
bravely up and weathered all their exclamations, although 
they threatened no less than his murder. At last, articling 
they came to this agrément. That if after sailing forwards 
three days more, no land was discovered, they should return. 
But about two o'clock the next night, Columbus saw a 
glimmering like fire in the sky and in the morning found 
himself close aboard a most pleasant coast, where landing 
with twelve men, he erected a cross cut out of a tree. Thence 
lies ailed over to Cuba where the sea was so rough that he 
was forced to stand off, fearing rocks and shallow water. 
Soon after, he got to the northward of the island Hayti 
which he called Hispaniola. Here his best ship was bulged 
upon a rock on which they had all perished, had it not been 
flat on the top, so that the soldiers and the whole crew of 
seamen were saved by the other two vessels. 

The inhabitants stark naked seeing these strangers, fled 
to the woods ; but the Spaniards overtaking a woman, they 
entertained her with sweetmeats and wine, and putting her 
on, a white shirt, sent her again to the rest of the natives, 



The Humming Bird, 91 

where returned, she told what good entertainment she had 
had to her companions; whereupon several of the Islanders 
came aboard of the vessels in boats made of one piece of 
wood, where I hey bartered gold for beads, pieces of glass, 
knives, shells and other trilles. The King of Guacanarilla 
gave testimony of peculiar inclination to the Spaniards, hel- 
ping them to save up the remaining goods of the wreck, and 
informed them that some rivers flowing from the tops of 
high mountains washed down the gold amongst the sand, 
notwisthtanding a strange prophecy had been told to these 
Islanders, namely : that bearded men out of remote countries 
should destroy their Gods, take their land, and massacre their 
children. He also told them what made them fly and betake 
them to their heels at their arrival, because they were often- 
times surprised by the Cannibals, who snatched up all they 
could lay hold on : their boys and stripplings they gelded, 
cooping and cramming them up, as we our capons, for 
feast ; the young and well grown men, they chopped to 
pieces, salted and barrelled up. Young women they pre- 
served for breed, and old ones they made slaves. 

These Cannibals were so terrible to the inhabitants of Hayti, 
that a thousand dared not venture to engage against ten of 
them , hut would run every way dispersed like flocks of 
sheep before the wolf. 

Lastly their King permitted the Spaniards to build a lodge 
wherein thirty or forty of them might shelter ; but indeed, 
so taking possession, in right, of the King of Spain. 

Meanwhile, Columbus returned in safety to Spain, and was 
received with great joy, King Ferdinand making him Ad- 
miral of the Sea, and sending his brother Bartholomew^ Go- 
vernor to Hayti. The gold, parrots, aloes, yucca, and other 
products of the island were looked upon with great delight 
and admiration, but two of the natives being naked, with 
gold rings through their nose and ears, ornaments with them 
of high esteem, and signifying their no mean quality, the 
people old and young came in throngs to wonder at, never 
weary of gazing upon them* and so ended the first voyage 
of Columbus, resulting in the discovery of America. 

In September 1493, Columbus undertook his second voyage 
and discovered the Caivibean Islands, some of which he cal- 
led Dominica, Guadalupe, Monseratto Redondo, San-Martin, 
Santa-Cruz, San-Juan. Jamaica and Cuba. He returned to 
Spain in March 1495. Early in 1495, he sailed for the third 
time, and discovered Paria. t!ie actual Para, and Cumana. 

On the ninth of May 1504, he sailed from Spain for the 
fourth time, and discovered the Islands of Guamixa and 
Veragua, probably what we know now, as the Bocas del Toro. 

Shortly after, he returned to Spain, where tie died the 8 tb 
of May 1506. 



92 The Humming Bird. 

This notice on Christopher Columbus, was extracted from 
O'Gilby's America, published in London, 1671. 

(The Editor.) 

Thence it is exactly four hundred years that America was 
rediscovered by Columbus, and what do we see. That a Con- 
tinent entirely unknown to the Europeans at that time has 
developed in such a wonderful manner that its actual popu- 
lation exceeds one hundred millions of inhabitants, and 
before the end of another century it will probably reach 
several hundred of millions; and what is more extraordinary 
still, is that all the races of manking are represented more 
or less in that grand Continent, and by intermixture between 
themselves are creating several new races of men, quite 
easy to distinguish at once from their original stock, new 
races full of vigour, enterprising, and anxious to show their 
vitality to the old World. 

Honour and glory to the immortal Christopher Columbus, 
who has achieved such a successful discovery, under the gui- 
dance of THE ALMIGHTY ! 

A.B. 



FESTIVITIES AND EXHIBITIONS 

Held in honour of Christopher Columbus, in America, Spain, 

Italy and France. 

His Holiness Pope Leon XIII has sent to the Madrid Exhibi- 
tion, held in honour of Christopher Columbus, the two cele- 
brated Maps belonging to Borgia Museum, and dating from 
the time of the discovery of America* and probably they will 
be sent afterwards to Chicago. It will be the- first time that 
the Scientists and Historians will be able to consult these 
precious and invaluable documents. 

They have been remitted, by order of the Pope, to the 
Honourable Count Chacon, Spanish Ambassador in Roma. 

On one of these maps can be seen the line delineated by 
Pope Alexander VI, to put an end to the recriminations 
between Spain and Portugal. 

The second one is from Diego Ribero. It was published in 
1529 and contains all the parts of the New World, known at 
that time. 

On the first of August, the Santa-Maria, an exact repro- 
duction of the ship which carried Columbus and his followers 
to America, has anchored at Palos, the exact place where 
Christopher Colomb us took his departure. It was escorted 
to Huelva by seven Spanish vessels, two men of war, the 



The Humming Bird. 03 

Hirondelle, the Amphion, and two English torpedo boats. 
Seventeen men of war were then anchored at Huelva. Those 
which remained at Cadix took their places at the mouth 
of the river Huelva and saluted the Santa-Maria , when 
coming out from Palos. 

Flags of all nations could be ^ecn everywhere. It was a 
magnificent sight. The Santa-Maria will be exhibited at 
Chicago. 

On the fourth of August, a magnificent historical retinue 
representing the departure of Christopher Columbus for 
America, took place at Genoa. Flags and draperies where 
abundant in all the principal streets. 

The beginning of the festival was the remittance of the 
Admiral staff to Christopher Colombus, and the taking oath 
of the ship's crew. More than 900 persons in dresses of the 
epoch formed part of the retinue, sailors, soldiers, pages, etc. 
It was a grand affair. 

On the eighth of September, the King and Queen of Italy 
arrived by sea at Genoa. 

On that day, there was a great festival at the theatre. 

On the ninth, Their Majesties visited the exhibition, and in 
the evening the Municipality gave a ball. 

On the tenth, Their Majesties gave a dinner followed by a 
brillant reception. 

On the eleventh, a ball was given at Villa Raggio, Gor- 
nigliano. 

On the twelth, their Majesties visited the principal buil- 
dings and the Chief Commanders of the foreign squadrons 
assisting to the festivals. 

On the seventh of August, there was a commemorative 
festival made in Rome in honour of Christopher Columbus. 
Several catholic Societies with flags and banners have been 
to Pincio Square and deposed crowns round the bust of the 
great Christian Navigator. The Hag of the Society la Romina 
had the following inscription : « Tue Catholic Roma, to 
Christopher Colombus, and was carried at the front of the 
retinue. 

It was a great manifestation. 

The Geographical Congress will take place this year, first 
in Genoa, and from that place the members will sail to 
Spain, so as to reach Huelva on the tweltfh of October, date 
of the celebration of the anniversary of the discovery of 
America. The Honourable Duke of Mandas., the Spanish Am- 
bassador in Paris, has taken under his high patronage the 
expedition of the members of the Congress to Huelva. 



94 The Hamming Bird. 

In the National Library of Paris, there is a special exhibi- 
tion of Maps, Plans and Geographical documents of the 
sixteenth century. It contains maps on which can be seen 
an imaginary continent uniting \merica to India, as supposed 
by Christopher Columbus, In the maritime Maps, which 
have been used by french Navigators, are marked the areas 
of wind by which these intrepid sailors measured their 
course. Their rudimentary procedures, as rough, as their 
imperfect ships, are sure to produce in the mind of visitors a 
deep adm iration for these men, who undertook these voyages 
of discoveries. 

This Exhibition is installed on the first floor of the Library, 
in the geographical Section. It will remain opened to the 
public, until the end of October next. 

On the thirtieth of August last, was launched at Barcelona 
the ship Nina, constructed at the expense of the United- 
States Government for the celebration of the Columbian fes- 
tivals at Chicago. The launching was done with great cere- 
mony. The Bishop of Barcelona has blessed the ship, and 
the American squadron has saluted the launching with the 
national Spanish and American anthems. The ship has 
replied by arboring the Spanish flag. There was an immense 
crowd assisting to the launching, which was very successful. 
It is now on its way to Chicago. 

The inauguration of the Chicago Exposition will be done 
in a wonderful manner. The venerable Marquess of Veragua, 
the direct descendant of Christopher Columbus, to whom has 
been attributed the honour of presiding the Opening of 
the Exposition, not being able to go to Chicago, in conse- 
quence of his old age, will give the signal from his own man- 
sion in Madrid. 

At a fixed hour, in his appartment, he will touch an elec- 
tric knob, which by the submarine cable will transmit the 
current to Chicago, and will put in motion all the machines 
at the Exposition. The effect will be magical. 

Captain Andrews, who, on July 20th last, sot sail alone 
from Atlantic City, New-Jersey, in a small boat only 15 feet, 
long, arrived at Lisbon safely late on Wednesday night. He 
intends to proceed to Huelva in order to attend the Columbus 
celebrations at that port. 

The United Congress of the United-States has just decided 
that the Oficial Opening of the Chicago Exhibition will take 
place, not the twelfth of October, as previously state d, bu 



The Humming Blvd. 95 

tlie 21 th of this year, Christopher Columbus having- set foot 
on American soil, the twelfth of October 1492, of the Julian 
Calendar date, which correspond to the 21 th of October of 
the Gregorian Calendar. 



PROGRAMME 

Of Ceremonies attending the Dedication of the Buildings 

of the World's Columbian Exposition 

October 20, 21, 22, 1892, Chicago, II),. — U. S. A. 

When the Congress of the United-States authorized the 
commemoration of the Four Hundredth anniversary of the 
discovery of America by an International Exposition to be 
held in Chicago during the summer of 1893, it also provided 
that the Exposition buildings should be dedicated on the 
twelfth day of October 1892, with « appropriate ceremonies ». 
Subsequently, by act of Congress, this date was changed 
to October 21 1892. 

Aside from the international interest in this fitting prelude 
to the magnificent picture of the world's progress that will 
be presented in 1893, this dedicatory service will furnish an 
opportunity for the world to behold the extent of the prepa- 
rations which are being made for the Exposition. 

The task of preparing a programme of ceremonies which 
will appropriately herald the greater spectacle commemora- 
ting the discovery, development and progress of the New 
World, has been a work involving great care and the consi- 
deration of many difficulties. The following programme of 
the dedicatory exercices and incidents connected therewith 
is submitted as the result of this thought and purpose : 

The evening of Wednesday. October nineteenth, a grand 
reception will be tendered the President of the Uuited- 
States, his cabinet and other distinguished guests at the Audi- 
torium. After the close of the ceremonies on each of the 
three succeeding evenings, there will be magnificent pyro- 
technic displays. 

THURSDAY, OCTOBER TWENTIETH 

THE CIVIC CELEBRATION 

The first day will witness an imposing procession, indica- 
tive of peace, contentment and prosperity, participated in 
by civic organizations, which will be reviewed by the Presi- 
dent of the United-Stades, his cabinet, the Congress and 
other honored guests. 

In the evening, at Jackson Park, amid myriads of electric 



96 The Humming Bird. 

lights and other displays, a water pageant, « The Procession 
of the Centuries », will move through the beautiful water- 
ways of the Exposition grounds, illustrating with beauty 
and historic accuracy some of the great facts of history con- 
nected with the discovery of America, such as the condition 
of this country prior to the landing of Columbus; striking 
events in the life of the great discoverer; important epochs 
in American history and the world's progress in civilisation. 
The vessels upon which these tableaux will be represented 
vary from 40 to 53 feet in length, modeled after the naval 
architecture of the period represented ; for example, « Colum- 
bus before the Court of Spain », will be represented upon a 
vessel modeled after the lines of the « Santa-Maria ». 

The following subjects will be illustrated : 

1st. Aboriginal Age ; representing the American Indians. 

2d. The Stone Age ; representing the Cliff Dwellers. 

3rd. The Age of Metal ; representing the Aztecs, their 
religious rites, manners and customs. 

4th. Columbus at the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella. 

5th. Departure of Columbus from Palos. 

6th. Discovery of America. 

7th. Columbus before the Court of Ferdinand and Isabella, 
presenting natives, and the strange products of the new 
country. 

8th. English Cavaliers and the settlement of Jamestown. 

9lh. Hendrick Hudson; discovery of the Hudson river; 
Dutch settlement of New-Amsterdam. 

10th. Landing of the Pilgrims, and illustrations of early 
Puritan life. 

11th. Ferdinand de Soto; discovery of the Mississipi. 

12th. The French explorers. Pierre Marquette, Chevalier 
La Salle, and the Northwest. 

13th. Washington and his generals. 

14th. Signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

15th. Union of the colonies ; the thirteen original states; 
the sisterhood of the Great Republic welcoming the terri- 
tories to the constellation of the states. 

16th. « Westward the course of empire takes its way. » 

17th. The genius of invention ; application of steam, etc. 

18th. Electricity and electrical appliances. 

19th. War ; representing valor, sacrifice, power, death, 
devastation. 

20th. Peace ; representing tranquillity, security, prospe- 
rity, happiness. 

21 st. Agriculture. 

22nd. Mining. 

23rd. Science, Art and Literature. 

2 / ith. The Universal brotherhood of man; equal rights,law 
of justice; Liberty enlightening the world. 



1 he Humming Bird. 97 

FRIDAY, OCTOBER TWENTY-FIRST 

DEDICATION DAY 

The National salute at sunrise will inaugurate the cere- 
monies of Dedication Day. The President of the United-States, 
his Cabinet, members of the Supreme Court, members of 
the Senate and House of Representatives , distinguished 
foreign guests and governors of the different States and terri- 
tories with their ofieial staffs, will be escorted by a guard 
of honor composed of troops of the United-States Army, 
detachments of the United-States naval forces, and regiments 
from the various state National Guards, to the Manufactures 
and Liberal Arts building, in which the dedicatory exercises 
will be held. 

At one o'clock in the afternoon in this building, the fol- 
lowing dedicatory programme will be carried out under 
the direction of the Director-General : 

1st. Columbian March. Written for the occasion by Prof. 
John K. Paine. 

2d. Prayer by Bishop Charles H. Fowler, D.D. L.L.D., of 
California. 

3d. Dedicatory Ode. Words by Miss Harriet Moroe, of 
Chicago ; music by G-.W. Chadwick, of Boston. 

■4th. Presentation of the master artists of the Exposition 
and their completed work, by the Chief of Construction. 

oth. Report of the Director-General to the World's Colum- 
bian Commission. 

6lh. Presentation of the buildings for dedication, by the 
President of the World's Columbian Exposition to the Pre- 
sident of the World's Columbian Commission. 

7th. Chorus. « The Heavens are Telling. » — Haydn. 

8lh. Presentation of the buildings for dedication, by the 
President of the World's Columbian Commission to the Pre- 
sident of the United-States. 

9th. Chorus. « In praise of God. » — Beethoven. 

10th. Dedication of the buildings by the President of the 
United States. 

1lth. Hallelujah chorus, from « The Messiah. » — Handel. 

12th. Dedicatory oration, Hon. Wm C.-P. Breckinridge, 
Kentucky. 

13th. « The Star Spangle Banner» and « Hail Columbia », 
with full chorus and orchestral accompaniment. 

14th. Columbian oration, Chauncey M. Depew, New-York. 

15th. National Salute. 

At the close of this programme, a special electric and 
pyrotechnic display will be given, with a repetition of « The 
Procession of the Centuries ». 



98 The Humming Bird. 

SATURDAY, OCTOBER TWENTY-SKCOND 

THE MILITARY CELEBRATION 

A series of military manœuvres and parades will constitute 
the main portion of the day's programme. In the evening 
attractive and appropriate celebrations will be provided, 
followed by a magnificent display of fireworks. 

A number of brillant social entertainments will be given by 
the citizens of Chicago during the three evenings of the dedi- 
cation celebration. 



CHICAGO EXPOSITION 



FRUITS AND FLOWERS AT THE FAIR 

The horticultural display at the Exposition will 
surpass all previous ones, and will be beauti- 
ful beyond description. 

The horticultural display at the World's Fair will be bewil- 
dering in extent and marvelous in beauty. The exhibit will 
possess great scientific and educational value, but to the 
ordinary visitor its ornamental features will be the most 
striking. Indeed, it will play an important part in the adorn- 
ment of the great Imposition. While in almost every part of 
the Exposition grounds may be seen gratifying evidences of. 
the very efficient work of the Horticultural Department, the 
central point of interest will naturally be in the exhibit in 
the Horticultural building. This structure is 998 feet long 
and has an extrême width of 250 feet. Its plan is a central 
pavilion with two end pavilions, each connected with it by 
front and rear curtains, forming two interior courts, each 
88 by 270 feel. Surmounting the central pavilion is a beauti- 
fully proportioned dome, 187 feet in diameter and 113 feet 
high. 

In the south pavilion of the building will be installed the 
viticultural exhibit, embracing all varieties of wine and every- 
thing pertaining to its manufacture. An idea of how complete 
this part of the exhibit will be can be gained from the fact 
that applications fort space have already been received from 
thirty- three foreign countries. From abroad the exhibits of 
France, Germany, Spain and Italy will be especially notable. 
A fine exhibit of Chilean wines and raisins, famed for Iheir 
superior quality, will be made. California will make a splendid 
display, all of the great firms being exhibilors and having 
applied for much more space than can possibly be allowed 



The Humming Blvd. 99 

them. If permission, which has been asked, be given, Senator 
Stanford will exhibit a wine fountain. This, as planned, will 
throw, for two hoars each morning and afternoon, graceful 
streams of wine to the height of 22 feet. 

In the rear curtains of the building will be shown the fruit 
exhibit, which will include all varieties grown in any part of 
the world. As far as it is possible to do so, probably in a 
great majority of cases, fine specimens of the nature! fruit 
will be shown. Otherwise wax models, so perfect in appea- 
rance as to be indistinguishable from the real fruit, will be 
substituted. For this exhibit about 44,000 square feet, or 
more than an entire acre of space, is reserved. A very com- 
plete and splendid exhibit of citrons and other fruits will be 
sent from California, Florida, Mexico and South American 
countries. By means of refrigerators ripe fruits can be sent 
long distances without injury, and after reaching the Fair 
cold storage facilities will be available to keep it in perfect 
condition. 

The exhibit in the inportant line of floriculture will be 
exceptionally extensive, and the preparation of it is far ad- 
vanced. Unless, this were the case the exhibit could not well 
be a success, for time is required for the plants to overcome 
the check received in being transplanted. More than 50>),0l)0 
transplanted shrubs and plants, of many species, are now 
growing in the exposition grounds and the number is rapidly 
increasing. The Department sent out circulars to prominent 
horticulturists and horticultural societies in all parts of the 
world, requesting donations of plants and agreeing to per- 
mit the name and address of the donors to appear in connec- 
tion with such specimens as they might send. The result is 
that thousands of plants, — excellent specimens, too, — have 
been forwarded. Among them are more than 50,00.) rare 
rose plants, which have been donated by firms all the way 
from California to Hungary. 

The floricultural exhibit will not be concentrated in one 
place. In the front curtains of the building wil appear 
the greenhouse and hothouse plants, — a very large variety 
and many rare and beauliful specimens. There, too, will be 
the finest display of orchids ever seen in this country if not 
in the world. One firm alone will spend $ 40,000 on its 
orchid exhibit. At the opening of the Fair, Chief Samuels 
says, there will be a display of 2,000 different varieties of 
orchids, embracing fully 15,000 specimens. Beneath the great 
dome will be the largest tropical plants obtainable, inclu- 
ding Japanese and Chinese bamboos 75 to 80 feet high, palms 
30 to 40 feet high, and tree ferns 15 feet or more in height. 
There will also be a miniature mountain covered with tropical 
plants and in a cave within will be tried the experiments ol 
growing plants by the aid of electric currents, passed 



100 The Humming Bird. 

through the soil, both of which, it is claimed, have been ac- 
complished with remarkable results. 

The two courts of the Horticultural building will be filled 
with orange groves from California aud Florida, respecti- 
vely. In each there will be not less than 160 trees, each 
bearing about 200 bright, ripe oranges. Thus an interesting 
comparison may be made between the oranges of the two 
states as to size and flavor, etc. The courts will also contain 
growing specimens of lemons, limes, bananas, etc. California 
would like to make a much larger display than will be pos- 
sible, and applied for about fifty times as much space as could 
be assigned. It will occupy an acre on Midway Plaisance 
with a citrus exhibit. On the Plaisance too, five acres will 
be devoted to a nursery exhibit, and Wisconsin will show 
there a cranberry marsh. Six acres in front of the Horticul- 
tural building will be devoted to the floricultural exhibit, as 
will also space about many of the larger buildings. 

«The wooded island», or as more properly named, perhaps, 
the flowery island, will be one of the most beautiful and 
attractive spots at the Exposition. It embraces between 
15 and 16 acres, and has been turned over almost enti- 
rely to the Horticultural Department for its exhibits. There, 
literally speaking, will be acres and acres of flowers of 
brightest and most varied hues and pleasing perfume. Little 
groves of trees, clumps of shrubbery and sinuous walks will 
relieve the gorgeous monotony of this floral display. On the 
north end of the island, Japan will build its strange, antique 
temple and surround it with the choicest plants and flowers 
of the island realm of the Mikado. At various turns of the 
winding walks which thread this delightful domain of the 
Hovers, the visitor will encounter artistic little structures of 
the summerhouse description, within which one may seat 
himself and enjoy rest and beauty and perfume. Many of 
these retreats, — 16 or 18 in number, — will have thatched 
roofs and be covered with growing vines, and otherwise orna- 
mented in keeping with their beautiful surroundings. 

In thenorth pavilion of the Horticultural building will be 
a very extensive display of vegetables, canned goods, horti- 
cultural appliances, etc. In the second story of each pavilion, 
will be a restaurant capable of seating about 200, and pro- 
fusely adorned with ferns, flovers and exotic plants. Outside 
will be a number of greenhouses, where visitors may see an 
exceptionally complete collection of tropical vegetation. There 
will also be large auxiliary greenhouses, not open to the 
general public, where plants will be brought to perfect 
exhibit condition, and where plants will be cared for, after 
their beauty season has passed. 

It may be rightly inferred that the Horticultural exhibit 
at the Exposition, will be the most complete and extensive 



The Mumming Bird. 401 

ever made or attempted. It is certain to attract a great deal 
of attention and prove to be of great scientific and educa- 
tional interest. It will have important features not specified 
above, as, for example, a very complete collection of insects, 
both the injurious and the beneficial ones, whose operations 
affect the fruits and other products of the horticulturist. It 
is the intention to have in one place an exhibit of all of the 
species of plants mentionned in the Bible, and in others 
collections of almost equal historical interest. 

Both Chief Samuels, who has general charge of the Horti- 
cultural Department, and Chief Thorp, who looks after the 
floricultural division of the exhibit, have proved themselves 
to be the right men for their respective duties, and it is 
already assured that the display which, with the active and 
generous aid of horticulturists the world over, they will 
furnish, will be long and pleasantly remembered by every 
one who visits tue World's Fair. 



WORLD'S FAIR MUSIC 

It will be the finest which talent, good j udgment, 
and money combined can supply. 

The fact that Theodore Thomas is musical director of the 
World's Columbian Exposition, and that associated with him 
are William L. Tomlins and George H. Wilson, is assurance 
sufficient that music of the highest order, and an excellent 
programme will be provided. The best musical talent of the 
world will be drawn upon ; fine halls will be provided ; and 
something like half a million dollars will be expended to 
make the musical features of the Exposition a success. 
Two of the halls or auditories will cost each S 100,000, 
and $ 175,0 00 has been set apart for an orchestra of 120 
skilled musicians, who will be drilled by Theodore Thomas. 
This orchestra will be the nucleus about which will be for- 
med the grand choruses. 

The Bureau of Music of the Exposition has issued the 
following outline of its plans, from which it will be seen 
that the plans are comprehensive and promise most grati- 
fying results : 

Recognizing the responsibility of his position, the mu- 
sical director groups all intended illustrations around two 
central ideas : 

1. To make a complete showing to the world of musical 
progress in this country in all grades and department from 
the lowest to the highest ; 

2. To bring before the people of the United-States a full 
illustration of music in its highest forms, as exemplified by 
the most enlightened nations of the world. 



102 The Humming Bird. 

In order to carry out this conception of the unexampled 
opportunity now presented, three cooperative conditions are 
indispensable : 

« 4. The hearty support of American musicians, amateurs 
and societies, for par icipation on great festival occasions of 
popular music and for the interpretation of the most advanced 
compositions, American and foreign; 

« 2. The presence at the Exposition of many of the repre- 
sentative musicians of the world, each to conduct perfor- 
mances of his own principal compositions and those of his 
countrymen, all upon a scale of the utmost completeness ; 

« 3. A provision on the part of the Exposition authorities of 
the means necessary, for carrying out these plans in the erec- 
tion of the halls indispensable for successfull performances 
and in the engagement of solo artists, orchestras and bands. 

« Consideration of these three lines of inquiry has taken 
much time, but progress is sufficiently advanced to permit 
the Bureau of Music the following preliminary announce- 
ment : 

«The halls have been officially agreed upon and their cons- 
truction ordered. These will be advantageously situated 
within the Exposition grounds : 

« 1. A Recital Hall, fort quartet, concerts, etc., seating 
500 people ; 

« 2. A Music Hall, with accommodation for 120 players, 
300 singers, and an audience of 2,000; 

« 3. A Festival Hall, for performances upon the largest 
practicable scale with 200 players, 2,000 singers, and audience 
of 7,000. 

« The Music Hall will contain a fine concert organ, and 
in Festival Hall will be placed an organ for chorus support. 

a The appointed Commissioner to Europe who was sent to 
tender the invitation of the Exposition to the most dis- 
tinguished composers has returned with an encouraging 
report, which insures a series of international concerts unpre- 
cedented in point of scope and character. 

<r The invitation of the Bureau to choral societies to co- 
operate because of their love of art and the pride they have 
n the opportunity the Exposition, will afford to show to thes 
iworld the artistic level of the United-States in music ha 
brought many assurances of support. In as much as it would 
be manifestly impossible for the same chorus to take part in 
all choral performances, this work will be divided among 
choral societies of the entire country. 

« The Musical Director assumes that thousands of singers 
and music lovers will visit the Exposition in any case, and that 
they will prefer to appear as contributors, thus conferring an 
importance upon their societies and their homes, not possible 
under any other circumstances. These forces being directed 



The Humming Bird. 103 

and guided, as they must be, in combined effort, the neces- 
sary preparation for their appearance at the Exposition will 
afford intelligent direction to efforts that in some parts of 
the country, are now being wasted for want of a comman- 
ding object of work. 

« The entire range of the performance proposed may be 
seen from the following tentative classification : 

« First — Semi -weekly highgrade orchestral concerts in 
Music Hall. 

« Second — Semi-monthly high grade choral concerts in 
Music Hall. 

« Third — Six series of international concerts, choral and 
orchestral, each consisting of from four to six in Festival Hall 
and in Music Hall. 

« Fourth — Three series of three concerts each of oratorical 
festivals, by united American choral societies in Festival Hall. 

« Fifth— Concerts in Festival Hall under the auspices of 
German singing societies. 

« Sixth— Concerts in Festival Hall under the auspices of 
Swedish singing societies. 

« Seventh — Six series of popular miscellaneous festival con- 
certs by American singers. 

« Eighth — Twelve children's concerts by Sunday-school, 
public school and especially organized children's choruses. 

« Ninth — Chamber music concerts and organ recitals. 

« Tenth — Popular concerts of orchestral music, to be given 
daily in Choral Hall during the six months of the Exposition. 

« To successfully carry on such a series of performances 
as are outlined above, a large corps of musicians will be nee- 
ded, some of whom will be engaged for the entire period of 
the Exposition; others for single and series performances. 

a The complete success which the Musical Director seeks 
can be secured only by the loyal cooperation of individuals 
artists, large and small choral and instrumental societies and 
organized amateurs in general. Such cooperation he erneastly 
asks, and in subsequent papers to be issued by the Bureau, 
details of organization and appearance at the Exposition will 
be given. 

« Regarding the standard of performance to be observed in 
all departments of Exposition Music, the Musical Director 
holds that while co-operation is asked of all grades of attaint- 
ment every musical illustration there produced must be jus- 
tifiable upon artistic principles. That is to say, it must be 
what it honestly purports to be. 

« Theodore Thomas, 
« William L. Tomlins, 

« Approved : « George H. Wilson. 

« George R. Davis, Director General. » 



104 The Humming Bird. 

Baroness Burdett-Coutts, the celebrated philantrophist, who 
is at the head of the philanthropic section of the English 
Women's Department in the World's Fair, according to the 
London press, will cross the Atlantic to attend the Fair, and 
will read an original paper on the subject of women's insti- 
tutions conducted by women. 

Mrs French-Sheldon, the intrepid African traveller, has 
applied for space for exhibiting at the World's Fair the fine 
collection of curious and trophies she has gathered. 

From California is to be exhibited at the World's Fair one 
of the famed huge redwood trees, or Sequoia gigantea. The one 
selected is 300 feet high and more than 30 feet in diameter at 
the base. A specially constructed train will be necessary to 
carry the monster across the continent. It is the intention 
to hollow the base into booths in which will be sold Cali. 
fornia wines, fruits and curiosities made of polished redwood 

It has been explained by Director General Davis and other 
World's Fair officials, who are inclined to favor Sunday 
opening, that it is not the intention or desire that the Fair 
shall be opened on Sundays in the "wide''* way in which it 
will be on week days. On the contrary, they would have the 
machinery stopped, all manufacturing processes at a stand- 
still, and every description of work by employes reduced to a 
minimum. Religious services and choral and other musical 
entertainments could be held in the numerous halls and 
auditoriums which the buildings will contain. The people 
could stroll through the park, viewing its resplendent 
beauties of nature and wonderful achievements of man's 
handiwork ; could enter the buildings to enjoy the work of 
painter and sculptor, and to learn and profit from exhibits 
of innumerable description. Very few employes, comparati- 
vely, would be required to remain on duty on Sunday, and 
those chiefly for watchmen and guards. These would not be 
required to work seven days in the week. To care for the 
thousands of visitors at the Fair on Sunday, would not 
require more persons to work on that day than would be 
necessary were those same thousands to go elsewhere. Had 
it been understood from the beginning that the Sunday ope- 
ning of the Fair would be of the kind indicated, — orderly 
and educational, instead of noisy and demoralizing, — - it is 
believed that the petitions and protests against a Sunday 
Fair would have been far less numerous. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, etc., etc. 

bteel PinsforsettingButterfl. 4/- per 1000 



Bicarbolic Acid quart 2/- 

Rectified Benzoline... . ,, 2/- 
Boucard's Insecticide ... lb. 4/- 
Ammonia .. ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked box from 1/ to 5/- each 

Pocket corked box from2/- 

Coiked box for Museums 24/- doz. 

— — and glazed, splendid 

make... 36/- ; , 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of diffe- 
rent sizes 1/6- 
Pin box, with 1,000 pins 3/- 

Sea Compass . from 2/-to50/- 
Collecting bottles with large 
opening. from. 6 d. 

Boucard's tin collecting box, with 

two partitions 
Straight Scissors.. 
Curved ,, 
Taxidermist Knives .. 

Long Forceps 

Small ., 

Insects' Nippers 

Sieve , 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs. 
Digger ... . . .. 

Folding ditto 

Insect Pins, Eûglish, French 

or German ... from 1/6 per 1000 
All other utensils for Naturalistes can 
the Naturalists' Agency. 



... 2/- 




from. 2/- 




- ., 2/- 




... „ 1/6 




.- Ï, 3/- 




... „ !/- 




... ,, I/o 




... „2/- 




... ■„ 2/- 




... „ 2/-€ 


U 


... ., 6/- 





Setting Boards. 

Butterfly Nets complete 

Sweeping and water Nets 

Cork in Sheets ,, 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, 

Hammers ... ,, 

Naphthaline ... ... ,, 

Botanical grey paper ... ,, 

Folding Umbrella for collec- 
ting Insects ... ... , 

Steel Perforator for making 
hole's in eggs 

Cutting Pliers ... 

Flat... 

Arsenical Soap.. 

Glass Tubes for small insects 
and shells 

Pill boxes for ditto ... 

Flax 

Cotton wadding, per sheet. 

Fishing rods with accessories 

Dredge for collect, shells, etc. 

Taxidermist's case,containing 
1 Pair of Seizors, 2 Knives 
1 Lime, 1 Gmter,2 Pliers, 
1 Hammer, l pair of For- 
ceps, 1 BiMsh, 3 Gimlets, 
etc. Com|»lete from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptyiug with handle, from 1/- 

be had dt a short notice, by ordering at 



1 to 2/- each 
from 1/6 to5/« 
m 2/6 

,, 3/- doz. 
,, 1/- to o- 
„ 1/6 to 5/- 
,, 4/-per lb. 
6/-ream 



10/- 

, V- 
,2/- 

, 2/- 
,,2/ per lb 

l/-doz. 
,, 4/-gross 
,, 6d.perlb 
„ 6d. 

2/- 

40/- 







STANDS, NEW STYLE. 






No. 1. For Humming birds and Small birds 


at^Os per h 


jndred 


,,2. ,, Small birds up to Tanagers ... 


... ... ,, 


24s 


, 


,,3. ,, Tauagers up to Magpies 


... ... ,i 


28s 


? i 


„ 4. ,, Ma 


«pies up to Crows or Small Hawks ... ,, 


32s 


5 1 


,,5. , } Small Hawks to Large Hawks an 


d Owls ... 


40s 


1 > 


s 




ARTIFICIAL EYES. 






Black 


Coloured 


Cornered 


Cornered 
and veined 


per qross. 




per doz. pairs. pet 


• doz. pairs. 


N«. 1 to 


4 6d 


Is 6d 


No. 4 to 6 


3s 6d 


4s 6d 


" 5 " 


8 8d 


2s 6d 


. „ 7 ,< 8 


5s Od 


6s Od 


" 9 ii 


10 Is t)d 


4s Od 


9 


6s Od 


8s Od 


H 


2s Od 


5s 6d 


10 


7s Od 


9s Od 


12 


2s 3d 


7s Od 


11 


8s Od 


10s Od 


13 


2s 6d 


10s Od 
doz. of pairs 


„ 12 


9s Od 


lis Od 


14 


3s Od 


Is 6d 


., 13 


10s Od 


13s Od 


15 


3s 6d 


2s 6d 


14 


lis Od 


13s Od 


., 16 


4s Od 


2s 6d 


15 


13s Od 


15s Od 


17 


8s Od 


3s Od 


Larger 


size can b 


e made < 


,, 18 


12s Od 


4s Od 




to orde 




N° 1 to 4 are good for 


Humming Birds and 


others up to the 


size of Ta 


nagers. 


N° 5 to 8 Tanagers to 


Magpies. 


No 9 to 10 M 


agpies to 


Gulls. 


N° 11 to 12 Pheasants, 


etc. 


No 13 to Hawks, Owls, 


Herons, etc. 



Ethnological Specimens and Curious from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New-Guinea, 
Mexico, Central America, etc., etc., at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. 
Fifty years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most perfect condition. 23 speci- 
mens at 5 s. each. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & C ., 

Naturaliste emir JFeatljer Merchants, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND 



Messrs BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Birds, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacese and Arachnidse in spirit; Ethnological collections from al! parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins aud Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Furriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused; Curious of all sorts; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier and C°, who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts ot the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, t»0,000of species Coleopteraand Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Africa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water and Marine Shells, a large number of species ; Reptiles and Fishes 
in spirit; Crustacese, dried and in spirit ; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 specimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World . 
For Prices, etc., apply to Naturvlists 1 Agency,' 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especially Colonials and old German States; Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes ; Old unused English and Colonials ; Old Works on Stamps ; 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc. 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of equal value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight. 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minute? from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo : the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi-detached 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigia consists of three floors, with 
fifteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of tbe rooms are full south, facing 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with nine rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more rooms on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n° 25, the smallest, are actually let unfur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Roudon 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about £ 400 per annum. 

All applications to be made at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. (Euglaud), 
where photographies of the Villas can be seen. 



The Humming Bird. 10." 

To the venerable MARQUIS OF VERAGUA 

Descendant of the most illustrious 
Don CRISTOBAL DE COLON 

This notice is dedicated. 



By A. BOUCARD 



Is AMERICA the same Continent mentioned by the An- 
cients as ATLANTIS ? 

There are good reasons to believe that such is the case ! 
It America is not the Continent known under that name, 
Geology teaches us that it is very likely a part of it. Deep sea 
soundings effectued in the Atlantic, between the Canary 
Islands and the Antill^e furnish the clearest evidence that 
during the Tertiary period, that portion of the bed of the 
Atlantic, which rises nine thousand feet above the lowest 
depths, and stretches over two thousand miles, from east to 
west, was dry land. 

Platon is the first who mentioned the name of Atlantis in 
two of his works which have reached us. 

Platon, by his mother, was the grand nephew of SOLON, 
the lawgiver of Athens. 

SOLON had learned the existence, and the disappearance of 
the Atlantis by the Egyptian priests of Sais, during his tra- 
vels in Asia, and in Lybia. 

This was about six hundred years before CHRIST. The Sais 
priests communicated to Solon, that in the books kept in 
their temple, it was mentioned that at a time, one Continent 
inhabited by the Atlantes, existed beyond the pillars of 
Hercules. « what we know nowadays as the Strait of 
Gibraltar » . 

The Atlantes once invaded Europa; but were routed by the 
Pelasges. 

It was mentioned also in the said books that shorty 
after, the whole of that Continent disappeared after a tre- 
mendous earthquake, and an overflow of the Sea. Their 
chronological tables gave the date of that frightful cata- 



106 The Humming Bird. 

clysm as having occured nine thousand years before. Thus 
we see that Solon, Platon, and many of the ancient Philo- 
sophers, Historians and Geographs, have admitted the exis- 
tence of the Atlantis. 

This belief dormant during along time, reappeared during 
the Middle Age, when the Greeks, driven away from Cons- 
tantinople, took refuge in Italy. 

Christopher Columbus did believe in it thoroughly, and it 
is very probable that it was with the idea of rediscovering 
what remained of that wonderful Continent, that he under- 
took his celebrated voyages of discoveries. 

During his stay in the Açores, he must have been more 
convinced than ever that he was on the right tract ; as 
these islands, inhabited by the Guanches, must certainly be 
considered as remnants of that famous Continent, and the 
Guanches, as the descendants of I he Atlantes : 

The same can be said of the Antillœ, first discovered by 
Columbus, and inhabited by the Carribs. 

The Guanches and the Carribs possessed the same shaped 
skull, and their languages were both akin to the aboriginal 
tongues of America. 

Therefore if we go back several thousand years before 
the cataclysm, which caused the désagrégation of that 
vast Continent, known by the Ancients as Atlantis, and if 
we take into account all the discoveries which modern 
Geology has made of late, it is very reasonable to suppose 
that America, formed part of the wonderful Atlantis of the 
Ancients. 

It is certain that America is a very old Continent, which 
from immemorial time has been populated by various races 
of men. 

Its first inhabitants were what the Ancients termed Atlantes 
who had intercourse with Europa, Africa and Asia, and 
which remnants are the Guanches of the Açores, the Carribs 
of the Antillae, and probably many other American tribes. 

After the cataclysm, resulting in the disappearance of a 
large part of the Atlantis, all communications between hwat 
remained of these people, and the other Continents ceased 
entirely. 



SECOND EPOCH 

Several thousand years after the cataclysm, the north of 
America was invaded by the Tartarians, the Indians and the 
Chinese, when these countries were so densely inhabited that 
the struggle for life dispersed them in all directions. It is 
reasonable to suppose that this event*took place in time of the 
great Tamerlane, and before. This was easy for them to ac- 



The Humming Bird. 107 

complisli by the Strait of Behring, the only obstacle bet- 
ween lartury and America. 

It is possible also that some Japanese may have been 
stormed on the Pacific Coast at one time or other. 

The voyage just made by Mr Andrews, American publicist, 
from New-York to Huelva, in a boat fourteen feet long, 
shows that it was not such an impossibility for the Pheni- 
cians or other expert Navigators to have done the same. 
M. Andrews started from New-York the 21 th of August 189 w 2 
and arrived at Huelva on the 29 lh of September. He made the 
voyage quite alone. 

Josepli de Acosta tells us : « That in fifteen days time, he 
got with a northerly wind from Canaries to America, and 
his voyage could have been shorter still, if he had dared to 
make use of more sails.» 

From these races intermixed with the natives, it is reaso- 
nable to suppose that many of the tribes of North and South 
America, inhabiting that Continent, at the time of its dis- 
covery, derives. 

I have met with many Chinese, who after two years settle- 
ment in Costa-Rica, had acquired a faciès so like that of the 
Indians, that it was quite impossible to distinguish one from 
the other. Furthermore I met with many genuine Indians 
which could be more easily taken for Chinese than the Chi- 
nese themselves. 

What I say of Chinese can also be applied to the East 
Indians and Tartarians, which I considéras of the same race, 
so it seems that Asia, the mother of all people, may have been 
also the implanter of America, and what could be done 
more easily when we know than thèse parts of Asia have 
been very densely inhabited since the remottest ages. 

According to Miciialon Lithouwer (Enneud. 9, 1. VI, 1,200), 
there is scarce a city in Tartary that boasted less than a 
thousand temples. The great mumber of the Tartars may 
appear by the several people spread far and near over Tar- 
tary. Pliny reckons some of them as Auceletes, Ne-jri, Ge- 
loni, Taussagetes, BuDiNr, Basilides, Nomades Antropophagi, 

HyPERBOREI, ClCIANTHI, ETC., ETC. 

Both the Tartars and American Indians in common with 
the Chinese, are differencied from the other races of men by 
special marks, of a more than the ordinary and natural dis- 
tance between the eyes, which much alter the appearance 
of the face, the plumpness and swelling of their cheeks 
summits above the cheek bone, their middle stature, their 
downy hair upon the chin. 

Alike the Tartars, they differ amongst themselves in their 
customs, yet in several things they agree one with another. 
They bear a great respect to their chiefs. Polygamy is still 
in use among both. They acknowledge the immortality of 
the soul. Both, like Cannibals, eat and sacrifice man's flesh ; 



108 The Humming Bird. 

or, on the contrary, not only detest humane, but all kind of 
flesh. Both worship the Devil. 

In some temples of Virginia were found the horrible ima- 
ges of Ihe Devil OKA. 

The American Indians worshipped the Sun as did the Chi- 
nese and the Egyptians. The Peruvian Incas were called, Son 
of the Sun, as are called also, even now, the EMPERORS 
OF CHINA. 

So was called Ferdinand Cortez, by the Mexicans. 

The ancient characters employed by the Chinese in their 
writing consisted of serpents, that by several wreathes and 
contortion winding signified several things ; others consis- 
ted of agrestic tools belonging to husbandry ; some of fea- 
thers of birds, oysters and worms, roots, herbs, bird-claws, 
turtles, herbs and bird feathers mixed, planets, and 
such like, etc., etc. , and so it is with the American Indians . 
In the Mexican manuscripts which have been preserved 
from destruction, we can clearly see that the same charac- 
ters were employed by the Mexicans. 

In the National Museum of Mexico can be seen two blocks 
of stone, which were first taken from the grand Teocali 
which existed on the site, where now stands the Cathedral 
of Mexico. These stones were first made use of in the buil- 
ding of the first Cathedral, which was razed in 1626. At 
that time, they were put away. These stones formed the 
outlines of the ancient mexican Temple. One is sculptured 
with feathers, the other with snakes. 

Many other stones with similar ligures have been found 
now and then. 

Many more similarities could be traced between them ; but 
enough has been said to show the great analogy existing 
between the American Indians, and the Asiatic populations, 
and it is very reasonable to suppose that Asia has contribu- 
ted largely to the civilisation of the American Indians as found 
by Hernando Gortez and others at the time of the Conquest. 

Hence the Tartariansand Chinese are the first who redisco- 
vered America. 



THIRD EPOCH 

Now we come to a comparatively modern period, thai 
of the travels of Leif, son of Erich the Red, who at the 
beginning of this Century, discovered a rocky and flat coun- 
try, which he called Helluland. Soon after, he discovered 
another wooded country, which he called Markland. Two 
days after, he arrived at the mouth of a river, and ascending 
this river he arrived to a beautiful lake, abounding in fish and 
wild birds. He was so delighted with the country surroun- 



The Humming Bird. 109 

ding that lake that he determined to remain there all the 
winter. To that effect, he had several houses built. It appears 
that the place, then discovered by Leif, is the same where 
the actual Boston stands. This land where he found some 
wild grapes, was called Vinland. 

In the following spring, Leif returned to Groenland. 

TiiORWALD, another son of Erich the Red, came back 
to Vinland the year after, and remained there three years, 
at which time he was killed in an encounter with the natives 
of the country. 

Soon after Thornstein, the third son of Erich the Red 
went also to Vinland. He was accompanied by his wife 
GuDRiD.but he did not remain there, and died soon after his 
return to Groenland. 

His widow married a rich merchant of Iceland named 
TnoRFiNN Harlsefne , and soon after they started with 
three ships and one hundred and sixty men to Vinland. This 
was in 1007. One year after, she gave birth to a son who 
was called Snorre, son of Thorfinn. 

After the death of her second husband, Gudrid went to 
Roma, where she contributed to spread the news of this great 
discovery. In effect we see that in 1112, Erick Upsi was crea- 
ted Bishop of Iceland, Groenland and Vinland, by Pope 
Pascal II. 

Up to 1347, constant communications were kept between 
these three countries ; but, at that time, the cholera having 
reduced the population of Norway, from two millions to three 
hundred thousand inhabitants, the emigration for these coun- 
tries ceased entirely. But the tradition of this land has been 
faithfully kept by the Norwegians . 

Hence, there is not the least doubt that AMERICA, was re- 
discovered a second time by the Vikings or Northmen, about 
four hundred and sixty five years before the discoveries of 
Christopher Columbus. 

But this don't lesson in any way the glory of the great Ge- 
noese Navigator because the discoveries made, firstly by the 
Tartarians and Chinese, and secondly by the sons of Ërick the 
Red were of little consequence for the rest of the AVorld ; 
meanwhile those of Columbus have been and will be of the 
utmost importance to all MANKIND. 

However it is probable that some of the descendants of the 
followers who accompanied the sons of Erick the Red, found 
their way in the interior, reached Mexico, and were the fac- 
tors of great changes in the internal Economy, Civilisation 
and Government of that Country. 



110 The Humming Bird. 

FOURTH EPOCH 

PRINCIPAL EXPEDITIONS TO AMERICA 

By Europeans, since Leiï, son of Erick the Red. 

In the year 1170 of our era, died Owen Guyneth, Prince of 
Wales, leaving several sons who quarelled over his succes- 
sion. 

Amongst them was Madok, a Prince of mild disposition, 
who threw up his share and seeked for new fortunes 
abroad ; whereupon there were many who ventured their 
lives with him. So rigging a small fleet, he sailed westward, 
far beyond IRELAND, where at last he discovered an unknown 
and inhabited country with a temperate climate and a most 
fertile soil. Glad of his success, he returned and spreading 
the fame of this new found land where they might go. 

So many were those willing to accompany him that he 
was able to send forth ten good ships, freighted only with 
men, women and children, and all other materials fit for a 
new plantation. 

Shortly after they landed in Acuzamil, a country in the 
north of America, as Francis Lopez de Gomara believes ; 
because there only, he found some remaining tracts of 
Christianity, a people that worshipped the Gross; but not 
knowing why they did it. The country where MADOK landed 
is perhaps Yucatan. 

1390. According to Matthias Quadius and Antonius 
Maginus, Antonio Zeno, a pratician of Venice, discovered in 
that year what we know as Labrador. It was then inhabited 
by people, who traded with Groenland and Iceland. They 
sowed corn and made beer. Moreover there is a tradition 
that they had some knowledge of the latine tongue and that 
several latine books were found in the library of one their 
kings. 

August 1492. Cristobal Colonus, or Columbus, started 
from Palos (Spain) to the Canaries Islands, and on the 12 lh 
of September discovered Hay Li , one of the islands of the 
Antilke, which he called HISPANIOLA. 

In his subsequent voyages, he discovered many of the 
islands known, as AntUlœ, the Terra ftrma, or what is 
known now as the Isthmus of Panama, including Veragua, 
and the Coast of Paria or Para (1). 

(1) For more details, sec the notice on Ciiiustopuer Columbus, which 
appeared ia the preceding uuuiber of the Mumming Bird. 



The Humming Bird. HI 

May 1497, Americo Vespucci, sont by King Ferdinand of 
Spain, sailed for tlic Canaries, and from there to Paria, 
where lie bartered a great store of gold from the natives, in 
exchange for pins, looking glasses and other trilles. He re- 
turned to Spain in November li ( J8. 

In 1490, he undertook a second voyage and landed in 
some of the Islands inhabited by the Cannibals. In one of 
them, he met some people of high stature with whom he 
had to flghl. 

He bartered a large quantity of pearls with the natives of 
Ihe Islands which he visited. In 1500, he returned to Spain 
and retired to Seoilla, with intent to settle there, but shortly 
after, Emanuel, King of Portugal, sent for him and gave 
him the command of three ships to discover new countries, 
between the Canaries and Africa. 

During this voyage, he got sight of the coast of Brazil and 
discovered the Patagonian Coast and the Strait of Magellan. 

His fourth expedition happened May 10 Ul 4503. He went 
first to Sierra Leone (Africa), but could not land. Three degrees 
beyond the Equator, he discovered an Island two leagues 
long, and one broad, destitute of inhabitants ; his best ship 
of six hundred tons split here against a rock. It was entirely 
lost, but the seamen were saved. 

Three hundred leagues further on, he reached the coast 
of Brazil, and ascended the river Curubabo and built on its 
bank a strong fort in which he left twenty men. He spent 
five months in the building of this fort, after which he 
returned to Lisbon, with one ship laden with Brazil wood. 
The inhabitants of the Gily run to meet aud congratulate 
him for his happy return. 

December 1499. Vincent P.inzon, who had been Com- 
mander of a ship under Columbus, sailed with four vessels 
from Palos and explored about eighteen hundred miles of 
the Brazilian Coast. He returned to Spain in September 1500. 

October 1500. Pedro Alfonso Nino, encouraged by some 
of those that had been with Columbus to the Isles of Pearls, 
rigged out a ship at his expense and sailed for the coast 
of Paria. At Curiana, he bartered an invaluable treasure of 
pearls with the natives, which he carried back to Spain with 
him. but, on his arrival there, he was put to prison and at last 
sent to the Court, where the pearls were declared free prize, 
because Nino had bartered for them at Curiana, contrary 
to the King's orders. 



'o 



1500. Discovery of Labrador by Gaspar Gortebealis, a 
Portuguese gentleman. Some authors think that Sebastian 



H2 The Humming Bird. 

Cabot was the discoverer of this part of America about the 
year 1497. 

What is certain is that the French landed there in 1504 
and called it Nova- Britannia, and built many towns there, 
the principal being Sainte- Marie, Cap-Mars and Brest. 

1504-1510. Explorations of the Darien and part of 
Columbia, by Alfonso Fogeda, Diego Nicuesa, Ancisus and 
Roderico Colmenares. Exploration of Cuba by Alfonso Fogeda. 
He found there a king who was willing to be christened and 
built a church which was consecrated to the Virgin Mary. 

1514. Expedition of Peter Arias to Veragua, Columbia. 
Discovery of the South Sea by Vasco Nunez. 

1514-1519. Discovery of Yucatan, Campeche, Tabasco 
and Vera-Cruz, by Francisco Fernandez, Lobo Caizedo, 
Ghristobal Morantes, Bernardo Igniguez and Juan Grifalva. 

In Yucatan, they found a City whose stone buildings, 
with stately fronts, and high turrets, had a most magnifi- 
cent appearance, which Fernandez called CAIRO. 

They were courteously received and conducted into the 
City, the neatness of whose market places and exactness of 
their streets, they beheld with admiration as also the costly 
stuff garnments both of men and women ; but their won- 
der increased when they beheld many artificial Crosses. 

On the Island of Cozumel, they found fair stone edifices 
intermixed with temples, whose steeples appeared above 
the houses. 

Grifalva being led up to one of these temples by a priest, 
saw many spacious halls full of marble and stone images of 
deformed men and beasts which they religiously worshipped. 

In Tabasco, they visited the chief City Pontenceiana con- 
taining above fifteen hundred houses, all built of stone, 
which besides their turrets and temples presented a most 
pleasant appearance. 

On the Island of Sacrificios, near the actual Vera-Cruz, 
amongst many strange images, there stood a great Lion of 
marble seeming almost decollated with a great gash ; into 
which wound they poured humane blood warm, which was 
received into a stone trough, set for that purpose underneath, 
then the figure of a man carved in alabaster bowing forward 
as if looking into the trough upon the blood. Those which 
were sacrificed were prisoners of war, whom bringing before 
their Idols, they ripping the breast open, whip out the heart 
with which, having smeared the lips of their Idols, they 
throw it into the fire, after which they feasted upon the 
ileshy parts, especially the cheeks. 



The HUmming Bird. 113 

1512. Discovery of Florida by Juan Ponce de Leon. 

It is said that this country was discovered by Sebastien 
CABOT, at the charges of the King of England, about the 
year 1-497. 

1519. This year w.is a remarkable one, as being the one 
during which where ma<le the expeditions of Ferdinand 
Magaglian or Magellane, the discoverer of the Strait of 
Magellan, and that of Ferdinand Cortes, the well known 
Conqueror of Mexico. 

1525. Conquest of Guatemala by Pedro de Alvarado. 

1534. Discovery of Nova-Scotia and Canada by Jacques 
Quartier, for the account of the French King FRANCIS THE 
FIRST. 

1540. Expedition of Diego Guttierez in Nicaragua and in 
Columbia, where he found a very large quantity of gold. 

1541. Expeditions of Pedro Alvarado, Francisco and Gon- 
zalvo Pizarro, and Diego de Almagro. 

Conquest of Peru. 

1545. Expedition of John Ribald in Florida. 

1576-1585. Expeditions of Martini Forbisiier, Francis 
Drake, Thomas Gandisu and John Smith. 

In 1576, Forbisuer sailed for the northern parts of Ame- 
rica ; but in consequence of bad weather was obliged to 
return to England. 

Several months after, he sailed again and reached Iceland ; 
but excepting a few salvages which he brought to London, 
his voyage was of little consequence. 

In 1577, Francis Drake, also fitted by QUEEN ELISABETH, 
sailed from Plymouth by Cape Verde, along the African Coast 
to Brazil, the Plata, the Strait of Magellan, Valparaiso , 
Arica and Lima* Panama and California, returning by 
Timor, Ternate, Java, Ceylon and the Cape of Good-Hope. 
During all this expedition which lasted over three years, he 
enriched himself very much by the taking of many Spanish 
ships, richly laden with gold, silver and pearls. 

To that part of California where he landed he gave the 
name of New-Albion. There he was received exceedingly 
well by the natives, with whom he exchanged presents. 

The inhabitants of that part of America are exceedingly 
hardy, for notwithstanding the cold, the men go naked, but 
the women wear garnments of pleited rushes, which being 



114 The Humming Bird. 

put about their middle, hang down to their ankles. On their 
stomachs hangs the ends of a hairy skin tied together, which 
hanging also over their shoulders cover their hinder parts. 
Each house is surrounded with an earthen wall and all the 
corners thereof being close-stopped, and fires made in the 
midst of them, they are very warm rushes strowed thick 
on the ground, near the walls, serve them of beds. Drake 
was so satisfied with the place and its inhabitants that he 
made his mind to remain there for a while. 

The Indians came to visit him a second time and brought 
him bird's feathers, store of Tobacco, and many other gifts. 
Drake pleased with their kindness, built tents on the brow of 
the hill, on the top of which the Indians stood that brought 
the presents, whilst one of them with a loud voice made 
a long discourse which he had no sooner ended, but every one 
laid down his bow and arrows and walked unarmed down 
to the tents to proffer their gifts; their wives staying on the 
top, pinched their cheeks, and made sad lamentations, 
which Drake supposed was because they made offerings 
there; whereupon he also caused all his men to kneel down 
and say their prayers, which made the Indians to look very 
earnestly upon them, and to return the presents which the 
day before they had received from him. 

The rumour of these strangers arrival spreading all over 
the country, made the inhabitants far and near desirous to 
see them, the KING himself sending Ambassadors to Drake to 
inform him that he was on his way coming to see him. 

Being assured that he should be welcome, he came with a 
retinue of about twelve thousand men. Before walked one 
of a gigantic size carrying a costly scepter, on which, by 
three long chains made of bones, hung a great and a small 
crown made of feathers; next followed the KING himself in 
a suit of coney skins ; then came a great con fused company of 
people, each of them carrying a present; whereupon Drake 
putting his men in good order, marched to meet the KING, 
at which the Mace-bearer made a long preamble and when 
he had done, danced to the tune of a song, which he sung 
himself; then the KlLNG and his whole retinue also fell a 
singing and dancing so long, till being weary, the KING went 
to Drake and humbly desired of him that he would accept 
of the Realm, assuring him that all the people should be 
under his obedience, which said, he put the fore mentioned 
Grown on his head, and hanging three double chains about 
his neck called him HIOLE ; whereupon Drake took possession 
of the country in QUEEN ELIZABETH'S name. 

Just before heaving the country, Drake caused a pillar to 
be set in the ground with a silver plate on the same with an 
inscription mentioning the day of his arrival, name and 
Arms of QUEEN ELIZABETH, and free delivering of that 



The Humming IJ'n'd. H5 

Realm to him by the Indians, lie also nailed a sixpence with 
the Queen's effigie on the plate, under which ho had his own 
name engraved. 

1584-1585. Discovery of Virginia by sir Walter Raw- 
LEiGii, who called it so in honour of lhe Virgin Queen Elisa- 
beth. 

1598. Expedition by Jacques Mauu and Simon de Cordes, 
to la Plata and the Strait of Magellan. 

1600. Expedition of Oliver van Noord to the Strait of 
Magellan and Chili, 

1609. Expedition of Henry Hudson. Discovery of New- 
Netherland, or New-York, where several dutch merchants 
having obtained letters patents in 1624, granted to them by 
the States in the Hague, established themselves there. 

1614. Expedition of George van Spilbergen to the Strait 
of Magellan, Valparaiso and Peru. 

3615. Expedition of William Gorneliszon and Jacob Le- 

MAIRE . 

Discovery of Cape Horn. 

1623. Expedition of Jacques l'Hermite and Ghen Huigo 
Schapenuam to Tierra delFuego, Peru, Callao, Guayaquil and 
Acapulco. 

1643. Expedition of Henry Brewer to the Strait of 
Magellan and Chili. 

Many other expeditions w r ere sent by Spain, Portugal, 
France, England and Holland, which resulted in discoveries 
of interior lands and various Islands ; but these mentioned 
heretofore were amongst the principal ones. 



116 The Humming Bird. 

POPULATION OF AMERICA 

Before and after its discovery 
By CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS 

According to the last censi made, the actual population of 
America stands as follows : 

Russian Colonies in America, about. ... 50 000 

British Colonies in America 10 000 000 

French Colonies in America 50 000 

Dutch Colonies in America. 50 000 

Spanish Colonies in America 4 000 000 

United-States of America 6°2 000 000 

Mexico 11 500 000 

Central America, Guatemala, Honduras, Sal- 
vador, Nicaragua and Costa-Rica .... 3 200 000 

Hayti. . 1 200 000 

Colombia 4 000 000 

Venezuela °2 300 000 

Brazil 14 000 000 

Argentine Republic 4 100 000 

Paraguay 400 000 

Uruguay 700 000 

Chili 21 800 000 

Bolivia 2 300 ( 00 

Peru °2 700 000 

Ecuador 1 300 000 

Millions 126 650 000 

We may say in round numbers one hundred and twenty six 
millions of inhabitants. If we take into account what Bartiio- 
lomcus of Las Casas write to CHARLES THE FIFTH : « that the 
Spaniards, in few years, on the Islands Cuba, Hispanic la, 
in Honduras and New-Spain, destroyed above 2.600. OOO men 
and the slaughter that was made afterwards in Peru, 
Brazil, Rio de la Plata and other places, far exceeding the 
above mentioned number», we can suppose that the American 
Continent was well populated at the time of its discovery, 
and 1 don't think that one hundred millions, as the number of 
inhabitants at that time, is exageraled. 

This is another proof of the ancientness of AMERICA, and 
the resume of all what precedes is that I am fully convinced 
that AMERICA is a very old Continent, which probably formed 
part of the ATLANTIS, or at least was frequented and popu- 
lated by the ATLANTES. 



The Humming Bird. 117 

Whon the cataclysm took place, which destroyed that part 
of it, known as Atlantis, America was separated from the rest 
of the World and entirely forgotten. 

Only a vague nolion of its existence remained, as explai- 
ned at the beginning of this notice. 

Thousand of years passed, during which it may have been 
very partially visited by Phenicians, Carthaginians, Egyp- 
tians and others, including Negroes, but without any results 
of consequence to the rest of the World. 

I mention the Negroes, because we have indiscutable proofs 
that there were Negroes in America at the time of its disco- 
very by Columbus. 

In 1510, we hear that Vasquez Nunez, a follower of An- 
cisus, rebelled against the latter and made himself Governor 
of Uraba, or New-Andalusia, in which place he remained for 
several years. In 1515 or whereabout, hearing of the expedition 
of Pedro Arias, and fearing to be deposed, he made several 
expeditions in the interior. 

In the montainous territory Quarequan supposed to contain 
rich gold mines, he was met valiantly by the natives armed 
with bows, arows and clubs ; but frightened by the noise of 
their musquets they fled in all directions, but not before the 
fall of six hundred of them by the hands of the Spaniards and 
of their dogs trained for that purpose. Soon after, coming 
into the palace of the King of that region, he found there the 
King's brother dressed up in woman's apparel, which so incen- 
sed Nunez that he set the dogs upon him and his attendants, 
which were all torn to pieces. Amongst the slain were 
several Negroes. 

Another instance of Negroes inhabiting certain parts of 
America, is in the finding of Negroes heads, in clay of very 
good make, which are in my possession now. These were 
found several years ago in the immediate vicinity of Gua- 
temala, « Central America », in old graves of an epoch 
anterior to the discovery of America. 

About the same time, the Tartars, Chinese and Japanese 
found their way to America by the Strait of Behring, and 
by way of Alaska, penetrated to California, New-Mexico, 
Mexico, Central-America and Peru, subduing to their autho- 
rity many of the ancient inhabitants, and must be considered 
as the founders of the Mexican and Peruvian Dynasties. It is 
quite possible that some sort of communications existed during 
many years between America and Tartary, China and Japan. 

If we consider that the Chinese claim to have discovered 
the mariner's compass in the year 2634 before CHRIST, my 
reasons will appear, I hope, very plausible. 

By that means, it was easy for them as for the Japanese 
to reach America, by Kamschatka and the Strait of Behring , 
as also to explore and colonize the Pacifie Coast. 



118 The Humming Bird. 

Later, on in 1007, came the discoveries of Groenland, Mark- 
land and Vinland by the Wilting s or Norvegians. Although 
communications between these places ceased entirely in 1347, 
it is reasonable to suppose that the followers of Leif, and other 
Norvegian Navigators, are the founders of these wonderful 
Cities discovered in Colorado and in New-Mexico, and that 
later on they reached Mexico, where their influence must 
have been felt. 

Lastly appears the actual Hero of America, the noble and 
Illustrious CRISTOBAL DE COLON, Genoese by birth, Spanish. 
by choice, and American by fate, Discoverer of America under 
the guidance of the ALMIGHTY. 

The time had come for that discovery to be made, and 
Columbus was the Selected One. 

Immediately after, Spain, Portugal, France, England, and 
Holland sent expeditions of discoveries, and the result was 
the division of this mighty Continent between them. To 
these countries, must be added Russia and the Republic of 
Hayti, representative of Africa. 

The resume of all what precedes, and also from my own 
observations during the many years that I have travelled 
in that Continent, is that AMERICA is a very old Continent, 
probably cotemporary with ours, and that its Fauna, 
including Man, as well as its Flora, is peculiar to it, and 
consequently American, such being the name by which 
we actually know that Continent. 

It was populated by the Atlantes, the Egyptians and many 
other nations of that epoch, thence by the Tartarians and 
the Chinese, and lastly by the Europeans. 

There is also another possibility : « that the emigration 
did not take place from Asia to America, but the reverse, 
and that the Tartarians and Chinese are the descendants of 
the Americans ». The one is just as possible as the other. 
I leave this investigation to the learned Americanists. 

Now, we come to a very interesting point concerning the 
name of America. 

How is it that America having been rediscovered by 
Christopher Columbus, as it is agreed by all, is known under 
the name of America instead of Columbia ? It seems ratther 
an anomaly ! 

According to the old authors the word America is derived 
from Americo, the christian name of Vespucci, a celebrated, 
Florentine Navigator, who took the command of four ships 
fitted by King Ferdinand, sailed for Paria in May 1497, and 
made a very successful voyage. 

This was two years after the discovery of that country by 
Columbus. 

In fact, neither Americo Vespucci or any other of the 



The Humming Bird. 119 

Navigators of that epoch, could have made their discoveries if 
Columbus had not given the start, by his wonderful disco- 
veries, first of the Antillœ, and afterwards of the land men- 
tioned in the old Maps as TERRA FIRM A, the actual State 
of Panama in Columbia. 

Belt, in his interesting volume, the Naturalist in Nica- 
ragua, London, 1874, mentions some mountains which he 
visited under the name of Amerrique range. Jules Marcou, 
the celebrated Geologist, has also mentioned that name in 
a notice published in the Bulletin de la Société de Géographie, 
June 11 th , 1875. 

Lately, Mr M. Pinart and others, have mentioned the name 
Ameriga and America as belonging to places situated in 
Veragua and in Venezuela ; but I doubt very much that these 
names are anterior to the Conquest, and I have not the least 
doubt that the word America is derived as I said before from 
Americo Vespucci, and from no one else, and that there is no 
reason whatever to look anywhere for a more plausible 
explanation of the word. I known very well that all those 
who have tried to find another derivation to the word Ame- 
rica have done so, with the same idea as myself, which was 
to restore the full credit due to Columbus, but we cannot 
help it. 

Surely the Continent known by us all as America, ought 
to have been more properly called Columbia, derived from 
the name of its discoverer ; but it has not been done, and it 
is now quite impossible and useless to change its name in 
that of Columbia. 

Now we also know that the exact spelling of Columbus, 
was neither Colon. Colomb or Columb, but Golonus (a name 
elect by the way). In fact America is a true Colony for all 
the inhabitants of the other Continents, as I have already 
stated in the last number ot this Journal. All the races of the 
World are represented there. 

Are not the ways of the Providence wonderful ! ! 

When Cristobal Colonus started in August 1492, from 
Palos, he had in his mind to discover a passage to the East 
Indies. Instead of that, he discovered a new Continent, and 
the results of his discovery have been the beginning of a new 
Era to the rest of the World. 

When we consider that only four hundred years have 
elapsed since, and see what America is already, we cannot 
but think that all this has not come to pass with no purpose, 
and I have a presentiment that before long AMERICA is desi- 
gned to take a prominent place in the future destinies of 
MANKIND. 

A. B. 



120 The Humming Bird. 



Festivities in honour of CIIRIKTOI'IIER G0LUIHR11S 

All the festivities held during the month of October in 
honour of Christopher Columbus, in America, Spain, Italy, 
France, etc., have been very successful. 

In Chicago, over 200,000 Visitors assisted to the grand 
Ceremonies attending the Dedication of the Buildings of the 
Word's Columbian Exposition, and the programme was ful- 
filled exactly as announced, excepting that President Har- 
rison, in consequence of the serious illness of Mrs Harrison, 
was not able to preside the Dedicatory Ceremonies and was 
represented by Vice-President Morton. About 80,000 persons 
figured in the various Processions. All the streets were pro- 
fusely decorated with flags of all Nations. 

The displays of fireworks and the illuminations were splen- 
did, and the enthusiasm of the Visitors was immense. Cheers 
and Cheers were continuous during all the performances. 

The festivities held in New -York were also very successful. 

In Spain, their Majesties the Queen Regent, with the infant 
KiNG; opened the festival Ceremonies at Huelva, and inaugu- 
rated the monument erected to Christopher Columbus in the 
Convent of la Rabida. From that place, their Majesties went 
to Palos, Cadix, Sevilla, etc. 

Her Majesty the Queen Regent presided to the last meeting 
of the Congress of Americanists. 

The illuminations at Huelva were splendid. 

Corsica, which, by the way, claims also to be the country 
where Columbus was born, celebrated with enthusiasm the 
anniversary of the discovery of America. 

High masses and religious services were celebrated in all 
the Catholic churches in France, Spain, Italy, Portugal, 
etc., and also in America. Thiswas done at the instigation of 
POPE LEON XIII, who sent a letter to that effect, to all the 
Catholic Bishops. 

The Ceremony at the Cathedral, Notre-Dame de Paris, was 
very imposing. 

The Spanish Ambassador and suite and many other distin- 
guished guests were present. 

In Canada, religious services were celebrated in all the 
Catholic churches. 



Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, London, W.C. 

PRICE LIST of Utensils necessary for the collecting of 
Mammals and Birds' Skins, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, etc., etc. 



13icarbolic Acid quart 2/- 

Rectified BeDzoline ,, 2/- 

Boucard's Insecticide ... lb. 4/- 
Ammonia .. ... ,, 4/- 

Collecting corked box from 1/ to 5/- eacb 

Pocket corked box from 2/- 

Corked box for Museums 24/- doz. 

— — and glazed, splendid 

make... 36/- ,, 

Larger sizes can be supplied. 

Botanical box from 2/6 to 6/- each 

Pin box, for 12 grosses of diffe- 
rent sizes 1/6- 
Pin box, with 1,000 pins. 3/- 

Sea Compass . from 2/-to50/- 
Collecting bottles with large 
opening. from. 6 d. 

Boucard's tin collecting box, with 

iwo partitions 
Straight Scissors.. 

Curved ,, 

Taxidermist Knives .. 

Long Forceps 

Small ., 

Insects' Nippers 

Sieve 

Blowpipe for cleaning eggs. 

Digger \, 2/-et4 - 

Folding ditto 

Insect Pins, English, French 

(•r German ... from 1/6 per 1000 
All other utensils for Naturalistes can 
the Naturalists' Agency. 



.. . 


2/- 


fro 


m.2/- 


... 


„2/- 


... 


,, l/« 


... 


„3/- 


... 


„!/- 


... 


n I/* 


... 


;; 2/- 




M 2/- 


... 


r,M- 


... 


.,6/- 



bteel Pinsforsetting Butterfl. 4/- per 1000 

Settiug Boards 1 to 2/- each 

Butterfly Nets complete from 1/6 to 5/- 
' Sweeping and water Nets ,, 2/6 

Cork in Sheets ,, 3/- doz. 

Magnifying Glasses ... ,, 1/- to 5- 

Hammers ... ,, V^ 1° 5/- 

Naphthaline ... ... ,, 4/-per lb. 

Botanical grey paper ... ,, 6/-reain 
Fo'ding Umbrella for collec- 
ting Insects ... ... ,, 10/- 

Sleel Perforator for making 
holes in eggs ... ,, !/- 

Cutting Pliers ,, 2/- 

Flat ,, 2/- 

Arsenical Soap ,,2/ per lb 

Glass Tubes for small insects 

and shells ,, l/-doz. 

Pill boxes for ditto „ 4/-gross 

Flax ,, 6d.perlb 

Cotton wadding, per sheet.... ,, 6d. 
Fishing rods with accessories ,, 2/- 
Dredge for collect, shells, etc. ,, 40/- 
Taxidermist' s case, contfiln'mg 
1 Pair of Scissors, 2 Knives 
1 Lime, 1 Grater, 2 Pliers, 
1 Hammer, 1 pair of For- 
ceps, 1 Brush, 3 Gimlets, 

etc. Complete. from 12/- to 40/- 

Shell-emptyiug with handle, from 1/- 

be had dt a short notice, by ordering at 







STANDS, NEW STYLE. 






N°. 1. For Humming birds and Small birds 


at 20s per hundred 


,,2. ,, Small birds u 


p to Tanagers ... 


... ... ,, 


24s 


» » 


,, 3. ,, Tanagers up to Magpies... 


... ... ,, 


28s 


i? 


,, 4. ,, Ma 


gpies up to Crows or Small Hawks ... ,, 


32s 


Î5 


,, 5. ,, Small Hawks to Large Hawks and Owls ... ,, 


40s 


5 5 






ARTIFICIAL* 


EYES. 






Black 


Coloured 


Cornered 


Cornered 
and veined 


per 


gross. 




per doz. pairs. per 


doz. pairs. 


No. l to 


4 6d 


Is 6d 


N°. 4 to 6 


3s 6d 


4s 6d 


" 5 " 


8 8d 


2s 6d 


„ -7 ,. 8 


5s Od 


6s Od 


" 9 „ 


10 Is Od 


4s Od 


9 


6s Od 


8s Od 


H 


2s Od 


5s 6d 


10 


7s Od 


9s Od 


„ 12 


2s* 3d 


7s Od 


11 


8s Od 


10s Od 


13 


2s 6d 


10s Od 
doz. of pairs 


„ 12 


9s Od 


lis 0d 


,i 14 


3s Od 


Is 6d 


13 


10s Od 


13s Od 


15 


3s 6d 


2s 6d 


14 


lis Od 


13s 0d 


„ 16 


4s Od 


2s 6d 


15 


13s Od 


15s Od 


17 


8s Od 


3s Od 


Larger 


size can b 


e made 


„ 18 


12s Od 


4s Od 




to order 




N° 1 to 4- are good for 


Humming Birds and o 


thers up to the 


size of Tanagers. 


N° 5 to 8 Tanagers to 


Magpies. 


No 9 to 10 M 


agpies to ' 


Hills. 


N° 11 to 12 Pheasants, 


etc. 


No 13 to Hawks, Owls. I 


Jerons, etc. 



Ethnological Specimens and Curious from Madagascar, Gold Coast, New-Guinea 
Mexico, Central America, etc., etc., at very reasonable prices. 

A magnificent Collection of Woods from all parts of the world. 2,000 varieties. 
Fifty years work. Will be sold at a bargain. 

Fourteen species of Carabus from Chili. In the most perfect conditiou. 23 speci- 
mens at ô s. each. 



LIST OF BIRD SKINS AND INSECTS FOR SALE 

AT NATURALISTS' AGENCY 

225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 
WHOLESALE PRICE (for cash only ) 



Yellow Bird of Paradise, at 20 shil. each 
Bed „ „ ,, 10 „ 

Rifle Bird „ 20 ,, 

Long Tail Epimaque. . ,, 25 ,, 
Prince Begent. .... ,, -. 8 ,, 
King Bird of Paradise ,, 4 ,, 
Paradise Bird Various, 2 to 5 ,, 
Selected White Osprey 

skins ( short) ,, 7 ,, ,, 

Pale red (short) ,, ,, 1 ,, 
Long white Osprey . . ,,24 ,, per oz. 

Grey Heron ,, 4 ,, each 

Impeyan Pheasant . . 5 to 10 ,, ,, 

Jungle Cocks ,,4 ,, ,, 

Small Bustard 3 ,, ,, 

Long Tail Trogan ..... 16 to 20 

Short ,, , 4 ,, ,, 

Large Jacamar. ....... 4 ,. ,, 

Small ditto . . . 1 „ ,. 

Metallic Blue Merle .... 2 ,, ,, 

Long Tail ditto. ...... 2 ,, ,, 

Large Sea Gull ..... 1 shilling each 

Large and Medium Sea 

Swallows 1 ,, ,, 

Minuta 2 ,, ,, 

Red Partridge 2 ., ,, 

Califoruia Quail. .... 1 ,, ,, 

Sand Grousa 1 ,, . ,, 

Plarmigan ,1 ,, .., 

Gelinotte Tails 2 ,, hundred 

Large Pitta ....... 2 ,, each 

Jay- 1 ,, „ 

Woodpeckers sixpence ,, 

Metallic Starlings. . . . fonrpence ,, 

Black and White Starl. . fourpence ,, 
Red Tanagers . . . . . . 1 shilling ,, 

Orange ,,........ niaepence ,. 



Black Velvet with golden, orange 

rump eighteen pence. 

With crimson rump. 2 shillings each 
Large Bee Eaters . . eighteen pence,, 
Hoopers ......... 1 shilling ,. 

Scops eighten pence ,, 

Medium Owls 1 shilling ,, 

Lar^e ditto 2 ,, ,, 

Hawks sixpence each 

Coloured Finches ... 1 shilling ,, 
Blue Creepers ..... ten pence ,,, 

Green ,, sixpence ,, 

Swallows., . threepence,, 

Cock of the Rock. ..." 4 shillings ,, 

Indian Crow 3 ,, ,, 

Alpine Crow ....... 2 ,, ,, 

Manakins various. . . shpence to one shilling 

Fly Catchers attirée pence. 

Sparrow?. . twopence ,, 

Titmouse sixpence ,, 



Large Birds various 
Medium ,, ,, . . 

Small ,, ,, . . 

Swan Skin flat .... 

Red Macaw ,, 

Heron Necks „ .... 
King Fisher ., .... 
Blue Jays ,, .... 
Grebes ,, .... 

Cock Feathers. .... 
Humm. Birds var. males. 

— — females 

Long Tail ditto males. 
Blue Long Tail ditto . 

Fire Tail ditto 

Blue Opale Butterflies 

Butterf. various . . from, three pence. 



from sixp. ,, 
fromfourp. ,,, 
fr. two pen. ., 
1 shilling ,, 
2 

^ 5» >» 

1 „ 

sixpence ,, 
1 shilling ,, 

from sixpence each. 

two pence, 
from 1 shilling 
2 
,. 20 ,, ,, 
fr. three pence. 



Beetles various, all colors and sizes, from 4 shillings per thousand. 



COLLECTION OF POSTAGE STAMPS FOR SALE 

A magnificent collection of 7-000 Postage stamps all different, in 
splendid condition, arrauged in four Philatelic Albums, and classified, accor- 
ding to the best catalogues, and works on stamps, published. Containing, 
Euglish 2/- brown, Mulreadys two black aud two blue, £ o on blue paper. Bo 
livia complete. Cape of Good-Hope, woodblock 4. Fine Mauritius, France, all but 
1 franc orauge. Fiue Spain and hundreds of other rare and fine stamps. 

Lowest price : £ 1$0, 



luij). Paul UuUshez, lours. 



jgjiN* 



sf> Vol. II., N° 12.] DECEMBER 1892. 



PRICE SIXPENCF 




ita[ jpjmwnjj 




SCIENTIFIC, ARTISTIC AND INDUSTRIAL REVIEW 



EDITED BY 



A. BOUCAKD 




0&lAsV\AÀXs Uà^MJUXXh^y 



Annual Subscription : United Kingdom^ Europe, N. America and Canada, 5 shillings. 

Mexico, Central and Soutk America and West Indies, 6 shillings.. 

All other countries, 7 shillings. 

Back Numbers, One Shilling. — Vol. I, complete, Ten Shillings. 

Only a few copies to dispose of. 

SCALE OF CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS 

Whole Page, 40 s. Half-Page, 22 s. Quarter-Page, 13 s. 

Lowest charge, 3 s. 6 d. up to five lines, and 6 d. per line extra. 

Repealed or continuous Advertisements, per contract. 

[gLf ALL RIGHTS RESERVED '- 

^C^3 / ^* ■ 1 



! 



<S\(®5°t 




Published by A. Boucard, 225, High Holboru, Loudou, W. C. 



BOUCARD, POTTIER & C ., 

Katuraltets anîr jfeatljer Merchants, 
225, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, W.C., ENGLAND 



Messrs BOUCARD, POTTIER and Co offer to sell on commission all kinds 
of objects of Natural History, Collections of Mammal and Birds, Skins, Skele- 
tons, Human and Animal Skulls, Insects of all orders pinned and set, or in 
papers ; Marine, Fresh Water and Land Shells ; Reptiles and Fishes in spirit ; 
Crustacese and Arachnidse in spirit; Etkuological collections from all parts ; 
Showy Bird Skins and Feathers for Plumassiers and Naturalists ; Mammal Skins 
for Farriers ; Bright species of Insects for Artificial Florists; Rare old Stamps, 
used and unused; Curious of all sorts; Pictures and Works of Arts, etc., etc., etc. 

All possessors of such objects should not dispose of them without consulting 
Messrs Boucard, Pottier and C°, who having a large connection with Amateurs 
in all parts ot the world, are able to get the very best prices for them. 

IN STOCK. 

About 6,000 species of Birds, 30,000 of species Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, 
Mammal Skins, from New-Guinea, West Afrioa, South America, etc., Land, 
Fresh Water and Marine Shells, a large number of species; Reptiles and Fishes 
in spirit; Crustacese, dried and in spirit; Insects of all orders, Skeletons, etc., etc. 

NEW COLLECTIONS ARE RECEIVED CONSTANTLY FROM ALL PARTS OF 
THE WORLD. 

FOR SALE. 

A very fine collection of Shells, especially rich in Land Shells, and con- 
taining many types and new species, about 40,000 spicimens. For Price, etc., 
apply at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. 

POSTAGE STAMPS. 

FOR SALE. 

A large variety of rare Stamps and New Issues from all parts of the World. 
For Prices, etc., apply to Naturalists' Agency, 225, High Holborn, W.C. 

WANTED TO BUY. 

Old collections containing from 500 varieties upwards, to which none have 
been added since the last 20 years. Old stamps on their original letter sheet 
or envelope, especially Colonials and old German States ; Mulready Wrappers 
and Envelopes; Old unused English and Colonials; Old Works on Stamps; 
Proofs of Stamps, etc., etc 



TO BE SOLD OR EXCHANGED 

For Properties of eaual value in London, Brighton, or the Isle of Wight. 

SEVERAL PROPERTIES AT SAN-REMO 

The celebrated Winter Resort on the Riviera, 40 Minutes from MONACO. 



Three Villas, known as Villa Maria Luigia, and Villas Rondo : the first one, 
detached with a beautiful garden of 2,000 mètres; the last, semi-detached 
with front and back gardens. Villa Maria Luigia consists of three floors, with 
fifteen fine rooms, offices, kitchen, etc. Ten of the rooms are full south, faciug 
the sea. 

Villa Rondo n° 25, corso Garibaldi, consists of two floors, with niue rooms, 
kitchen, office and cellar. N° 27 has two kitchens and two more rooms on 
the underground floor. 

Villa Maria Luigia and Villa Rondo n° 25, the smallest, are actually let unfur- 
nished, 3,800 francs per annum, for several years. — Villa Rondo u° 27, is worth 
1,200 francs. When let furnished, they produce about £ 400 per annum. 

All applications to be made at 225, High Holborn, London, W. C. (England), 
where photographies of the Villas can be seen. 



7 he Humming Bird. 121 

NOTl GE 



With the present number we close the second Volume of 
the Humming Bird, and we beg to announce that henceforth 
the Humming Bird will be issued quarterly, the first number 
of volume III will be issued on the first of March, and the 
fourth and last one, on the first of December. 

Each part will consist of 64 pages of text at least, and 
when possible or advisable, plates will be issued. In Volume 
III, besides Original Notices on \rt, Science and Industry, it 
is the intention of our Chief Editor, Mr A. Boucard, to con- 
tinue, without interruption, the publication of the Genera of 
Humming Birds, and to commence a relation of his Travels 
in America. 

Mr Boucard having spent a good part of his life in that 
Continent, as a Naturalist, we hope that a record of his 
travels and adventures in North, Central, and South America, 
and in Mexico, will prove of interest to the Readers of the 
Humming Bird. 

In issuing this Notice, we thank all Subscribers and Friends 
who have had the welfare of this Review at heart, and who 
have assisted in various ways in promoting its circulation, 
and we hope that they will continue to do so in future. 

The Redaction. 



LE CANAL DE PANAMA 

Par A. BOUCARD 



Depuis la publication de ma brochure, le Sauvetage du 
Panama, juin 1892, et aussitôt l'apparition de la seconde édi- 
tion parue en juillet, M. Monchicourt, le Liquidateur de la 
Compagnie Interocéanique du Canal de Panama, a signé un 
contrat avec M. Hiélard, Vice-Président de la Chambre de 
Commerce de Paris, par lequel celui-ci s'engageait à former, 
dans les trois mois, une nouvelle Société, au capital de 
150 millions de francs, pour la reprise immédiate des travaux. 
Le lendemain de la signature du contrat, j'en étais informé. 

J'en fus même assez étonné, car M. Monchicourt, dans 
l'entrevue que j'ai eue avec lui, en juin 1892, m'avait for- 
mellement assuré qu'il ne signerait de contrat qu'avec un 
Capitaliste ou une Société qui apporterait cinquante millions 
en espèces, et non pas un simple engagement de forme)" une 
Société. 

Mais ayant lu l'excellent article paru dans le Petit Journal 



123 The Humming Bird. 

du 31 juillet, se terminant par : a II a dirigé l'entreprise de 
sauvetage quand il l'a jugé nécessaire* il rentre maintenant 
dans le rang, comme il convient, sans se désintéresser cependant 
des efforts qui seront faits. Mais il comprend que celui qui va 
devenir le mandataire des intéressés dans l'affaire de Panamn, 
doit avoir une entière libellé d'action. Elle lui est indispensable 
pour mener à bien V œuvre immense quil a consenti à diriger.» 

Etant à cette époque du même avis que l'auteur de cet 
article, j'ai fait comme le Petit Journal, je suis rentré dans 
le rang et je n'ai pas donné suite à mon projet d'aller à Chi- 
cago, me contentant d'envoyer gratuitement des exemplaires 
de ma brochure aux intéressés, y compris M. Hiélard ; mais 
comme voici plus de trois mois que le contrat passé entre 
MM. Monchicourt et Hiélard a été signé, et n'a abouti qu'aux 
publications du Contrat et d'un Rapport, qui ne conclut 
rien, je considère comme un devoir d'avertir les porteurs, que 
même en supposant que M. Hiélard arrive à former la fameuse 
Société Nouvelle, au capitalde 150 millions, vu le projet pré- 
féré par MM. Monchicourt et Hiélard, elle ne peut rien sau- 
ver, et en attendant, la Liquidation est en train de faire dis- 
paraître petit à petit l'actif de l'ancienne Société. Pour peu 
que cela continue ainsi encore quelque temps, il ne restera 
plus, ni Bons à lots, ni Actions du Chemin de fer de Panama. 

Il est donc temps que les intéressés prennent des mesures 
effectives pour défendre leurs intérêts et se fassent entendre. 
Mon opinion n'a pas change. Le Canal est possible et sera 
rémunérateur, mais à une seule condition, celle de faire un 
Canal a niveau, projet Rylski, pour le percement de la Cule- 
bra, et projet Wyse Bonaparte, pour le restant. En plus il est 
indispensable d'obtenir le concours des anciens porteurs, et 
ma combinaison financière, adoptée par un très grand nombre 
d'entre eux, me paraît la plus facile et la plus pratique. 

A.B. 

Je continuerai à envoyer gratuitement ma brochure à tous 
les porteurs qui m'en feront la demande, en y ajoutant 
10 centimes pour le port. 



International exhibition at Monaco 

An International Exhibition will be opened at Monaco 
during the months of January, February and March 1893. 

This Exhibition will include all the products of Industry, 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Art and Sciences. 

The local Committee is presided by the Mayor of Monaco. 

The prizes will consist of honorific Diplomas of five distinct 
Categories, Grand Prize, Gold, Silver, Silver gilt, and Bronze 
Medals. 



The Humming Bird. 123 

A new emission of Postage stamps 

In memory of Christopher Columbus, the Government of 
the United-States of America has decided to issue a new 
series of Postage stamps. 

On one of them, will be represented the portrait of the 
celebrated Navigator, on another, the Convent of la Rabida, 
and on a third, the famous Pinnace, the Santa-Maria. 

This issue will be in use from the first of January, to 31 th 
of December 1893 only. 

It is certain that with the actual prédominent increasing 
infatuation for stamps collecting, many millions of these 
stamps will find a resting place in the album of Stamps 
Collectors. 






Review of new publications 

1891. — Atlas des champignons comestibles et vénéneux, 
by L. Dufour. Paris, 1 volume in-8, 80 pages of text, and 
80 coloured plates. — Price : 12 shillings. 

It is excessively good, and the plates are very well done. 
<t Can be procured by Naturalist's Agency. » 

1891. — Fremde eier im nest, ein Beitrag ziïr biologie 
der vogel, by von Paul Leverkuhn, Munich. Pamphlet in-8, 
212 pages of text. 

An interesting work for Ornithologists and Oologists. 

1891 , — Memoria de la Secretaria de Gobernacion, Poli- 
cia y Fomento. Republica de Costa-Rica. San-José. 
Interesting work for Americanists. 

1891. — Twenty-Second Annual Report of the Ento- 
mological Society of Ontario. Toronto. Pamphlet in-8, 
101 pages of text, and wood cuts. It contains many 
interesting notes on injurious Insect?. 

1890-1891. — Annual Report of the Board of Regents 
of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington. U. A. 

Three large Volumes with a large number of plates, con- 
taining : Reports of the Society, the National Scientific Insti- 
tution at Berlin, Hertz s Researches on electrical waves , 
Progress of Meteorology in 1889, How rain is formed, On 
the movements of the earth crust., Progress of Anthropology in 
1 889 and i 890, the Museums of the future, Te-Pito Te Henua 
or Easter Island, Animals recently extinct, Explorations in 
Newfoundland and Labrador, Bibliography of the United 
States National Museum, the Squaring of the Circle, Glacial 
Geology, Stanley and the Map of Africa, A tropical Botanical 
Garden, the Ascent of Man, and many other valuable papers. 

lSUl. — North American Fauna, by D)ctor C. Hirt Mer 
iam. N° 5, Washington. U. A. Tnis part contains 120 pagîs 



124 The Humming Bird. 

of text, and one coloured plate figuring a new species of 
Owl, Megascops ffammeolus[idahoensis. It is exclusively dedi- 
cated to the fauna of Idaho U. A., and contains the descrip- 
tions of several new species of Mammals and Birds. 

1891. — Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, 
Vol. XX. Psittaci, hy T. Salvadori. London 1891. — Price : 
30 shilings. 

This Volume prepared by the well known Italian Ornitho- 
logist, Count Salvadori, is an excellent work, and will be of 
great use to all Scientists. All the species known, up to date, 
are concisely described. Fourteen new species are described. 
They are: Eos challenger i, Neopsittacus rubripileum, Conurus 
callogenys, Pyrrhura emma, and berlepschi, Psittacula flaves- 
cens, Chrysotis virenticeps, inomata, and Salvïni, Urochro- 
ma emmx, Geoffroyus floresianus , and sumbavensis Ptistes, 
vetterensis, and Bolbopsittacus intermedins. 

Four new Genera are also described : Hypocharmosyna for 
Tr-ichoglossus wilhelminx, Meyer, and others, Conuropsis for 
Conurus carolinensis ; Neophema for the group Euphema 
and Bolbopsittacus with Cyclopsittacus lunulatus for its type. 
The following species are figured : Pyrrhura emma^ ber- 
lepschi., rupicola, and rhodocephala, Myopsittacus luchsi, 
Bolborhynchus andicola, Psittacula sclateri, Chrysotis diade- 
mata. salvini, and chloronota, Pionopsittacus pyrrhops^ Tani- 
gnathus everetti, and burbidgii, Palieornis ftnschi, Bolbop- 
sittacus intermedins, Loriculus amabitis and quadricolor, 
Platycercus xanthogenys, Cyanoramphus subflavescens and 
cyanurus. 

1892. — Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, Vol. 
XVI. Upup#: and Trochili, by Osbert Salvin, Coracle, Gypse- 
lld#:,Caprimulgid#:, Podargid^:, and Steatornithid^:, by Ernst 
Hartert. London. — Price : 36 shillings. 

This Volume contains 704 pages of text, and 14 coloured 
plates representing : Upupa somalensis,Irrisorbollii. and jack- 
soni, scoptelus castaneiceps , panychlora m1cans , clllro- 
stilbon peru anus, heliangelus laticlavius, and violicollis 
Heliotrypha speciosa. and barrali.Agyrtria c#:rulieceps,Ama- 
zilia sumiclrasti, Iolema luminosa, Ph^lo^ma CKRVINIGULARlS, 
Eriocnemis dyselius, and ventralis, Ghaetura uscheri, Gapri- 
mulgus griseatus, and whitelyi, Lycornis mindanensis, and 
lastly Batraciiostomus harterti. 

Since a long time, I was expecting the publication of this 
Volume, in consequence of my own work, the Genera of 
Humming Birds, which publication I began in the January 
number of the Humming Bird, Vol; II, and which I stopped 
in July ; because I wanted to study with great care, the part 
on Trochili, prepared by the eminent Ornithologist Mr Osbert 
Salvin. 

Since August last, when I received it, I have done so, during 



The Humming Bird. 125 

all my leisure time, and I have come to the conclusion that 
Mr Osbert Salvin has produced a remarkable work which 
will facilitate immensely the study of these charming birds; 
but I am sorry to see that he has not supported my proposi- 
tion of a new Order for them, but has only proposed a sub- 
Order. 

Nevertheless I am satisfied so far, the gap between the two, 
being rather a slight one, and I have no doubt that before 
long, my proposition of the order TROGHILI, will be accep- 
ted by all eminent Ornithologists. 

The classification proposed by Mr Salvin of Trocmli serri- 

ROSTRES, ÏR0CI1ILI 1NTERMED1I, and TroCHILI L.EVIROSTRES, is 

very attractive, and already in 1888, Mr Eugene Simon, of 
Paris, and myself, we had established the basis of a classifi- 
cation on these characters ; but we gave it up as not quite 
satisfactory. Lately, with the hope of making my profit of the 
most recent attempts at classification of these birds, formy 
Genera, 1 have gone to the trouble to reclassify all my Co- 
lection according to the classification pro posed by Mr Salvin; 
but it has not been so satisfatory as I thought, and I have 
come to the conclusion that the said characters are not im- 
portant enough, to base a classification upon. 1 consider them 
only as accessories characters, not equivalent to those of 
the general faciès, wings, tail and bill. 

I consider even the characters of the tail as more impor- 
tant than those of dentition ; but a really good classifiication 
cannot be made without taking in consideration all the above 
mentioned characters. 

I consider the dentition only as an additional character ena 
bling the species which possess it to feed on insects of a lar- 
ger size than the others, and to grind them with, so as to be 
more easily digested. 

I am also sorry that Mr Osbert Salvin did not mention, 
when possible, the names of the discoverers of species. Fur 
exemple, Phaeoptila sordida, page 63, Gyanomyia violiceps, 
p. 196, and Galotkorax pulchra, p. 391, three well known 
species, discovered by me, in the Department ot Oaxaca, 
Mexico, in 1857, are only mentioned as Oaxaca, Mexico, 
Salle, for the first two, and Mexico, Boucard, for the last one. 
It should be for all of them, Oaxaca, Mexico, Boucard. 

The same thing has been done in the Biologia Gentrali 
Americana, with all the species of Insects discovered by me, 
in Tuxtla, Playa Vicente, Oaxaca, Juquila, etc., to which 
the name of my friend Salle is attached. Excepting the spe- 
cies collected in Vera-Cruz, Cordoba, Orizaba and San- 
Andres Ghalchicomula, which we explored conjointly, all the 
others were collected in countries, where my friend Salle 
has never been. 

Lastly, I see that Mr Osbert Salvin mentions several spe- 



126 The Humming Bird. 

cies as unknown to him : G. giglioli, p. 113; Eugenes viridi- 
ceps, p. 302 ; Oxypogon stuebeli, p. 336; Eriocnemis aurea, 
p. 367 ; Ch^tocercus berlepschi, p. 414, and several others. If 
Mr Salvin had asked the loan of these specimens, I haveno 
doubt that Messrs Meyer, Simon and myself would have com- 
municated the types to him. For my part, I shall always be 
glad to show my types, to Authors of Monographs. 

1892. — Catalogue of Birds in the British Museum, 
Vol. XVII. Coracle (contin) and Halcyones, with the families 

LEPTOSOMATlDiE, GORACIIDiE, MeROPLILE, AlCEDINHLE, MOMOTIDJE, 

Todltle, and Collide, by R. Bowdler Sharpe; Bucerotes and 
Trogones, by W. R. Ogilvie Grant. London. Price : 30 shillings. 
This Volume contains 522 pages of text, and 16 coloured 
plates, illustrating the heads of dicrocercus hirundinaceus 
and furcatus, Melitophagus cyanostictus, meridionalis and 
pusillus, full plates of Eurystomus orientalis, calonyx, solo- 
monensis and azureus, Alcedo quadlubrachys and guentheri, 
Ceryle .equatorialis and stictoptera, heads of Halcyon tor- 

QUATUS, FORBESI, MALIMBICUS, ARMSTRONGI , S0L0MONENSIS and CHLO- 

ris, in full, Halcyon humii, Momotus bartletti, subrufescens, 

MICROSTEPHANUS and iEQUATORIALIS, GOLIUS LEUCOTIS and AFFI- 
NIS, LOPHOCEROS JACKSONJ and DAMARENSIS, TROGON B0LIVIANUS, 

Hapaloderma vittatum, and Harpactes dulitensis. 

This Volume, and the formers are excellent, and 
maintain the high reputation acquired by the works publis- 
hed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, for the 
benefit of Ornithologists. 

1892. — Zoological Record, Vol. XXVIII. London, 1891. 
Edited by Doctor Sharp. 
General Subjects, by J. Arthur Thomson, 28 pages. 
Mammalia, by Lydekker, 58 pages. 
Aves, by R. Bowdler Sharpe, 69 pages. 
Reptilia and Batrachia, by G. A. Boulenger, 24 pages. 
Pisces, by G. A. Boulenger, 41 pages. 
Tunicata, by Professor W. A. Herdman, 6 pages. 
Mollusca, by B. B. Woodward, 114 pages. 
Brachiopoda, by B. B. Woodward, 7 pages. 
Polyzoa, by B. B. Woodward, 7 pages. 
Crustacea, by Cecil Warburton, 24 pages. 
Arachnida, by R. Innes Pocock, 26 pages. 
Myriapoda and Protracheta, by R. Innes Pocock, 6 pages. 
Insecta, by D r . Sharp, 311 pages. 
Echinodermata, by, E. A. Minchin, 91 pages. 
Vermes, by Arthur Willey, 50 pages. 
Coelenterata, by Sydney J. Hickson, 14 pages. 
Spongle, by E. A. Minchin, 33 pages. 
Protozoa, by Cecil Warburton , 13 pages. 
This remarkable Volume is quite indispensable to Zoologists. 



The Humming Bird. 1 -27 

1892. — Proceedings of tue Zoological Society of Lon- 
don. Parts I, II and III. — Price : 12 shillings each. 

Part I, contains 172 pages of text, 10 black and coloured 
plates, and many wood-cuts. Several new species of Tunisian 
Reptiles, Coleoptera from Borneo, Head of a new antelope, 
Bubalis swagnei, from Somali-land, and Lepidoptera from San- 
dakan, are figured. 

Part II, contains 136 pages of text, 13 black and coloured 
plates, and many wood-cuts; several new species of Ophiu- 
ROids, Head of Orix CALLOTis,new species from Mount Kili- 
manjaro ; Orthopteka of the Island of Saint-Vincent ; He- 
migale uosei ; Amaurocichla bocagii and mouoneyanus ; Land 
Shells of Saint-Helena, and from Colombia, are figured. 
Among the various works published in this part is one by 
Hans Gadow M. A. etc. entitled : « On the Classification of 
Birds, which will be of much use to Ornithologists. 

This new classification of birds by M. Hans Gadow is based 
on the anatomical structure of birds, and the result is the 
following : 

I. Subclass. — ARCHORNITHES, which includes the Order 
Archj:opterygiformes. 

II. Subclass. — NEORNITHES, which he divides in Neor- 
nithes Ratit^:, and Neornithes Carinas. 

In the first division, he includes : Struthiones, Rhe^:, 
Gasuarii, Apteryges, Dinornithes, and JEpyornithes. 
In the second division, he includes all the rest as follows : 

COLYMBIFORMES, SPHENISCIFORMES, PrOCELLARIIFORMES, ARDEI- 

formes, Falconiformes, Anseriformes, Crypturiformes, Galli- 
formes, Gruiformes, Charadruformes, Columbiformes, Cuculi- 
formes, Coraciiformes, and Passeriformes. 

Part III, contains 232 pages of text, 8 black and coloured 
plates, and some wood-cuts. Several new species of Indian 
frogs, Lycœnidœ from South Pacific, new Frogs from Borneo, 
and Lucioperca marina, are figured. 

In the Birds from Peru, by Messrs Hans von Berlepsch and 
Jean Stolzmann, five new species are described : Pyranga 
testacea tschudii, Saltator immaculatus, Dives kalinowskii, 
Pyrocephalus rubineus heterurus, and Cinclodes taczanoivskii. 

1892. — Transactions of the Zoological Society of 
London, Vol. XIII. Part 4, London. Price : 6 shillings. 

Contents. — On a skull of Trogontherium Cuvieri from the 
forest bed of East Runston, near Cromer, by G.-T. Newton, 
11 pages of text, and one plate. 

1892. — The Ibis, Sixth Series, Vol IV, Numbers 13 
to It). 1892, London. — Price : six shillings each part. Edited 
by D r Philip Lutley Sclater. 

This Volume maintains the high reputation acquired by 



128 The Humming Bird. 

this publication. It is quite indispensable to Ornitho- 
logists. 

Number 13 contains : List of the birds of Heligoland, by 
Henry Seebohm; Genera Francolinus and Pternistes, by W.-R. 
Ogilvie Grant. One new species is described : Francolinus 
uluensis. The name of Francolinus Sha?'pii is proposed for 
the Abyssinian bird in place of F. rupelli, Gray, which is a 
synonym ôf F, clappertoni. Children ; Francolinus jacksoni, 
Grant, Ibis 1891, is figured; Birds of British India, by W.-E. 
Brooks ' Description of a new species of Wren from North 
East India, by E.-G. Stewart Baker ; Elachura haplono ta des- 
cribed and figured with Elachura punctata ; On the Indian 
Museum and its collection of Birds, by W.-L. Sclater, a list 
of the type specimens of Birds in the Indian Museum. Cal- 
cutta, is given. On the Birds of Tsu-sima Japan, by Henry 
Seebohm; On the Birds of Madagascar, by the Rev. James 
Sibree ; On the Avifauna of the Lower Pilcomayo. by J. Gra- 
ham Kerr, Celeus kerri, Berlepsch, J. F. 0. 1887, p. 22, is 
figured ; On Birds collected in East Africa, by M. Jackson, 
by D r Bowdler Sharpe ; Cisticola chubbi^ and Camaroptera 
griseigula, new species are described ; A palis pule hr a. Sharpe. 
Ibis 189 1, p. 119, and Dryodromas jacksoni, Sharpe. Ibis 1891, 
p. 419, are figured, etc. 

Number 44 contains : On the Birds of the Estancia Esnar- 
tilla, Argentine Bepublic, by A.-H. Holland ; On the Orni- 
thology of the Gambia, by Percy Rendall ; On Birds collected 
in Corea, by C.-W. Campbell. Suthora fulvicauda and longi- 
cauda, new species, are described ; Birds of Madagascar, by 
Rev. J. Sibree, continued; On the Caprimulgidœ, by E. Hartert. 
Caprimulgus eximus, figured ; On two small Collections of 
Birds from Bugotu and Florida, by H. B. Tristram. Graucalus 
nigrifrons and welchmani, new species, are described ; On 
Birds collected in East Africa, by D r Bowdler Sharpe, conti- 
nued. Platystira jacksoni, Melittophagus oreobates, new spe- 
cies, are described and figured as also. Trochocercus albono- 
tatus, Sharpe, Ibis 1891, p. 421 ; Descriptions of new species 
of Birds discovered by M. C. Hose on Mount Dulit, in N. W. 
Borneo, by D r Bowdler Sharpe. Batrachostomus harterti, Zos- 
terops squamifrons, Geocichla everetti and Mesobucco eximius, 
new species, are described ; On a Collection of Birds from 
Central Nicaragua, by Osbert Sal vin and F. Du Cane Godman. 
Delattria sybiliie, new species, is described, etc. 

Number 15 contains : On the Birds of East Prussia, by 
Ernst Hartert ; On a new species of Flycatcher of the genus 
Hyliota, by D r G. Hartlaub. Hyliota nehrkorni, new species, 
is described and figured ; On the Genera Bambusicola and 
Arboricola, by W.-R. Ogilvie Grant. Arboricola ginqica, Son- 
nerat, figured ; On the Birds of Foochow and Swatoio, by 
John D. de la Touche ; On Birds from Mount Dulit, N. W. 



The Humming Bird. 129 

Borneo, by D'Bowdler Sharpe, continued. Calyptomenahosii 
Sharpc, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 189 c 2, p. 249, and Meso- 
bucco exiniius, Sharpe, Ibis 1892, p. 324. are figured. 

Number 16 contains : On the Bird s of Foockow and Swatow, 
by M. J.-D. de la Touche, continued, Gallinula coccineir es, 
Sclater, Ibis 1891, p. 44, figured ; On the Birds of East Prus- 
sia, by E. Hartert continued ; On a l/ltle known species of 
Lark of the Genus Otocorys, by Ernst Hartert, Otycoris ber- 
lepschi, Hartert. J. f. Ô. 1890. p. 103, figured ; On some 
extinct Birds of Queensland, by M. R. Lydekker ; On Birds 
collected in East Africa, by D r Bowdler Sharpe, conclu- 
ded. Francolinus gedgii,Ogilv. Grant, Ibis 1791, p. 124; 1892, 
p. 47, figured. 

This volume contains also an excellent critical review, by 
the Editor D r Philip Lutley Sclater, on all the most impor- 
tant Ornithological works published in 1891, and early part 
of 1892. 

1892. — Mémoires de la Société Zoologique de France. 
Tome V, l re , 2 e , 3 e et 4° parties. Paris. 

Contents. — Congrès ornithologique international : Eponges 
de la Mer Rcuge, by M. Emile Topsent ; Catalogue des Hep- 
tiles, Batraciens et Poissons du département de l'Indre, par 
MM. René Martin et Raymond Rollinat ; Description de la 
Glossiphonia tessellata, by D r Raphaël Blanchard ; Nouvelle 
espèce de Cochenille du dattier du Sahara, by Ad. Targioni 
Tozzetti ; Paguriens de la Melita, by Messrs Ed. Chevreux 
and E.-L. Bouvier ; Unionidœ de Bornéo, by Messrs Drouet 
and Chaper ; Faune herpétologique de Bornéo, by D 1 * F. Moc- 
quard ; Cladocères nouveaux du Congo, by Jules Richard ; 

Lépidoptères de la Côte de Malabar et de Ceylan, by 
Charles Oberthiir; Les oiseaux hybrides rencontrés à l'état sau- 
vage, by André Suchetet ; Cladocères et Copépodes d'eau 
douce, by MM. Jules de Guerne et Jules Richard ; Description 
de la Xerobdella lecomtei, by D r Raphael Blanchard ; Des- 
criptions de Diptères nouveaux, by J.-M.-F. Bigot,, etc. 

^1892. — Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad cientifica 
Antonio Alzate, Mexico. All what has been published of 
Vol. V. It contains many excellent papers, among which I 
call the attention of Zoologists to the one entitled: Resena 

DE UNA EXCURSION ALA CAVERNA DE CaCAHUAMILLPA Y A LA GROTA. 

Carlos Pacheo, by Ing. Guiilermo B. y Puga. 

Several new or rare species which were collected are des- 
cribed and figured. Among the plants, Breweria Mexicana, 
Var. floribunda, Yillada. 

In Mammals, two species of bats. Mor.mops Megalopiiylla 
and Chilonycteris rubiginosa. 

In Shells, Spiraxis cacahuamilpensis. sp. n. 

In Coleoptera, only one specimen of Cuoleya cacaiiuamil- 



130 The Humming Bird. 

pensis, in Diptera ; Pholeomya cacahuamilpensis, in Orthop- 

tera; Phalangopsis, Polyphaga and Lepisma cacahuamilpensis. 

In Araehnida, Phrynus, Drassus, Pholcus and Scutigera 

CACAHUAMILPENSIS. 

In Crustacea, Armadillo cacahuamilpensis and Porcellio 

MEXICANUS. 

1892. — Actes de la Société scientifique du Chili, tome I, 
large in-4, 119 pages of text. 

This Volume contains the Rules of the Society, List of 
Members, Reports of Meetings, and various scientific papers 
contributed by Members, among which : the Lizards of Chili, 
by Mr Ferdinand Lataste ; Genèse de l'or, by Mr A. -F. Nogues; 
Exploration of Sipotura, by Philibert Germain ; Entomologia 
chilena, by Edwin Reed; Rats of Chili, by F. Lataste, etc.; 
Mr Ferdinand Lataste, with several friends, were the promo- 
ters of this new Scientific Society, to which we wish the 
success it deserves. 

1892. — - The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, edited by 
Messrs Barret. Fowler, Champion, Mc Lachlan, Douglas, 
Saunders and Stainton. Second Series, Vol. III. London, 1892. 
— Price : sixpence, each part. 

This interesting volume contains a large number of contri- 
butions, chiefly on British Insects. 



Other publications received 

1892. — Everybody's Pocket CYCLOPiEDiA, by Don Lemon, 
London. — Price : sixpence. A very interesting book contai- 
ning most valuable informations of all descriptions. No one 
should be without it. 

Ornithologist and Oologist, by Frank Webster, Hy de Park, 
Mass. U. A. 

The Kansas City Scientist, Official organ of the Kansas 
City Academy of Science, Kansas City. U. A. 

The Canadian entomologist. Vol. XXIV, edited by Rev. 
G. J. S. Bethume. Port-Hope, Ontario, Canada. 

The Antigua Observer, Vol. XLV1I, edited by Daniel W. 
Scarville, City of Saint-John, Antigua- 

El Porvenir. Ano XV, edited by Antonio Araujo. L. Cartha- 
gena, Colombia. 

La Voz, Ano VIII, edited by J.-G. Abello. Santa-Marta, 
Republica de Colombia. 

The World, New-York. U. A. Pages 37 to 44 are exclu- 
sively dedicated to the Republic of Mexico. It gives a glowing 
account ot the actual condition of that country. 

Miscellanea Entomologica. Organe international, edited 
by Prof. E. Barthe, Montélimar, France. 



The Humming Bird. 131 

Feuille des Jeunes Naturalistes, ediied by M. Adrien 
Dolfus. Vingt-deuxième année. Paris, 1892. 

MeMOBIÀ QUE LA SeCRETARIA LE FOMENTO DE LA llCPUBLICA DE 

Guatemala présenta a la Assemblea Legislatiya en sus 
sessiones ordinarias de 4892. Guatemala, 189-2. 

Recompensas obtenidas por la Republica de Guatemala en 
la Exposicion universal de Paris, 1889. Guatemala. 

RULLETIN OF THE UNITED-STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM, N° 21. 

Washington. 

The Sporting Goods Review. London, 1892. 

La Nuova Citta America ed il R prinzapulka nel Nicaragua, 
by Désiré PecLor. Estratto dal « Cosmos di Guido Cora », 
Vol. X, 1889-1891. 

Exposé sommaire des Voyages et Travaux géographiques au 
Nicaragua dans le cours du xix c siècle, par Désiré Pector, 
« Annales Economiques ». Paris, 1891. 

Aperçu des Principales Communications relatives a la lin- 
guistique faites au Congrès International des Américanistes, 
1890, par Désiré Pector, « Revue Linguistique». Paris, 1890. 

José Triana, Notice historique, par Désiré Pector. « Archi- 
ves de la Société Américaine de France ». Paris, 1892, etc., 
etc. 



OBITUARY 



1891. — September 2 d , August Edler von Pelzen died 
in Vienna, aged 66. — August Edler von Pelzen was 
born at Prague on the 10 th of March 1825. Since his earlier 
youth, he was devoted to Natural History. First he studied 
Law and practised in the Vienna Courts. In the beginning 
of 1851, he obtained the place of Assistant to Doctor 
C. Diesing, with whom he remained until the death of the 
Doctor, in 1867. 

In 1 869, he was appointed Custos of the Ornithologieal 
and Mammalogical Collections, which had been under his 
care since 1852. 

His principal works are : Zur Ornithologie Brasjliens publis- 
hed in 1871. Birds of the Novara Expedition, and his Ornis, 
Vindoleonensis. His other memoirs were published in va- 
rious scientific journals. 

He was a learned and modest man, highly appreciated by 
those who knew him. 

1891. — December 6 th , Dom Pedro d'Alcantara, the late 
Emperor of Brazil, died in Paris, at the early age of 66. — 
Dom Pedro was born the 2 d of December 1825. He was only 
six years old when his father abdicated in his favour. In 
1840, he was crowned Emperor. 

Since that date, he reigned peacefully, and Brazil did 
progress immensely during that time. 



132 The Humming Bird. 

To him is due the abolition of slavery in Brazil. He was a 
learned Scientist, and to the last, he showed a great interest 
in Zoology and Geography. 

A few days before his death, he assisted to the meeting of 
the French Institute, to which scientific body, he belonged as 
Foreign Member. Very often be presided the meetings, of the 
Geographical Society of Paris, and it is not long ago that 
he came to London, and visited the Royal Geographical 
Society. M. H.-W. Bates, who was then the Assistant Secre- 
tary, had the honour to attend him. Although Dom Pedro 
was a very liberal monarch, a revolution resulting in the 
proclamation of the Republic in Brazil, took place the 15 th 
of November 1890, and he was obliged to abdiquate and 
leave the country with all his family. He came to France 
and resided alternately on the Riviera, or in Paris. 

Shortly after his arrival in France, he lost his wife, the 
Empress. 

1891. — December 7 th , M. Alphand, Director of the public 
works of Paris, died aged 74. He succumbed to cerebral con- 
gestion complicated with palsy. M. Alphand was born the 
26 th October 1817, and was a well known figure in Paris. It 
is him who had the direction of the parks and promenades. 
He had been selected for that post by the celebrated Baron 
Haussmann. All those who have visited the International Ex- 
hibitions of 1S67, 1878 and 1889 will remember how he trans- 
formed the Trocadero and Champ de Mars in delightful gar- 
dens, the admiration of all the Visitors. In 1889, he was 
appointed General Director of the Works of the Exhibition, 
and he surpassed himself. It was a real pleasure to see him on 
the grounds. By his activity and talents, he contributed im- 
mensely to the success of the Exhibition. His nomination as 
Grand Gordon de la. Légion d'honneur, was the reward, of his 
efforts. He was a Knight of the same Order since 1882. 

1891. — December 22 d . Mgr Freppel, Bishop of Angers, 
died in that town, aged 64. — Charles-Emile Freppel was 
born at Obernay (Bas-Rhin) the first of July 1827. He made 
his studies at the Seminary of Strassburg. He was appointed 
Professor of Theology at the Sorbonne somewhere in 1854, 
and occupied that chair up to 1870. In 1S68, he was nomi- 
nated Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur. In 1870, he was 
promoted Bishop of Angers. In 1880, he was elected Deputy 
for the Department of Finistère, which he represented up to 
the time of his death. 

In the Legislative Chamber, he was a prominent member 
and deliverednot less than 120 discourses on several subjects ; 
but chiefly against the laïcisation of schools, and such like. 
He was the author of twenty-eight volumes treating of reli- 
gious matters, 



The Humming Bird. 133 

1892. — January 12 th , Armand de Quatrefages deBréau, 
Member oftheFrencliInslitiite,Professor in the Paris Museum, 
died in Paris aged 82. He succumbed suddenly without any 
apparent suffering. — Armand de Quatrefages was born at 
Berthezène, a small village in the Gévennes (Hérault), France, 
on the 10 th of February 1810. He was first educated by a 
young pastor. Later on, he went to the college of Tournon, 
where he was remarked and befriended by his professor, 
Mr Sornin , who took him at Strassburg, where he was 
appointed Professor of Astronomy to the Faculty of Sciences. 
During his stay in Strassburg he studied mathematics, and 
at the early age of nineteen, he conquered his diploma of 
Doctor in Mathematics. In 1832, he passed successfully his 
examinations as a Doctor in Medicine, after which he retired 
in Toulouse amongst his family. During his stay in that town, 
he edited the Journal de médecine et de chirurgie. But the 
study of Natural Sciences had a great attraction for him, and 
he soon abandoned his career as a Doctor, and accepted the 
modest employment of Professor of Zoology in the Faculty 
of Sciences. With the very small credit of 90 francs monthly, 
he created there a small Museum, but his ambition was to come 
to Paris, and after some difficulty, his family consented to his 
departure. When in Paris, he made the acquaintance of 
Messrs Agassiz, Vogt, Milne-Edwards, and other Scientists. 
Since 1840, when he obtained his Diploma of Doctor in Natu- 
ral Sciences, up to his last day, he worked constantly, and his 
fame increased. In 1852, he was elected Member of the Aca- 
demy of Sciences, and three years after he was nominated 
Proiessor of Anthropology in the Paris Museum, where he 
professed to the last. His works are too numerous to mention 
in this brief notice; but I will just mention the Souvenirs 
d'un Naturaliste , in which he describes in a charming- 
manner, his stays on the shores of the Atlantic and Mediter- 
raneanSeas, studying the inferior animals, and the fi ne works 
which he published on the nature and origin of Man. 

Armand de Quatrefages is the Creator of the fine anthro- 
pological Collection in the Paris Museum, whichis considered 
the best one in Europe. He was very amiable and modest, 
and it is a great loss for Science. 

1892. — January 14 th , Duke of Clarence, the eldest son 
of Prince of Wales, died in London at the early age of 28. 
He succumbed from a severe attack of influenza, after a few 
days illness. — The Duke of Clarence was born the 8 th of 
January 1864. Science had a great attraction for him. His loss 
so unexpected and at such a time, on the eve of his marriage, 
was deeply felt by the reigning family, by all England, and 
by the Word at large. 

Numerous messages of sympathy and condolance were 



134 The Bumming Bird. 

sent from all parts to Her Majesty the Queen, and to their 
Royal Highnesses, Prince and Princess of Wales. 

He was temporally buried at Windsor, on the 20 th of Ja- 
nuary. Business was entirely stopped in London during the 
day of the funeral, and tokens of mourning were conspicuous 
everyhere. 

Religious Ceremonies were celebrated in Paris, in all the 
European Capitals, and in many other places. 

1892. — February 16 th , Henry Walter Bates, Traveller 
Naturalist, Fellow of the Royal Society, Assistant Secretary 
of the Geographical Society, etc., died in London, aged 67 
(See Humming Bird ,Vol. II, p.p. 24-26). 

1892. — March 7 th , Etienne Arago, Keeper of the Luxem- 
bourg Museum, died in Paris, aged 89, after an illness 
which kept him three months in bed. — He was brother of 
the illustrious astronomer Francois Arago. Both were born 
at Estagel (Pyrénées-Orientales). First he studied chimistry, 
but soon left it for literature. About one hundred of his plays 
were represented in various theatres. He has also publis- 
hed a very interesting work, 1'Hotel de Ville de Paris au 
4 Septembre et pendant le Siège. In February 1871 , he was 
elected Deputy for the Department of Pyrénées-Orientales ; 
but he soon resigned to resume his literary works. 

1892. — May 2 d , Hermann- Charles Burmeister, Ex-Direc- 
tor of the National Museum of Buenos-Ayres, Argentine Repu- 
blic, died at Buenos-Ayres, at the age of 85, from the result of 
an accident. — Hermann -Charles-Conrad Burmeister was 
born at Stralsund in 1817. Whilst a student of Medicine at 
Halle, he studied Zoology under Nitsch, and took his degree of 
Doctor in Philosophy in 1 829. In 1842, he succeeded Nitsch to 
the Chair of Zoology at Halle, and continued there till 1848; 
but long before that he had become well known by his wri- 
tings, especially on Entomology. His Handbuch der Entomo- 
logie, which he began in 1832, and finished in 1817, is with 
the History of Creation, 18i3, amongst his most important 
works. About 1850, he vent to Brazil where he spent two 
years collecting. Later on, he returned to South America, 
and became Director of the National Museum of Buenos- 
Ayres, which post he occupied until shortly before his death. 

In 1861, he published his Reise durch die la Plata Staaten, 
in two volumes, the second of which is devoted to a Synopsis 
of theVertebrates of the Argentine Republic. He also publis- 
hed in the « Anales del Museo publico de Buenos-Ayres », 
some very interesting notes on the wonderful Mammals of 
the Argentine tertiaries. 

Doctor Carlos Berg, his former Assistant, has succeeded 
qim in the Directorship of the Museum. 



The Humming Bird. 135 

1892. — May 14 lh , Doctor Carl-August Dohrn, died at 
Stettin, aged 86. He succumbed from the results of an attack 
of influenza, — Carl-August Dohrn. the Veteran Entomologist 
of world reknown, was born on the 27 th of June 1^00. 
During his life, he corresponded with all the principal Ento- 
mologists of the World, and formed a very fine and valuable 
Collection of Coleoptera. He was President of the Entomo- 
logical Society of Stettin from 1843 to 1887, in which year 
he retired, and was succeeded by his eldest son, D r Heinrich 
Dohrn. His younger son is the well known D r Anton Dohrn, 
the founder of the Zoological Aquarium at Naples. 

He edited the Entomol zeitung, the organ of the Stettin 
Society, during many years, and many of his memoirs, and 
descriptions of new species of Coleoptera, were published 
in that Journal. 

1892.— August 23 d , Marshal daFonseca, First President 
of the Republic of Brazil, died at Rio-Janeiro. He was appoin- 
ted President on the 25 th of February 1891 ; but resigned the 
post in 1892. He was the principal instigator of the Revolu- 
tion, 15 th November 1889, which caused the fall of Dom Pedro. 

18C2. — October 2 d , Ernest Renan, Professor at the Col- 
lège de France, died in Paris, aged 68. He succumbed from 
bronchitis, after a very short illness and without much 
suffering. — Ernest Renan was born in 1823, at Treguier, 
Brittany. He first studied in his native town, next in Paris in 
the Seminary of Saint-Nicolas du Chardonneret, then direc- 
ted by the abbot Dnpanloup, raised afterwards to the di- 
gnity of Bishop of Orléans. 

Three years after, he went to Issy, a succursal of Saint- 
Sulpice. When there, he felt for the first time that he had 
lost faith in his first vocation to be a priest. So he resolved 
to leave the seminary, which he did shortly after. 

Being poor, he made his living by giving lessons ; but at 
the same time he continued his studies on Philology, and 
conquered all his universitary degrees, including that of 
Philosophy. In 1856, his reputation as a Philologer was esta- 
blished, and the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles- Lettres 
gave him the succession of Augustin Thierry. 

In 1862, he was nominated Professor of Hebrew, at the 
Collège de France. In 1878. he was elected Member of the 
French Academy, an 1 successively was created from Chevalier 
to Grand-Croix de la Légion d'honneur. Renan did notbelieve 
in the divinity of Jésus, and when he published his work : la 
Vie de Jésus, Renan's name was made known all over theWorld. 

Some exalted him immensely, others did the reverse. 
Renan at that time was the man more spoken of. Renan 
published many other works, among which the most cele- 
brated are: the ArOTRES, Saint-Pa vjl, Dialogues philosophiques, 



136 The Humming Bird. 

Souvenirs d'enfance et de jeunesse, le Prêtre de Némi, 

I'AbBESSE DE JOUARRE, le JUDAÏSME, ETC., ETC. 

His qualities as a writer gave him one of the first places 
in modern Literature. 

His funerals have been celebrated with magnificence, at 
the cost of the French Government, and it has been decreed, 
that his remains should be deposited in the Panthéon. 

4 892. — October 6 th , Alfred Tennyson, the English Poet 
Laureate, died in London, aged hi, after a short malady. 
Alfred Tennyson was born in 1809 at his father's parsonage 
at Somerly, Lincolnshire. He was partly educated at home 
and at a local boarding school. In due time, he proceeded to 
Trinity College, Cambridge, where he gained the Chancel- 
lor's Medal for a prize poem, entitled : Timbuctoo. 

Up to 1850, appeared several of his poems, such as the 
Palace of Art, a Dream of Fair Women, the Lady of 
Shallot, the May Queen, Lady Clare Vere de Vere, Dora, the 
Gardener's Daughter, Locksley Hall, Mort d'Arthur, etc. 

In 1850, In Memoriam, which produced a great sensation. 
Shortly after, he was appointed Poet Laureate. His official 
poems have generally marked the death or marriage of 
some member of the reigning house. Of all these, the finest 
is the Dedication of the Idylls of the King to Queen Victoria. 
Maud was published in 1855, Enoch ARDENin 1864, the Win- 
dow or the Songs of the Wrens in 1870, the Lover's Tale in 
1879, Sixty Years After in 188H, Demeter in 1889. 

Nearly ten years ago, Tennyson accompanied Mr Gladstone 
on a cruise in northern seas, and early in 1884, he accepted 
a peerage, which descends to his only surviving son, Hallain 
Tennyson. On the l2 lh , the remains of Tennyson were laid 
to rest in the Poet's Corner, in Westminster Abbey. 

1892. — October 12 th , Xavier Marmier, Member of the 
French Academy, Ex-Keeper of the Library of Sainte- 
Geneviève, died in Paris, aged 82. — Mr Xavier Marmier, was 
born at Ponlarlier in 1809, was chiefly a writer of travels. 
He was a distinguished linguist. He was elected a Member 
of the French Academy in 1870. 

One of his best books is entitled : Le Succès par la Persé- 
vérance. 

He was very fond of buying books on the Paris quays, 
where he was well known. In his will, he left a sum of one 
thousand francs to the Quay's booksellers, this money to be 
spent in a banquet on the day of his funerals. For some 
reasons, this banquet did not take place on that day, but 
a few days ago. 



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TO THE MEMORY OF LINNÉ, 

The Father of Systematic Classification, and 
Binominal Nomenclature» 



GENERA OF HUMMING BIRDS, 

By A. Boucard. 

CLASS AVBS (BIRDS). 
DIVISION PSILOPAEDES, SUND, 1872. 

Young at birth, helpless, and entirely naked. Life sustained 
by the introduction of food into the throat by means of the 
parents bill. Nest occupied until the birds are full grown. 

TROCHILI, Boucard, Cat, Av., 1876. 
Order of Humming Birds. 

Picarian birds with the palate nearly cegitognathous, possess- 
ing but one carotid artery, the sinistra, a nude oil gland and 
no coeca. The femoro caudal and ambious muscles are alone 
present, the flexor longus halucis, independent of the flexor 
perforans digitorum, tensor patagii brevis, pterylosis and 
sternum characteristic. Second, third, and fourth toes directed 
forwards, the hallux backwards, body small, sometimes minute. 
Bill varying from feeble to stout, generally longer than the 
head, straight or curved with a short gap devoid of bristles. 
Nostrils, basal, linear, covered by an operculum, sometimes 
hidden in frontal feathers. Tongue slender, filiform, capable 
of great extension, ~ consisting of two minute parallel tubes. 
Wings narrow, pointed, the primaries, ten in number, stiff and 
long, the secondaries very short. The manus is very long, and 
the humerus very short, enabling the wing to be moved with 
great rapidity. Sternum large with deep keel. Tail composed 
of ten feathers varying greatly in shape and size. Tarsi short, 
either naked or clothed. Feet extremely small, toes short, 
claws curved and rather large. Plumage generally of the most 
brilliant metallic hues, equal to the brilliancy of precious stones, 
sometimes sombre. Females with very few exceptions, plain 
coloured. 

o 



2 - Genera of Humming Birds. 

FAMILY I. TROCHILIDiE, 

Or Family of Humming Birds. 

Bonaparte, 1831. 

Body small, sometimes very minute. Bill slender, straight 
or curved, shorter or longer than the head with feathers at 
base. Throat in males with only one exception, M. Minima^ 
always covered with brilliant metallic feathers, crimson, lilac, 
red, etc. Females plainly coloured, with a patch of metallic 
feathers on throat, when fully adult. Underside, white, grey 
or puff. Tail very changeable in form and in length, according 
to species. 

I commence my classification with the Genus Trochilus, as 
the most proper, being the first name proposed by Linné for 
these beautiful birds, and from which the names of the Order 
and first Family derive. 

Then I continue with the various Genera closely and 
naturally allied one to another. Excepting for the few species, 
which I don't possess, the descriptions are taken from the birds 
in my collection. 

Genus i. — Trochilus, Linné, Syst. Nat. 1766, Vol. I., 

p. 189. 

Cynanthus, Boie, Isis, 1831. 

Colubris, Reich, Syst. Av. Nat., 1849, pi. 40. 

Archilochus, Reich, Troch, Enum, 1855, p. 10. 

Ornysmia, Muls and Verr, Class. Troch, 1865, p. 91. 

Type. — T. colubris, Linné. 

Bill straight, about same length as the head ; wings short, 
tail forked, rectrices pointed. Nostrils hidden by frontal 
feathers, throat adorned with bright metallic feathers. Sexes 
unlike in plumage. 

i. Trochilus colubris, Linné, Syst. Nat. 1766, Tom. 1, 

p. 191. 

Red Throated Humming Bird, Edwards, Hist., t. 1, p. 36. 

Le Petit Rubis de la Caroline, Briss, Ornith, t. 3, p. 38. 

Habitat, North America to Veragua, Cuba, Bahamas, and 
Bermudas. 

Male. — Upperside and flanks bronzy-green, chin black, 
throat metallic ruby red, Breast and underside white, tinged 
with green. Medium rectrices golden green, lateral purplish 
brown, frill black. 



Genera of Humming Birds. J& 

* Total length, 3* in.; wings, if; tail, if; Culmen, if. 
Female. — Upperside pale golden green, underside white. 

2. Trochilus alexandri, Bourc and Muls, Ann. Soci. 
Science, Lyon, (1846). 

Purple Throated Humming Bird, Gould, Monogr. Troch, 
Vol. III., p. 131. 

L'Ornysme d Alexandre Muls. Hist. nat. des. Oiseaux, 
mouches, t. 4, p. 62. 

Habitat. California and Mexico. 

Male. — Head dark brown. Upperside bronzy-green. 
Throat, black, bounded beneath by a brilliant band of metallic 
purple, a pure white band on breast, abdomen and flanks grey 
spotted with bronze feathers. Undertail coverts white with 
metallic green central spots, medium retrices bronzy-green, 
lateral black, glossed with green, bill straight and black. 

Total length, 3! in. ; wing, if ; tail, \\\ Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside metallic green, dull on top of head. 
Underside grayish with centre of abdomen white, central 
feathers metallic green, lateral greenish gray at base, then 
black with whitish rufous tips, in some these tips are pure 
while. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Alexander in Mexico, 
and it was dedicated to him by Messrs. Bourcier and 
Mulsant. 

It is a rare species ; but I have been fortunate in getting a 
fine series from San Diego, co. California. 

3. Trochilus Violajugulum, JerT. Auk. 1888, p. 168. 

Purple Throated Humming Bird. Oiseau mouche à gorge 
violette. Habitat. Santa Barbara (California). 

Male. — Upperside metallic green and gold, dull on forehead. 
Throat metallic violet with bluish reflections. Chin and line 
between gôrget dull, a dull gray belt across the breast behind 
the throat. Breast and abdomen metallic green. Flanks green 
tipped with brown, ventral medium lines dullish. Wings 
purple-black. Primaries broad to tip, that of the first curved 
back, graduated in length from first to last. Tail slightly forked, 
feathers broad except the last pair, which are abruptly narrow 
and linear. Middle feathers and base of second pair, metallic 
green, rest dark with a distinct purple hue. Under tail-coverts 
white with metallic green central spots. 

* Although I give the total length for each species, it is not to be 
relied upon, in the strict sense of the word ; as the total length depends 
entirely from who prepared the skin. It is just as easy, when skinning, 
to shorten or lengthen the skin, by one inch, less Of more, according to 
frize of bird. 



4 . ''Genera of Humming Birds. 

Total length, 360; wing, 182 ; tail, 118; culmen, 75. It 
resembles very much to C. Annœ, less the crown patch and 
the violet of the throat, instead of saphire. It is also distin- 
guishable from T. Alexandri. by its larger size, broad primaries, 
and all the peculiarities of the tail. 

Only one specimen of this species is known. It is in 
Jeffries Collection. Mr. Jeffries says " As but one specimen 
was procured, it might be a hybrid between T. Alexandri and 
C. Lucifer ; but this is highly improbable, as it lacks the ruff 
and crown patch of one, and has a different wing and tail from 
either. It is more between T. Alexandri and C. Annœ\ but 
it lacks the crown patch of the latter." 

I should like very much to possess one specimen of this 
remarkable species, as by the description alone, it seems to me 
to be only a race of Trochilus Alexandri. 

In some of my specimens of T. Alexandri the tail is similar 
to this species. In another, kindly offered to me by the 
authorities of Smithsonian Institution, and which was collected 
by Mr. Henshaw, at Sonoita Valley, Arizona, the bill is \ inch 
longer than in those of San Diego Co. 

Genus IL— Calypte, Gould Int. Troch., 1861, p. 87. 

Type O. costae, Bourcier. 

Bill longer than the head, straight or slightly arched. Feathers 
of crown and throat, brilliantly metallic. Tail short, the three 
outer feathers stiff, narrow and slightly incurved, tarsi clothed. 
Feet small, hind and fore toes nearly equal in length, the 
metallic feathers on sides of neck very elongated. 

4. Calypte CosTjE. Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1836, p. 294. 

Mellisuga costce, Gray, Gen. of Birds. Vol. I., p. 113. 

Selasphorus costcs, Bonap., Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, p. 52. 

Atthis costoz, Reich, Aufz. der Colibr, 1853, p. 12. 

Leucaria costœ, Muls., Hist. Nat. des Ois. mou. t. IV., p. 69. 

Costa'' s Calypte, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. III., p. 1.14. 

Leucarie de Costa, Muls., Hist. nat. des Ois mou. t. IV., p. 69. 

Habitat. Mexico and California. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy green, head, throat and elongated 
feathers of neck metallic purple with lilac and blue reflections, 
according to light. Breast and centre of abdomen pure 
white. Flanks pale bronzy green, undertail coverts white, bronzy 
green at centre. I'ail green, two outer rectrices brownish gray 
with black tips, bill black. 

Total length, 2-Jin. ; wing, if ; tail, 1 ; culmen, f. 

Female, Upperside bronzy-green, greyish on top of head. 
Underside grayish-white, throat with a tew feathers forming 



Ginera of Humming Birds. 5 

spot, metallic lilac. Median rectrices bronzy green, lateral, 
gray at base, then black with white tips. 

This fine species was dedicated to Marquis Costa de 
Beauregard, who was a very enthusiast collector, and had in his 
time one of the finest collection of Humming Birds. 

I bought his collection in 1878, and I found among many 
rare species, what I consider as the types, male and female of 
this species. 

*5» Calypte floresii, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. III., p. 139. 

Sdasphorus floresii, Gould, Mon. Troch., Vol. III., p. 139. 
Floresi's Flame-beaj-er, Gould, Mon. Troch., Vol. III., p. 139. 
Le Selasphore de Floresi, Muls., Hist. Nat., Ois. m. t. IV., 

p. 98. 

Habitat, Bolanos, Mexico. 

Male, — Back bronzy green, crown and throat metallic 
scarlet with violet reflections. Underside grayish white, 
excepting flanks, which are bronzy green. Wings purplish brown. 
Median retrices green with purple reflections, outer webs of 
lateral feathers purple, inner deep reddish buff, bill black. 

Total length, 3J; wing, if; tail, if; culmen, f. 

Female. — Unknown ; probably like C. costœ. 

This remarkable species was discovered in .1845 by Mr. 
Floresi, who sent it to Mr. Georges Loddiges. It is unique, 
and still in the Loddiges Collection. 

6. Calypte ann;e, Less, Ois, Mouch. 1829, p. 20 S« 

Ornysmia annœ, Less, Ois, Mouch. 1829, p. 205. 
Troehilus anna, Aud, B. Amer. Vol. iv, p. 425. 
Meltisuga anna, Gray, Gen. of Birds. Vol. i., p. 113. 
Selasphorus anna, Bp. Consp. Gen. Av. 1850, p. 52. 
Atthis anna, Reich, Aufz der Colib. 1853, p. 12. 
Anna's Calypte, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. iii., p. 135. 
Calypte d'Anna, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois Mouch, t. iv. p. 74. 
Habitat — Mexico and California. 
Male. — Upper side golden green. Head, throat and 
elongated feathers of neck metallic crimson. Breast and centre 
of abdomen grey. Flanks golden green. Under-tail coverts 
golden green edged with grey. Median rectrices golden green, 
lateral dark brown with pale margins. Bill black. 

Total length, 3§in. : wing, i|, and tail, if. Culmen, f. 
Female.— Upperside golden green. Underside grey with 
flanks golden green. Throat spotted in middle with metallic 

* All the species marked so * are those which I have not got and am 
willing to purchase. 



6 G4nera of Humming Birâî % 

crimson red feathers. Median rectrices golden green, lateral 
grey at base, then golden green, then black, the two outer 
feathers tipped with white. Bill black. 

This species was dedicated to Mrs. Anna, Duchess of Rivoli, 
wife of Mariscal Massena, who formed a very fine collection of 
.Birds, which is now the property of the Academy of Sciences 
of Philadelphia, United States. 

I have killed many specimens of both sexes of this species 
in San Francisco, California, where it is abundant. 

7. Calypte hèlent, Lembeye, Aves, Isle of Cuba. 1850, 

p. 70. 

Orthorhynchus boothi, Gund, Jour, fur Ornith. 1856, p. 99. 

Helena s Calypte, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. III., p. 136. 

Le Calypte d'Hélène, Mills. Hist. nat. Ois. Mou., t. iv., p. 78. 
Habitat — Cuba. 

Male. — Upperside and flanks greenish blue. Head, throat 
and elongated feathers of neck metallic crimson. Underside 
whitish. Tail metallic greenish blue. Wings purplish brown. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 2§in. Wing, if. Tail, |-. Culmen, \, 

Female. — Upperside dark green changing into bluish green 
on the lower part of back. Underside greyish white. Median 
rectrices dark bluish green, lateral bluish green at base, rest 
black tipped white, bill black. 

This diminutive species, the smallest known, was discovered 
at Cadenas (Cuba) by Doctor Jean Gundlach. It is still very 
rare. I have only one young male in my collection. 



Genus III. Mellisuga, Brisson, Ornith, 1760, t. Ill , p. 695. 
Dyrinia, Muls and Verr., Class Troch., 1865, p. 88. 

Type T. Minimus, Linné. 

Bill straight, shorter than the head, rather wide at base, 
graduating to a point. Wings long and primaries narrow. 
Tail slightly forked. No parure. Sexes alike. Size very minute. 
Habitat, Jamaica, Haiti, Sto. Domingo. 

8. Mellisuga Minima. Linn, Syst. Naturae, 1766. Vol. I. 

P- 193- 
Le plus petit Oiseau mouche, Buff. PI. enlum, 276, rig. 1. 
Trochilus Minutulus, Vieill, Ois. Amer., Sept. 1807, t. 2, p. 73. 
Trochilus Vieilloti, Shaw. Gen. Zool-, Vol. VIII., p. 347. 
~ Ornysmia Minima, Less, Oiseaux. Mouch, 1829, pi. 79. 
Mellisuga Hu mills, Gosse, B. Jamaica, 1847, p. 127. 
Trochilus Ca-thtrinte.. Salle, Rev. Zool., 1849, p. 49S. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 7 

Hylocharis Nigra, Gray, Gen. of Birds, Vol. I., p. 114. 

Hylochar is Niger, Bon. Consp., Gen. Av., 1850. Vol. L, p.81. 

Dyrinia Minima, Muls and Verr, Class Troch., 1865, p. 88. 

Little Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., Vol. III., p. 133. 

Le Mellisuge le plus Petit, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 83. 

Habitat. Jamaica, Hayti, Sto. Domingo. 

Male. — Upperside shining dark green. Throat white 
speckled with minute brown spots. Breast and centre of 
abdomen white. Flanks and undertail coverts green marked 
with gray. Median rectrices green, the remainder of tail black. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 2§in ; wing, if; tail, J: culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside, light shining green. Throat, breast, 
and abdomen white. Flanks, golden green, tinged with gray. 
Tail green at base, then black, the lateral feathers tipped white. 

A little smaller than the male. 

Rather abundant in Jamaica ; but rare in the collections. 

Genus IV. Selasphorus, Swains, Faun. bor. americ. 
1831, vol. ii., p. 496. 
Type : Selasphorus rufus, Gmelin, 

Bill straight. Feathers of the neck elongated, metallic. 
Wings short, the quills narrowed and sometimes pointed. Tail 
moderately graduated, tips mucronate. 

9. Selasphorus rufus, Swains, Faun. bor. americ. 1831, 

vol. ii., p. 496. 
Rufous, Flame-bearer, Gould, Monog. Troch. vol. iii., p. 137. 
Trochilus ruber, L. Syst. Nat. 1766, vol. i., p. 193. 
Ruff necked Hemming Bird, Lath. Gen. Syst., 1781, vol. ii., 

P. 785. 

Le Sasin, Aud & Vieill, Oiseaux dorés, T. i., p. 110. 

Mellisuga rubra, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Selasphorus alleni, Henshaw, Bull. Nutt. Ornith, Club, 1877, 
vol. ii., p. 54. 

Selasphorus henshatvi, Elliot, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 1877, 
vol. ii., p. 54. 

Habitat. — Vancouver to South Mexico. 

Male. — Head and back bronzy green. Back sometimes 
rufous. Sides of the head, rump, flanks and undertail coverts 
rufous. Throat brilliant metallic coppery red. Breast and centre 
of abdomen white. Wings purplish brown. Tail short, cuneate, 
acutely pointed. Median rectrices broad, tips of lateral ones 
very narrow. Bill straight, black. Tail, black. 

Total length, 3fin. Wing, i|. Tail, ij. Culmen, f. 

Female. — upperside bronzy green. Underside whitish. 
Flanks and undertail coverts pale rufous. Throat white with 



8 Genera of Bumming Birds. 

rufous spots. In the centre several metallic red spots. Median 
rectrices green, lateral ones rufous at base, then green, then 
black, tipped white. Bill black. 
* This species was discovered by Captain Cook. 

I found it abundantly in California and in Mexico. 

I have united Selaphorus henshawi and Selaphorus atleni 
with this species, as I do not see the differences which 
distinguish them. 1 have a fine series of this species from 
Vancouver Island to South Mexico. 

Some from Vancouver and Arizona have the head and centre 
of back metallic green, remainder buff. Some from San 
Francisco, California, have the head and all the back metallic 
green ; but I have also some with the head dull brown and the 
back buff spotted all over with green feathers. Others from 
Lower California, New Mexico, Arizona and Mexico have the 
head greenish brown and the back: entirely buff. I think that 
the greenish plumage of the back belongs to those which are in 
nuptial plumage. It must be so ; as in California, and 
especially in the neighbourhood of San Francisco, the place 
where they nest, I have killed many specimens in nuptial 
plumage. After the breeding season, they emigrate to Lower 
California, Arizona and Mexico. The adults are then with 
faded plumage and the young in immature plumage, and 
both rufous on back. 

10. Selaphorus scintilla, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 

p. 138. 

Little Flame-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 138. 

Selasphore etincelant^ Muls. His. Nat. des Ois. M., t. iv., p. 105. 

Habitai, — Costa Rica and Veragua (Columbia). 

Male. — Upperside dark golden green. Throat metallic 
coppery red, breast white, abdomen rufous, flanks golden green. 
Tail rufous with a median line of purplish black on the central 
feathers, external rufous on inner web, purplish black on the 
outer. Maxilla black, mandibles flesh colour at base, rest black. 
Length of wing, ijinch. Tail, \\. Oilmen, f. 

Its very small size distinguishes that species from S. rufus, to 
which it is very allied by its' coloration. 

I have two male specimens from Chiriqui (Veragua) and four 
specimens collected by myself at Cartago (Costa Rica). 

Female. — Head blackish brown. Back golden green. Throat 
white spotted with buff. Breast and abdomen white. Flanks 
and undertail coverts rufous. Median rectrices bronze green 
margined with rufous, lateral rufous with a subterminal black 
bar. Bill black. . . . 

This species was discovered by M. Warszewich on the Volcano 
of Chiriqui. ... . • ,-. : ... 



Genera of Humming Birds. 9 

11. Selaphorus ardens, Sal v. P.Z.S., 1870, p. 209. 

Salvias Flame-bearer, Gould, Suppl. Mon. Troch, pi. 42. 

SelaspJiore à cravate d'un rouge ordent, Muls. Hist. nat. des Ois. 
m., t. iv., p. 103. 

Habitat. — Veragua ( Columbia). 

Male. — Upper side bronzy-green. Lores and ear-coverts 
rufous, the latter mixed with black. Throat metallic 
amethystine red. Breast pure white with a rufous bar under- 
neath. Abdomen and undertail-coverts whitish with centre 
rufous. Planks greenish-rufous. Tail purplish-black mar- 
gined with rufous. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Length of wing, 1\ in. Tail, 1 \. Culmen, -§. 

Female. — Upper side bronzy-green. Throat buff y -white 
spotted with brown. Breast white. Abdomen and flanks 
rufous. Middle tail feathers bronzy -green with black tips 
and edged rufous, lateral ones buff with a black bar across in 
their central part. Bill black. 

This species is scarcely larger than L. scintilla. It was dis- 
covered on the volcano of Chiriqui, Veragua (Columbia), by 
Mr. Arcé. 

I have two very fines males and one female of this rare 
species. 

12. Selasphorus platycercus, Swains, Ann. Phil. 1827, 

p. 441. 

Ornismya tricolor, Less, Ois. Mou. 1829, p. 125. 

Ornismya montana. Less, Trochil. pp. 161, 163. 

Mellisuga platycerça, Gray, Gen. of Birds. Vol. I, p. 113. 

Broad Tailed Flame-bearer, Gould, Monog. Troch. Vol. III. 
p. 140. 

S'elasphore à large queue, Muls. Hist. Nat. des. Ois. m. Vol. IV., 
p. 95. 

Habitat. — North America to Guatemala. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. White spot under the eye. 
Throat metallic amethystine-red. Breast white with rufous 
band on the sides. Abdomen and undertail coverts whitish 
grey. Flanks bronzy green. Median rectrices bronzy-green ; 
laterals blackish-brown margined with rufous, underneath 
bluish-black, very slightly margined with rufous. Wings and 
bill black. 

Length of wing, \\ in. Tail, If. Çulmen, f. 



10 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Female.— Upperside bronzy-green. Throat white spotted 
with brown. Breast and abdomen and undertail-coverts 
whitish-grey. Flanks rufous. Middle tail-feathers bronzy 
green, lateral buff at base, remaining portion black with 
white tips. Bill black. Sometimes the throat is speckled 
with several metallic amethystine red feathers. 

This species is rather common in Mexico, where I collected 
many specimens. 

13. Sblasphorus flammula Salv. P.Z.S. 1864, p. 586. 

Rosy throated Flame-bearer, Gould, Suppl. Monog. Troch. 
p. 42. 
. Selasphore flammule, Muls. Hist. nat. des Ois. m. t. iv., p. 100. 

Habitat. — Costa Rica and Veragua (Columbia). 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat metallic lilac-red, 
quite peculiar. Breast and abdomen white. Flanks bronzy 
green slightly margined with buff. Undertail-coverts white 
with base rufous. Median rectrices bronzy-green margined 
with buff, lateral purplish-black margined with rufous. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing, If. Tail, \\. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Upperside bronzy- green. Throat white speckled 
with small bronzy green spots. Breast and abdomen white. 
Undertail-coverts buff. Median rectrices bronzy-green edged 
with rufous, lateral black with buffy white tips. Bill black. 

I found this species nearly at the summit of Volcano Irazu, 
Cartago (Costa Rica.) 

The type of this species (from Sal vin & Godman's Collec- 
tion), is in the collection of the British Museum, and is a poor 
specimen. It was discovered by Arcé. 

* 14. Selasphorus Torridus, Salv. P.Z.S., 1870, p. 208. 

Torrid Flame-bearer Gould, Suppl. Mon. Troch, p. 41. 

Le Selasphore brûlé, Muls. Hist. Nat. des. Ois. Mou. T. iv., 
p. 101. 

Habitat.— Volcano of Chiriqui, Veragua, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat metallic pale 
purple-lilac with silvery reflections, somewhat like S.flammula, 
but very distinct, feathers on the sides of neck elongated 
as in S. flammula. Breast and middle of abdomen white. 



Genera of Humming Birds, 11 

Flanks green. Undertail-coverts buffy- white, the rest, as 
5. fla?nmula. 
Total length, 2f in. Wing, 1|. Tail, \\. Culmen, f. 
Female. — Exactly the same as S. flammula. : 

This fine species was discovered by Arcé on the Volcano of 
Chiriqui, Veragua. It is represented in the Collection of the 
British Museum by seven adult males, 1 male junior and 2 
females, all from Messrs. Salvin and Godman Collection. 



Genus V. Catharma Elliot, Ibis, 1876, p. 400. 
Type : O. orthura, Lesson. 

Bill longer than the head, broad at base, pointed at tip. 
Wings long reaching beyond the centre of the tail, which is 
extremely short and almost square. 

Habitat. — Guiana and Venezuela. 

15. Catharma ortura, Less. Hist. Nat. Trochil 1831, 

pp. 85—88. 

Trochilus orturus, Reich, Aufz. der. Colib. 1853, p. 12. 

Tryphœna ortura, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 257. 

Lesson's Flame-bearer, Gould, Suppl. Mon. Troch. p. 43. 

Le Catharme à queue droite, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch. t. iv., 
p. 66. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Behind the eye a small, 
white spot. Throat metallic amethystine-red, beneath 
which is a narrow white band. Centre of abdomen white. 
Flanks bronzy green, edged with buff. Median rectrices 
bronze-green, lateral green at base, rest black with white 
tips. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing If. Tail, f. Culmen, £. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Ear coverts, cheeks 
and a line around lower part of the throat blackish-brown. 
Throat white spotted with brown. A band of white across 
the breast, beneath which is another dark brown. Rest of 
underside rufous. Central rectrices bronze-green, lateral 
bronze-green with apical black band. Undertail-coverts 
pale bronzy-green margined with grey. Bill black. This is 
a rare species. I have only one male in my Collection, 

" Ex Collection Costa de Beauregard." 



12 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Genus VI. Atthis, Reich, Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 12. 
Type : 0. Heloise, Lesson and Delattre. 

Bill about as long as the head, straight, rather flat on 
culmen. Wings nearly as long as the tail, which is rounded 
and short. Feathers of the throat much elongated. - 
Habitat: Mexico, Guatemala. 

16. Atthis Heloise, Less. & Delatt, Rev. Zool., 1839, p. 15. 

Mellisuga heloisœ, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Tryphaena heloisœ, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 257. 

Selasphorus heloisœ, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii , p. 141, 

Heloisa's Flame-bearer, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 141. 

V Atthis oV Heloise, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch, vol. iv., p. 91. 

Male. — Upperside shining golden-green. Throat metallic 
reddish- violet with purple reflections. Breast, vent and 
abdomen white. Flanks golden-green. Under tail-coverts 
buffy-white. Median rectrices shining grass-green, lateral 
buff at base succeeded by a bar of black tipped with white. 
Wings purplish-brown, outer primary abruptly attenuated. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 2|in. Wing, If. Tail, 1. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upper side golden. green. Throat buffy-white 
spotted with brown nearly golden. Breast and abdomen 
white. Flanks buff. Upper tail-coverts golden-green. Median 
rectrices buff with a central bronze green spot on the internal 
edge, lateral buff at base, then barred slightly with bronze, 
and succeeded with a broad black band, with light buff 
tips. 

This beautiful species was discovered in Jala pa (Mexico) 
by the celebrated naturalist traveller Adolphe Delattre. 
I have killed many specimens of both sexes at Cordoba and 
San Andres-Tuxtla (Mexico). 

17. Atthis Ellioti, Ridgw, Proceed. U.S.Nat. Mus., 1878, p. 9. 

Elliot's Flame-bearer, Gould, Suppl. Mon. Troch., p. 44. 

L Atthis d? Elliot. 

Habitat. — Mexico, Guatemala. 

Male. — Exactly the same as the preceding species, from 
which it can be only distinguished by the shape of the first 
primary, which is not abruptly attenuated. It is scarcely 



Genera of Humming Birds. IB 

sufficient to consider it as a distinct species, as the same 
thing occurs in all the young males and adult females of 
A. Heloisœ. 

I have several specimens of this variety collected by me in 
Oaxaca (Mexico) and in Guatemala. 



Genus VII. Stellula, Gould, Int. Troch. 1861, p. 90. 

Stellura, Muls. and Verr., Class Troch., 1865, p. 88. 

Type : T. Calliope, Gould. 

Bill longer than the head, straight and pointed. Wings 

moderately long and sickle-shaped ; first primary rigid. Tail 

short and truncate. Feet small, claws diminutive and 

curved. 

Habitat, Mexico. 

18. Stellula calliope, Gould, P.Z.S. 1847, p. 11. 

Calothorax calliope, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Stellura calliope, Muls, Hist. Nat. des Ois. m, t. iv., p. 87. 

Mexican Satellite, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii, p. 142. 

La Stellure calliope, Muls, Hist. Nat. Ois, mouch. t. iv., p. 87. 

Male. — Upper side bronzy- green. Feathers of the throat 
very long and narrow, metallic pink. Breast and abdomen 
white. Flanks bronzy-green and buff. Undertail-co verts 
white. Wings and tail purplish-brown. Bill black, base of 
mandible flesh color. 

Total length, 2|in. Wing, \\. Tail, 1. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat white speckled 
with brown. Breast and abdomen white. Flanks and under- 
tail-coverts buff. Median rectrices metallic bronzy-green, 
tipped black, lateral buff at base, underneath a narrow 
bronzy- green band, then black with buff tips. Internally 
they are buff at base, then black with a large white spot on 
tips of the three outermost feathers on each side. 

This species was discovered in Mexico by Mr. Damien Floresi 
d'Arcais. 

It is rather rare. I have killed several specimens near 
Mexico. 



14 Genera of Humming Birds, 

Genus VIII. Calothorax, Gray, Gen. of Birds, 1840, p. 13. 

Lucifer, Reich, Syn. Av. Natur. 1849, p. 39. 
Manilla, Muls. and Verr., Class Troch, 1865, p. 86. 
Cyanopogon, Reich, Bon. Ann. Soci. Nat. 1854, p. 138. 

Type : C. lucifer, Swainson. 

Bill long, slender, curved throughout its length, broad at 
base ; nostrils hidden by frontal plumes. Wings moderately 
pointed. Tail forked, outermost rectrix on either side 
shortest, sometimes consisting of but little more than the 
shaft, the webs being very narrow. Tarsi short, and 
partially clothed. Feet small. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 



19. Calothorax lucifer, Swains, Phil. Mag. 1827, p. 442. 

Ornismya cyanopogon, Less, Ois. Mouch. 1829, p. 50. 

Trochilus simplex, Less. Trait. Ornit., 1831, p. 291. 

Lucifer eyanopogon, Reich, Aufz. der. Colib. 1853, p. 13. 

Mexican Star, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. iii., p. 143. 

Le Calothorax Barbe bleue, Muls., Hist. Nat. des. Ois. m. t. iv., 
p. 27. 

Habitat. — Mexico. 

Maie. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat metallic lilac 
purple with bluish reflections, feathers elongated on the 
sides. Breast pure white, encircled wilh a narrow rufous 
band. Abdomen and undertail-co verts white. Flanks bronzy 
green, rufous near the feet. Tail purplish-brown. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 3J in. Wing, l^. Tail, If. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Upperside-bronzy green. Lores black. Underside 
deep buff. Median rectrices bronze-green ; lateral greenish 
at base, then black and tipped with white. Bill black. Same 
size as male. This species is abundant in Mexico. 



20. Calothorax Pulchra, Gould, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist.. 

vol. iv., p. 97. 

Manilla pulchra, Muls, Hist. nat. Ois. m., t. iv., p. 31. 
Beautiful Wood star, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 144. 
La Manilie belle, Muls, Hist. nat. Ois. m., t. iv., p. 31. 



Genera of Humming Birds, 15 

Both sexes are exactly like the preceding species. The only 
way of distinguishing it is by the feathers of the tail, which 
are of uniform width ; meanwhile in C. lucifer the outermost 
rectrices are filiform in shape, almost denuded of webs and 
pointed. I really do not know if it is sufficient to con- 
sider it as a species, and much less a genus as made by Mr. 
Mulsant. 

It is true that all the species 'secured by me in Oaxaca 
(Mexico) in June, 1857. among which are the types of the 
species, were alike. 

I used to kill them in the gardens of that city. 



Genus IX. Acestrura, Gould, Int. Troch. 1861, p. 91. 

Polymnia, Muls. and Verr. Class. Troch, 1865, p. 91. 
Acestura, Muls. Hist. Nat. des Ois, m. t. iv., p. 117. 
Myrmia, Muls. Cat. Ois. mouch, 1875, p. 32. 

Type O. mulsanti, Bourcier. 

Bill longer than the head, slightly arched. Median 
rectrices very short ; the two outer ones filamentous and 
shorter than the third. Wings small. Tarsi clothed, feet 
small. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat, — S. America. 



21. Acestrura mulsanti, Bourc, Ann. Sci. Phys., Lyon, 

1842, t. v., p. 842. 

Ornismya mulsanti, Bourc, Ann. Sic. Phys. Lyon, 1842, t. v., 
p. 342. 

Mellisuga mulsanti, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Calothorax mulsanti, Bonap., Consp., Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 85. 

Lucifer mulsanti, Reich, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 

Chœtocercus mulsanti, Cab and Heine, Mus. Hein., 1860, p. 60. 

Mulsant s Wood star, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. iii., p. 145. 

L Acesture de Mulsant, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. iv., p. 118. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside and flanks shining dark grass-green. 
Throat metallic violet-red. Line behind the eye, chin, 
breast, abdomen, undertail-coverts, and a tuft behind the 



16 Genera of Humming Birds. 

thigh, pure white. Wings dark purple. Tail purplish-black. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 3|in. Wing, If. Tail, \\. Culmen, f . 
Female. — Upperside golden-green, excepting the rump which 
is buff. Throat, breast and abdomen deep buff. Sides of 
the neck and breast brown. Median rectrices buff at base, 
then black slightly tipped buff, lateral buff with a black 
spot in centre of internal edge. Bill black. Same length 
as male. 

22. Acestrura heliodori, Bourc, Rev. Zool., 1840, 

p. 275. 

Mellisuga heliodori, Gray, Gen. Birds. Vol. I., p. 113. 

Calothorax heliodori, Bon, Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, Vol. I., p. 85, 

Lucifer heliodori,, Reich, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 

Chaetocercus heliodori, Cab and Heine, Mus. Hein., 1860, p. 60. 

Heliodorës Wood star, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. III., p. 117. 

L'Acesture dHeliodore, Muls, Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. iv., p. 121. 

Habitat, Columbia. 

Male. — Upperside, abdomen and undertail-coverts dark 
grass-green. Throat metallic violet-red, feathers elongated 
on the sides. Breast greyish- white. A patch of white on the 
flanks. Wings purplish-brown. Tail brownish black. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing, 1 J. Tail, J. Culmen, J, 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Lores and ear-coverts 
dark brown. Underside deep buff. Tail deep buff with sub- 
terminal black bar. Bill black. 

Same length as male. 

Very abundant in Columbia. 



23. Acestrura decorata, Gould, P.Z.S., 1860, p 1309. 

Decorated Wood star, Gould, Mon. Troch. Vol. III., p. 146. 

Habitat, Mérida (Venezuela). 

Both sexes of this species are exactly like the preceeding, 
but the feathers of the throat are not so prolongated, and 
the colour is of a more metallic lilac red ; but I doubt very 
much if this is sufficient to consider it as a distinct species. 

I have several specimens of both sexes sent to me from 
Merida, Venezuela. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 17 

*24. Acestrura micrura, Gould, P.Z.S. 1853, p. 109. 

Myrmia micrura, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. iv., p. 113. 

Short Tailed Wood Star, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. in., p. 146. 

La Myrmie à courte queue, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. iv., 
p. 113. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside bronze-green. Chin, sides of the throat, 
and underside pale buff. Throat metallic amethyst. Under 
tail-coverts white. Tail and bill black. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, If. Tail, f . Culmen, 1J. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside nearly white. 
Tail black, lateral rectrices tipped with white. 

The types of this species are in the British Museum collec- 
tion. They have five males and two females, which I have 
studied with care, and was not able to see in what they differ 
from A. heliodori. 

Genus X. Chaetocercus, Gray, Gen. of Birds, 1853, p. 22. 

Osalia, Muls and Verr, Class Troch., 1865, p. 92. 
Polyxemus, Muls, Hist. Nat. Ois., m. 1877, t. 4, p. 123. 

Type: 0. Jourdani, Bourcier. 

Bill long as the head, straight, slender ; nostrils hidden in 
frontal plumes. Median rectrices extremely short ; two next 
the outermost long, equal, and uniform ; outermost about half 
the length of the one next, filiform, graduating to a point, stiff. 
Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. —Trinidad, Venezuela, Ecuador. 

25. Chaetocercus Jourdani, Bourc, Kev. Zool., 1839, p. 295. 

Mellisuga Jourdani, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Galothorax Jourdani, Bon, Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. L, 
p. 85. 

Lucifer Jourdani, Eeich, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 

Osalia Jourdani, Muls. and Verr., Class. Troch., 1865, p. 32. 

Jourdan's Wood Star, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 150. 

Le Chaetocerque de Jourdan, Muls, Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. iv., 
p. 125. 

Habitat. -Trinidad, Antillac. 

E 



1 8 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Male. — Upperside and median rectrices, flanks and abdomen 
dark bronzy-green. Throat metallic violet. Breast white. 
Lateral rectrices purplish-brown, the longest internally, buff at 
centre. Bill black. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, If. Tail, 1. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside and flanks golden-green. Median rec- 
trices green, lateral buff with a subterminal black bar. Under- 
side buffy-white. 

26. Chaetocercus rosae, Bourc. and Muls, Ann. Soc. Lyn. 
Lyon, 1846, t. ix., p. 316. 

Mellisuga rosae, Gray, Gren. of Bird. vol. i, p. 113. 

Galothorax rosae, Eeich, Aufz der Col. 1853. p. 13. 

Lucifer rosae, Eeich, Troch. Enum. 1855. p. 10. 

Crimson throated Wood Star, Grould, Mon. Troch. vol. iii. 
p. 149. 

Le Chaetocerque de Rose, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 127. 

Habitat. — Venezuela. 

Male. — This species differs from C. jourdani only by the 
colour of the throat, which is deep metallic crimson. 

Total length, 3 in. Wing, If. Tail, 1£. Culmen, J. 

Female. — "Differs from the preceding species by the underside, 
which is entirely pale buff. Size same as male. 

This pretty species was dedicated to Mrs. Eose Duquaire, 
sister of Mr. E. Mulsant. 

The specimens in my collection were sent to me direct from 
Merida (Venezuela). 

*27. Chaetocercus Berlepschi, Simon, Mem. Soc. Zool de 

France, 1889, p. 231. 

Berlepsch's Wood Star. 

Le Chaetocerque de Berlepsch. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside dark bronzy green as the preceding species. 
Throat metallic amethystine red. Breast white. Abdomen 
and flanks dark green. Lateral rectrices pointed in all their 
length. In size it stands between C. Rosae and C. Bombus. 

This charming species was dedicated to the well known 
Ornithologist, Count Berlepsch. It is unique in Simon's 
Museum. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 19 

28. Chaetocercus Bombus, Gould, P.Z.S. 1870, p. 804. 

Polyxèmus Bombus, Muls., Hist. Nat. des. Ois. m. 1877, t. 
iv., p. 123. 

Little Wood Star, Gould, P.Z.S. 1870, p. 804. 

Le Polyxème Bourdon, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. 1877, t. iy. 
p. 123. 

Habitat. — Ecuador. 

Male. — Upperside and abdomen dark bronze-green. Throat 
metallic crimson. Breast rufous. Tail purplish black, inner 
webs of third rectrices margined with buff at base. Wings 
purplish brown. Tuft behind the thigh white. Bill black. 

Total length, 2\ in. Wing, 1. Tail, f. Culmen, ±. 

Female — Upperside golden-green. Underside buff. Tail 
buff with a subterminal black bar. Tuft behind the thigh 
white. Bill black. Same size as male. 

This beautiful species was discovered in 1870 by Buckley, 
the well known explorer, at Canelos, Ecuador. 

I have two males and one female in my collection, from which 
the above descriptions were taken. 



*29. Chaetocercus Burmeisteri, Sclat, P.Z.S. 1887, p. 638. 

Burmeister's Wood Star, 

Le Ghaetocerque de Burmeister. 

Habitat. — Tucuman. 

Male. — Upper side dark green metallic color. Wings purplish 
black. Chin whitish. Throat metallic crimson red with green 
reflections in certain lights. White spot behind the eyes 
descending to breast. Breast whitish with dark spot on every 
feather causing a greyish band on the middle of the breast. 
Bemainder of breast and abdomen white. Undertail coverts 
yellow brown, spotted with green. The exterior rectrix black. 
The second has a clear brown stripe on the inner border. The 
third retrix is very short, only half an inch long and more than 
eight lines shorter than the exterior, and quite black. The 
two middle feathers are shorter than the third pair and partly 
covered by the coverts ; they are of a metallic green colour like 
the coverts. 

A single specimen of this species, which is very allied to 
C. Bombus, is known. It is in the National Museum of Buenos 
Ayres, Argentine Kepublic. 



20 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Genus XI. Tilmatura, Eeich, Aufz. der Colib. 1853, p. 8. 

Tryphaena, Grould, Int. Troch, 1861, p. 96. 

Type : 0. Duponti, Lesson. 

Bill straight, long as the head. Wings short. Tail deeply 
forked, outermost feather tapering rapidly at tip and curved 
inwards. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat — Mexico and Gruatemala. 

30. Tilmatura duponti, Less, Ois. Mouch Suppl. 1829, 

p. 150. 

Ornysmia coelestis, Less, Trait. Ornith, 1831, p. 276. 

Ornysmia zémès, Less, Eev. Zool, 1838, p. 315. 

Metlisuga duponti, Grray, Gren. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Tryphaena duponti, Bon., Consp., Gren. Av., 1850, p. 84. 

Tilmatura lepida, Eeich, Aufz der Colib., 1853, p. 8. 

Thaumastura duponti, Bon., Eev. and Mag. Zool, 1854, 
p. 257. 

Trochilus duponti, Jard, Nat. Lib. Hum. Birds, vol. i., p. 131. 

Sparklivig Tail Humming Bird, Grould, Mon. of Troch., 
vol. iii., p. 158. 

Le Tilmature de Dupont, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., 
p. 12. 

Habitat. — Mexico and Gruatemala. 

Male. — Upperside dark golden-green. Throat deep metallic 
blue. Breast white. Abdomen and flanks, dark shining 
green, edged with light gray. Median rectrices shining green, 
next one dark brown, the others rufous at base, then black with 
a white spot, then dark brown tipped white. Bill black. 

Total length 4 in. Wing 1^. Tail 2. Culmen f . 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside buff. Throat 
paler, speckled in the centre with brown spots. Centre of 
abdomen white. Middle tail feathers green at base, remaining 
part black tipped with white. Bill black. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing, If. Tail, |. Culmen, f . 

Dedicated by Lesson to M. Dupont, a dealer naturalist of 
Paris. 

It is a scarce species. I have killed several specimens at 
Cordoba, Mexico. It is more abundant in Gruatemala. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 21 

Genus XII. Myrtis, Reich, Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 13. 

Zephyriiis, Muls. and Verr. Class. Troch. 1865, p. 87. 

Eudosia, Muls. Cat. Ois. m. 1875, p. 32. 

Eulidia, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 114. 

Type 0. Fanny, Lesson. 

Bill longer than the head, curved for its entire length. 
Wings rather long, reaching half the length of the tail. 
Medium rectrices short almost hidden in the coverts, the others 
long, nearly of the same length. 

Habitat. — Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

31. Myrtis fanny, Less. Ann. Scien. Nat., 1838, t. ix., p. 170. 

Trochilus labrador, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Sci. Lyon, 1839, p. 339. 

Calothorax fanny, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 110. 

Thaumastura fanny, Bon., Compt. Rendus, 1850, p. 383. 

Lucifer labrador, Bod., Eev. and Mag. Zool. 1854, p. 257. 

Fanny's Wood Star, Gould., Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 151. 

Le Myrtis de Fanny, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 34» 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Peru. 

Male. — Upperside light bronze-green. Throat metallic 
bluish green with a narrow band of metallic blue, and the 
centre luminous violet forming a good spot. White band 
across the breast, sometimes edged with pale rufous. Abdo- 
men and undertail-coverts dull white. Flanks bronzy, washed 
with buff. Tail brownish-black, the median with a bronze 
gloss. Wings brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3f in. Wing, \\. Tail, If. Culmen, %. 

Female — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat and abdomen 
white, the rest buff. Median rectrices shiny-green, next green 
tipped with black. Lateral buff at base, then black tipped 
white. Bill black. 

Size like the male excepting the tail, which is a little shorter. 

The types " Ex Coll Bourcier and Elliott " are now in the 
American Museum of Natural History of New York. 

I have a fine series of both sexes of this species collected by 
Buckley in Ecuador. 

*32. Myrtis yarelli, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 45. 

Callothorax yarelli, Reich, Aufz. der Colib, 1853, p. 13. 
Lucifer yarelli, Reich. Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 



22 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Eudosia yarelli, Muls. Cat. Ois. m., 1875, p. 32. 

Eulidia yarelli, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m., 1877, t. iv., p. 115. 

YarrelVs Wood Star, Gould. Mon. Troch, vol. iii., p. 152. 

L'Eulidie de Yarell, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m., 1877, t. iv., 
p. 115. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Upperside and four central tail feathers light 
yellowish green. Throat metallic lilac with blue reflections. 
Underside white-washed with green on the flanks. Lateral 
feathers of tail stiff, narrow, and graduate to a point, dark 
brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 2£ in. Wing, l T 3 g. Tail, If. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside like the male, Underside buffy-white. 
Middle tail feathers green, next green with black tips, remainder 
buff at base, then black tipped with white. 

This rare species is one of my desiderata. According 
to Mulsant it was described by Bourcier from one specimen in 
Greorges Loddiges Collection, and dedicated to Mr. William 
Yarrell, who was for a long time Vice-President of the Zoological 
Society of London. If it can be relied upon, the types of the 
species are still in the Loddiges Collection, now the property of 
his grandson. 

Genus XIII. Rhodopis, Eeich, Aufz. der. Colib., 1853, p. 13. 

Type : 0. vesper, Lesson. 

Bill nearly twice as long as the head, curved for its entire 
length, and wide at base. Frontal feathers projecting on the 
culmen and hiding the nostrils. Wings long, reaching beyond 
the middle of tail. Tail deeply forked, feathers graduated to 
their tips, which are pointed. Tarsi clothed. Sexes similar. 
Throat of brilliant hues. 

33. Ehodopis vesper, Lesson, Ois. Mouches., 1829, p. 85. 

Calothorax vesper, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 1 10. 
Thaumastura vesper, Bon, Compt. Eend., 1850, p. 383. 
Lucifer vesper, Bon, Rev. and Mag. ZooL, 1854, p. 257. 
Rhodopis vesper a, Reich, Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 13. 
Calliphlox vespera, Reich, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 
Evening Humming Bird, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 154. 
Le Rhodopis vesper, Muls., Hist. Nat. des. Ois., m. vol. iv., 
p. 24. 

Habitat. — Peru. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 23 

Male. — Upper side pale bronzy-green. Eump rufous. Throat 
metallic amethystine red with purple-bluish reflections on the 
sides. Breast, abdomen, and under tail-coverts white. Flanks 
grey washed with green. Median rectrices olive-green, lateral 
bluish-black. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 5± in. Wing, 2| . Tail, 2|. Culmen, If. 

Female. — Upperside like the male. Throat white, speckled 
with brown spots. Kest of underside like the male. 

My specimens were collected by Mr. Whitely in Peru. 

*34. Khodopis atacamensis, Leyb, Ann. Univ. Santiago, Chili, 

1869. 

Atacaman's Evening Humming Bird. 

L'Oiseau mouche d'Atacaman. 

Habitat. — Chili. 

The only two specimens, male and female, which I have seen 
in the British Museum are exactly like the preceding species, 
but much smaller and slightly more rufous on the upperside. 
They were collected by Markham in 1880, at Payta, Peru. 
(They are rather poor skins. 

Genus XIX. Thaumastura, Bon, Consp. G-en. Av. 1850. 

Vol. L, p. 85. 

Phaetornis, Tschudi, Consp., 1844, p. 37. 
Cora, Keich, Bon. Ann. Sc. Nat. 1834, p. 138. 
Type : 0. cora, Lesson. 

Bill short, straight, wide at base. Wings long. Tarsi partially 
clothed. Middle pair of rectrices almost hidden in coverts, 
next on either side greatly elongated and longest, remainder 
much shorter and decreasing in length to the outermost one. 
All of them very narrow but of uniform width to their entire 
length. 

Habitat. — Peru. 

35. Thaumastura cora, Less and Gam, Voy. de la Coq. p. 13. 

Trochilus (Phaetornis) cora, Tschud, Consp. p. 37. 
Calothorax cora, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol i., p. 110. 
Lucifer corae, Keich, Troch. Enum. 1855, p. 10. 
Cora's Shear-tail, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 153. 
Le Thaumasture de Cora, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv.,p. 9. 
Habitat. — Peru. 



24 Genera of Humming Birds, 

Male. — Upperside pale golden-green. Throat metallic crimson 
with blue reflections on the sides. Breast and abdomen white. 
Flanks and undertail-coverts white-washed with pale golden- 
green. Tail black on outer web, white nearly to the tip on 
inner, tip black. Bill black. 

Total length, 5| in. Wing, If. Tail 3|. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside pale golden-green. Throat white, 
speckled with pale green. Breast, abdomen, and under tail- 
coverts white. Flanks white-washed with pale green. Middle 
tail feathers green on inner web, white on outer with black tip, 
lateral white with a broad subterminal black band. Bill black. 

Total length, 3± in. Wing, If. Tail, 1±. Culmen, £. 

Dedicated by Lesson to Cora, Priestess of the Sun. I have 
several specimens of this fine species collected by Mr. Whitely 
in Peru. Two come from Ex Collection, Costa de Beauregard. 

Genus XV. Heliactin, Boié Isis, 1831, p. 546. 

Heliactinia, Eeich, Aufz der Colib. 1853, p. 12. 

Heliactinus, Burm, Th. Bras. 1854-56, t. ii., p. 356. 

Type T. cornuta., Pr. Max. 

Bill longer than the head, slender terminating in a sharp 
point. On either side of head a tuft of feathers forming a 
short elevated crest. Wings long pointed. Four medium 
rectrices longest, broad at base, and graduating to a point. 
Tarsi bare. !Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

36. Heliactin cornuta, Pr. Max, Beit zur Naturg von Braz, 

p. 99. 

Trochilus dilophus, Vieill, Ency. Meth., vol. ii., p. 573. 
Trochilus bilophus, Temm, Plan Colo, p. 18. 
Mellisuga cornuta, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Mellisuga bilopha, Steph, Gen. Zool., vol. xiv., p. 251. 
Ornysmia chrysolopha, Less. Ois. Mouch, 1829, p. 55. 
Heliactina chrysolopha, Reich, Aufz der Colib. 1853, p. 12. 
Heliactinus cornutus, Burm, Th. Braz., vol. ii., p. 356. 
Sun Gem, Gould, Mon. Troch. vol. iv p. 212. 
V Heliactin aux huppes d'or, Muls. Hist. Nat. des Ois. m. t. 
iv., p. 5. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 25 

Male. — Forehead and crown shining greenish-bine. Above 
the eyes a tuft of lengthened feathers, fiery crimson at base 
changing to bright gold at tip. Upperside golden-green. 
Throat with a tuft of long feathers covering the middle of 
breast, velvety black. Breast and abdomen pure white. Flanks 
bronzy-green. Median rectrices olive-green, blackish at tip, 
the next white with bronzy-green bar starting from near the 
base to half their length, the remaining three white with a wide 
black band in the middle. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 4Jin. Wing, 2. Tail, 2J. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Throat and abdomen 
reddish white. Flanks golden-green. Median rectrices bronzy- 
green, lateral bronzy-green at base, changing to black, apical 
half white. Bill black. 

This wonderful species was discovered by Prince of Wied 
during his voyage in Brazil, where it was abundant then ; it is 
very seldom sent from that country now and it is rather scarce 
in the collections. 

I have several specimens from Bahia. 

Genus XVI. Doricha, Keich, Aufz. der. Colib., 1853, p. 12. 

Elisa (Keich), Bon. Ann. Sc. Nat., 1854, p. 138. 

Myrtis, Cab and Heine, Mus. Hein., 1860, t. iii., 59. 

Dolicha, Heine, Journal fur Ornith., 1863, p. 208. 

Amathusia, Muls. and Verr, Class Troch., 1865, p. 85. 

Egolia, Muls. and Verr, Class Troch., 1 865, p. 86. 

Amalasia, Muls. Cat. Ois. m. 1875, p. 29. 

Amalusia, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m. 1877, t. ix., p. 15. 

Type T. enicurus.^ Vieillot. 

Bill longer than'the head, slender, curved for its whole length. 
Wings moderate. Tail long, medium feathers nearly hidden in 
their coverts, two outer ones nearly equal and longest. Feet 
small. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Bahamas, Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Eica and 

Veragua. 

37. Doricha enicura, Vieill, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 1817, t, 23, 

p. 429. 

Ornysmia heteropygia, Less. Ois. Mouch., 1829, p. 72. 
Trochilus sivaimoni, Less. Trochil., 1831, p. 167. 

F 



26 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Galothorax enicura, Gray, Gen. Bird», vol. i., p. 110. 

Lucifer enicurus, Bon, Eev. and Magas. Zool., 1854, p. 257. 

Galliphlox henicura, Keich, Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 

Thaumastura enicura, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 157. 

Myrtis enicura, Cab and Heine, Mus. Hein., 1869, t. iii., 
p. 59. 

Amalasia enicura, Muls., Cat. Ois., m. 1875, p. 29. 

Amalusia enicura, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. 1877, t. iv, 
16. 

Slender Shear-tail, Gould, Mon., Troch, vol. iii., p. 157. 

L.Amalusie à queue singulière Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. t. 
iv., p. 17. 

Habitat. — Guatemala. 

Male. — Upperside and flanks golden-green. Chin black. 
Throat metallic purple with blue reflections. Breast and 
abdomen pale buff, sometimes deeper. Lateral rectrices, 
purplish-black ; inner webs of two outer feathers narrowly 
margined with buff. Median rectrices shining grass-green. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 4§ in. Wing, If. Tail, 2|. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside, golden-green. Median rectrices, shining 
grass-green. Lores and ear-coverts, blackish-brown. Underside, 
buff, a tuft of feathers (as in the males), under the thigh, white. 
Tail feathers next the middle ones, rufous at base, then black 
with white tips. Bill, black. 

Total length, 3 in. Wing, 1±. Tail, If. Culmen, f. 

This species is rather abundant in Coban, Guatemala. 

All the specimens of my collection are from that locality. 

38. Dortcha elizae, Less and Delattre Rev. Zool., 1839, 

p. 20. 

Myrtis eliza, Reich, Aufz. der Colib., 1853, p. 13. 
Lucifer eliza, Bon. Rev. et Magas de Zool., 1 854, p. 227. 
Galothorax eliza, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 110. 
Thaumastura elizae, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., pi. 155. 
Amalasia elizae, Muls., Cat. Ois., m. 1875, p. 29. 
Amalasia elizae, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. 1877, t. iv, p. 20. 
Mexican Shear-tail, Gould, Mon, Troch., vol. iii., p. 175. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 27 

L.Amaluzie d'eliza, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. 1877., t. iv., 
p. 20. 

Habitat. — Jalapa, Yucatan ("Mexico). 

Male. — Upperside and flanks pale bronzy-green. Throat 
metallic purple-crimson with blue reflections. Breast, abdo- 
men, and undertail-coverts white. Uppertail-coverts bronzy- 
green. Middle tail feathers greenish on inner webs, buff on 
outer. Lateral purplish-black, two next the outermost black 
margined with buff on the inner webs. Bill black. 

Total length, 3f in. Wing, If. Tail, If. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Underside white tinged 
with buff. Median rectrices green edged with buff in the 
centre and tipped black, the remainder buff at base, then black 
with white tips. 

This rare species was discovered by Delattre at Pasos del Toro, 
between Vera Cruz and Jalapa, Mexico. 

I have three specimens in my collection. One from Ex 
Collection Costa de Beauregard, the other two were collected by 
Mr. Graumer, at Progreso, Yucatan, in October, 1878. 

39. Dorycha Bryanthae, Lawr, Ann. N.Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 
1867, vol. viii., p. 483. 

Bryant's Wood Star, Gould, Suppl., Mon. Troch., pi. 46. 

La Doriche de Bryant, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 43. 

Habitat. — Costa Eica, Veragua. 

Male. — Upperside dark golden-green. Upper tail-coverts 
dark green internally, black externally. Throat metallic crim- 
son. Breast white, tinged with pale buff. Abdomen deep 
rufous. Flanks golden-green. Undertail-coverts green, mar- 
gined with rufous. Tail purplish-black, the rectrices margined 
on their inner webs rufous. Bill black. 

Total length, 4-in. Wing, If. Tail, 1±. Culmen, |> 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Middle tail feathers 
grass-green, then purplish-black, with rufous tips. Throat and 
breast pale rufous. Abdomen and undertail-coverts deep rufous. 
Sides of neck and and upper part of flanks dark green. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 3J in. Wing, If. Tail, 1. Culmen, f. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Carmiol in Costa Rica, 
February, 1867. 



28 Genera of Humming Birds, 

It was dedicated by Mr. Lawrence to Mrs. Bryant, of Boston. 

I have a fine series of this species captured in Costa Kica and 
Veragua. 

40. Dorycha Evelyns, Bourc, P.Z.S. 1847, p. 44. 

Calothorax evelynœ, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 110. 

Lucifer evelynœ, Reich, Troch. Enum., p. 10. 

Calothorax evillina, Bon. Eev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 257. 

Trochilus bahamensis, Bryant, Proceed. Nat. Hist. Soc, 
Boston, 1859, vol. vii., p. 106. 

Bahama Wood Star, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 156. 

La Doriche d'Evelyne, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv.,p. 84. 

Habitat. —Nassau and Providence, " Bahamas." 

Male.— Upperside pale golden-green. Throat metallic crim- 
son, with violet reflections at base. Breast white. Abdomen 
rufous. Flanks green, mingled with rufous. Undertail-coverts 
buffy-white. Median rectrices purple-black ; the inner web of 
all, excepting that of the internal feather, rufous. Bill black. 

Total length, 3i-in. Wing, 1J. Tail, 1J. Culmen, j. 

Female. — Upperside pale green. Throat buffy-white. Ab- 
domen and undertail-coverts rufous. Middle tail-feathers 
bronzy-green, lateral rufous, with a sub-terminal black band. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, 1 J. Tail. 1. Culmen, f . 

This species is very rare in the collections. I have only one 
fine male, collected at Long Island, Bahamas, by Chas. B. Cory, 
of Boston, and graciously given to me. 

41. Dokycha LYRURA, G-ould, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 1869, 

vol. iv., p. 111. 

Lyre shaped Wood Star, G-ould, Suppl. Mon. Troch., p. 47. 

La Doryche petite Lyre, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., p. 41. 

Habitat. — Inagua, Bahamas. 

Male. — Upperside pale bronze-green. Forehead and throat 
metallic purplish-crimson, with blue reflections forming a large 
metallic blue band at base. Breast white. Abdomen and under- 
tail-coverts rufous. Flanks golden-green. Tail, lyre-shaped, 
feathers turning outwards at tips, purplish-black, all the 
feathers except the middle and outermost ones with inner web 
rufous. Bill black. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 29 

Total length, 3| in. Wing, 1|. Tail, l-£. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside pale green. Throat and breast dull 
white. Abdomen and undertail -coverts rufous. Flanks rufous, 
tinged with green. Tail rounded. Median pair shining bluish- 
green, remainder buff at base, with a broad black central band 
and tips dull white. Bill black. 

Total length, 3-J- ins. Wing, 1 §-. Tail, If. Culmen, f. 

This is also a very rare species. I have two very fine male 
specimens and one female. One male was graciously offered to 
me by the Authorities of the Smithsonian Institution when I 
visited this Magnificent Institution in 1876. It was collected 
by Doctor Bryant at Inagua. The two other specimens were 
presented to me by my friend, Mr. Chas. Cory, of Boston. They 
were collected by Mr. C. L. Maynard at Inagua. 

Genus XVII. Calliphlox, Boié Isis, 1831, p. 544. 

Philodice, Muls. and Verr, Class. Troch., 1865, p. 86. 

Type : T. Amethystinus, Grmelin. 

Bill shorter than the head, straight, slightly curved at tip. 
Tail long, deeply forked, feathers narrow. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil. 

42. Calliphlox amethystina, G-mel., Syst. Nat., 1 788, vol. i., 

p. 496. 

Mellisuga amethystina, Steph., Gen. Zool., vol. xiv., p. 243. 

Trochilus brevicauda, Spix, Av. Braz., vol. i., p. 79. 

Ornysmia amethystina, Less, Oiseaux. Mou., 1829, p. 150. 

Ornysmia amethystoides, Less, Troch., 1831, p. 79. 

Mellisuga amethystoides, Gray, Gren. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Trochilus campestris, Pr. Max, Beit. Naturg. Bras., p. 73. 

Tryphaena amethystina, Bon. Consp. Gren. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 84. 

Tryphaena amethystoides, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 84. 

Calliphlox amethystoides, Heich. Aufz. der Colib., 1853, 
p. 12. 

The Amethyst, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 159. 

Le Calliphlox améthyste, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. t. iv., 
p. 46. 

Habitat. — Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil. 



30 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Male. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat metallic amethyst, 
beneath which is a band of dull white. Flanks green. Abdo- 
men gray. Undertail-coverts green edged with gray. Central 
tail feathers green, lateral purplish brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3 J in. Wing, If. Tail, 1±. Culmen, ~, 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Underside pale gray. 
Throat spotted with brown. Medium rectrices bright green, 
laterals have base purplish-gray washed with green, remaining 
part black with white tips. Slightly smaller than male. 

It is rather common in Brazil and Guiana. 

43. Calliphlox roraimae, Boucard, H. Bird, vol. i., p. 52. 

ttoraima's Amethyst, 

U Améthyste de Roraima. 

Habitat. — Koraima, B. Guiana. 

Male. — Upperside dark bronzy-green. Throat metallic ame- 
thyst-red as in Selasphorus platycercivs, beneath which is a 
narrow band of white. Abdomen and flanks green washed with 
gray. Upper and undertail-coverts green. Tail purplish-brown. 
■Bill black. 

Total length, 3± in. Wing, If. Tail, If. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Throat white with a 
central spot, amethyst-red, beneath which is a narrow grayish 
band. Sides of neck and breast golden-green. Flanks, abdomen 
and undertail-coverts, rufous. Tail purple-brown with rufous 
tips. Bill black. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Henry Whitely at 
Eoraima, British Guiana. 

Types in Boucard's Museum. 

44. Calliphlox mitchelli, Bourc, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 47. 

Mellisuga mitchelli, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Calothorax mitchelli, Keich., Aufz. der Colib, 1853, p. 13. 

Lucifer mitchelli, Keich. Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 10. 

Tryphaena mitchelli, Bon. Kev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, 
p. 257. 

Mitchell's Amethyst, Gould., Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 160. 

Le Calliphlox ale Mitchel, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. m. vol. iv., 
p. 50. 

Habitat.— Ecuador. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 3 1 

Male. — Upperside dark green. Throat dark metallic-violet. 
Breast grayish-white. Abdomen and flanks dark green, 
washed with buff near the thigh. Tail and wing dark purple. 
Bill black. 

Total length, 3± in. Wing, If. Tail, 1±. Culmen, §. 

Female. — Upperside dark green. Underside buff, changing 
to rufous on the abdomen and undertail coverts. Middletail 
feathers bronze-green, lateral rufous with subterminal black 
bar. Bill black. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, 1^. Tail, |. Culmen, |. 

This rare species has been dedicated by Mr. Mulsant to 
Mr. Mitchel, the collaborator of Doctor Gray, for the Gener.i of 
Birds. 

I have several specimens collected by Buckley in Ecuador. 

FAMILY II. LOPHORNIDiE, 

Or Family of Coquettes. 

Body small, sometimes very minute. Bill slender, short and 
straight. Head usually crested. Throat, in males very brilliant, 
in some, the feathers of the sides of throat are very elongated 
and beautifully spotted, forming a beautiful collar. Tail 
rounded in some as in the genus Lophornis. In others, the 
rectrices are of variable forms, sometimes very long, narrow and 
acute, as in the genus Gouldia, in others, short and acute with 
the shaft of outermost very long and terminating with a spatula 
as in the genus Discura. One of the principal characters of 
the family which is constant for all the species is the white or 
buff band crossing the rump in both sexes. Sexes unlike. 

Type: Lophornis, Lesson, Hist. Nat. Ois. mou. 1829, p. 37. 

Genus XVIII. Lophornis, Less. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch,p. 37, 

1829. 

Bellatrix, Boié Isis, 1831, p. 545. 
Lophorinus, Bon. Kev. et Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 257. 
Polemistria, Cab and Heyne. Mus. Hein., 1860, t. iii., p. 63. 
Telarnon, Muls. and Verr., Class. Troch., 1865, p. 75. 
Paphosia, Muls. and Verr., Class. Troch., 1865, p. 75. 
Dialia, Muls. Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 27. 
Idas, Muls. Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 27. 
Aurinia, Muls. Cat. Ois. Mou., 1875, p. 27. 

Type T. ornatus, Bodd. 



32 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Bill short and straight. Head crested. Throat metallic, 
with elongated ornamental feathers on the sides, more or less 
lengthened, and projecting outwards. Tail rounded. Females 
dull. 

Habitat, — Mexico, Central America, Trinidad, Guiana, 
Brazil, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. 

45. Lophornis ornatus, Bodd. Plan, enlum. d'Aub., 1783, pi. 

640, fig. 3. 

Ornismya ornata, Less. Ois. Mouch. 1829, p. 139. 

Mellisuga ornata, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 13. 

Lophornis auratus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Avi., 1850, vol. i., p. 83. 

Lophornis ornata, Reich. Aufz der Colib. 1883, p. 12. 

Tufted Coquette, Gould, Mon. Troeh., vol. iii., p. 117. 

Le Lophornis Huppe-GoL Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois., m. 1876, t. 
iii., p. 216. 

Habitat. —Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana. 

Male. — Head and crest shining dark chestnut. Forehead and 
throat metallic green. Upperside golden-green. Rump and 
uppertail-coverts bronzy -brown, a white band across the rump, 
sometimes this band is slightly buff. On each side of throat a 
series of lengthened graduated feathers, pale buff, each feather 
tipped with metallic green. Underside bronzy-green with a 
narrow rufous tinge under the throat. Undertail-coverts 
greenish-buff. Tail brownish-chestnut externally margined and 
tipped with bronzy-green. Bill flesh color, black at tips. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing, If. Tail, 1. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upper and underside bronzy-green. Front throat 
and upper part of breast buff. Across the rump a band of 
huffy white. Tail buff with a broad subterminal blackish band 
with golden-green reflections. Wings purplish-black. 

46. Lophornis gouldi, Lesson, Trochil., 1831-33, p. 103. 

Bellatrix gouldi, Reich. Aufz der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Gould's Coquette, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 118. 

Le Lophornis de Gould, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois., m. vol. iii., 
p. 219. 

Habitat. — Para. (Brazil.) 

Male. — Crest chestnut -red. Upperside bronzy-green. Rump 
reddish-brown crossed by a band of white. Forehead, throat 
and breast metallic green, with golden reflections. On the other 



Genera of Humming Birds. 33 

side lengthened graduated feathers pure white with a round 
metallic golden green spot at tip. Abdomen and flanks dark 
bronzy-green. Tail chestnut-red, with margins and tips bronzy- 
green. Bill flesh color with brown tips. 

Total length, 2§ in. Wing, If. Tail, 1. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upper side golden-green. Eump reddish-bronze 
crossed by a band of buffy-white. Throat buff, spotted dark 
brown. Breast white, with metallic golden spots. Abdomen 
and flanks golden-green. Median rectrices bronzy-green, 
lateral buff with bronzy-green subterminal bar. Same length 
as male. 

I have one very fine adult pair of this extremely rare species, 
collected many years ago, near Para. 

47. Lophornis magnifious, Vieill, Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 1817, 

t. vii., p. 367. 
Oiseau mouche huppe-col blanc, Vieillot. 
Colibri helios, Spix, Av. Bras., 1824, t. i., p. 81 
Trochilus decorus, Licht, Doubl., p. 14. 
Omismya magnified, Less. Man. Ornith., t. ii., p. 80. 
Omismya strumaria, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. i 43. 
Lophornis strumaria, Less. Trait. Ornith, 1831, p. 285. 
MeUisuga magnifica, Gray, Gfen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Bellatrix magnifica, Eeich. Aufz der Colib., 1853, p. 12. 
Telamon magnificus, Gray, Handl. Birds, vol. i., p. 147. 

Idas magnificus, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 211. 

Frilled Coquette, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 119. 

Vidas magnifique, Muls., Hist. Nat. Ois. Mouch., 1876, vol. 
iii., p. 212. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Very like L. goidcli in size and coloration. The princi- 
pal differences are that the elongated feathers of the neck have 
the tips crossed by a bar of metallic green instead of a spot. 
At base of throat, the feathers are rufous instead of pure white. 
The abdomen and flanks are of a lighter green with a grayish 
tinge. 

Total length, 2| in. Wing, 1^. Tail, 1. Culmen, §. 

Female. — Exactly like L.goiddi. 

This charming species was discovered by Mr. Delalande, a 
French Naturalist, who explored Brazil. 

G 



34 Genera of Humming Birds. 

48. Lophornis Helena, Delattre, Echo du Monde savant, 1843, 

p. 1068. 

Mellisuga helenœ, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 133. 

Paphiosa helence, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 205. 

Princess Helena's Coquette, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 
p. 123. 

La Paphosie d'Hélène, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 205. 

Habitat. — Mexico, Guatemala. 

Male. — Top of head and crest dark metallic green. In the 
middle of the occiput, six long slender greenish-black feathers, 
forming a crest extending as far back as the rump. Upperside 
golden-green. Eump bronzy -brown, crossed by a white line, 
sometimes slightly rufous. Throat metallic golden-green, 
surrounded by long shining bluish-black feathers. On each 
side of the neck a few elongated buff feathers. Breast golden- 
green. Flanks and abdomen pure white, each feather with a 
golden spot on tip. Undertail-coverts dark rufous. Median 
rectrices green, rufous at base, lateral deep rufous, margined 
with brown. Bill flesh color with black tips. 

Total length, 2± in. Wing, 1±. Tail, 1-J-. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Rump black, crossed 
above with a white line. Wing, purple-black. Throat rufous- 
white with small brown-golden spots. Breast golden. Abdomen 
and flanks white with golden spots. Median rectrices, grayish- 
green, then black with a rufous spot at tip, lateral deep rufous, 
black in the middle. 

This beautiful species was discovered at Jalapa, Mexico, in 
1843, by the well known naturalist, Mr. Delattre. It was 
dedicated by him to Princess Hélène d'Orléans. 

I have found this species at Tospam, near Cordoba, Mexico, 
and at Sante Comapam, near San Andres Tuxtla, department 
of Vera Cruz, "Mexico." It is a very rare species. All the 
specimens which I have from Guatemala were procured near 
Coban, Alta Vera Paz. 

49. Lophornis adorabilis, Salv., P.Z.S., 1870, p. 207. 

Dialia adorabilis, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 208. 

Salvin's Coquette, Gould. Mon. Troch. Suppl., 1886, p. 49. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 35 

La Dialie adorable, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 209. 

Habitat. — Chiriqui, Columbia. 

Male- Forehead metallic ruby red. Crown pure white with 
elongated feathers on the occiput, forming a crest. The few 
narrow lengthened dark metallic green feathers, mentioned by 
Mr. Daniel G. Elliot, on each side of the occiput, do not exist 
in the male specimen which I possess. These feathers exist on 
each side of the neck, they are very long and ornament the 
throat in a peculiar manner. Upperside bronzy-green. Eump 
dark purple crossed by a narrow pale rufous band. Throat 
metallic grass-green. Breast pure white. Abdomen, flanks and 
undertail- covert s rufous, with a few bronzy-green feathers on 
flanks. Median rectrices rufous edged with bronzy-green, 
lateral rufous with external edges bronzy-green. Wings 
purple. Bill, flesh color, with black tips. 

Total length, 3-in. Wing, 1§. Tail, 1^. Culmen, f . 

Female. — Head dark brown. Upperside bronzy-green. Throat 
and breast white, spotted with brown. Tail deep buff with a 
subterminal black bar. Flanks bronzy-green. Abdomen and 
undertail-coverts deep rufous. Eump as in the male. 

This exceedingly rare and charming species was discovered 
at Bugaba, near the Volcano of Chiriqui, by Mr. Arcé, a native 
of Guatemala, to whom Science is indebted for several new 
species. 

I have only one male specimen, sent to me by Mr. Arcé. 

50. Lophornis pavoninus, Salv. & Grodm. Ibis., 1882, p. 81. 
Boraima Coquette, Gould, Mon. Troch., Suppl., pi. 50. 
Le Lophornis de Whitely. 
Habitat. — Eoraima, British Guiana. 

Male. — Head shining golden-green, with a velvety black bar 
in the centre. Upperside dark grass-green. Eump bronzy- 
green crossed by a narrow white band. Throat dark bronzy- 
green with black reflections. On the sides of the neck, graduated 
elongated feathers extending over the rufous at base with a 
small white spot, then metallic-green with a round black spot 
in the centre near the tip of each feather, resembling some- 
what to the colouring of the feathers of a peacock-tail. It is 
quite ornamental and enhances greatly the beauty of this bird. 
Breast, abdomen, and flanks dark bronzy-green, nearly black in 



36 Genera of Humming Birds. 

centre of abdomen. Undertail-coverts dark grey. Tail bronzy- 
green with narrow white tips. Wings purple- black. Bill black. 

Total length, 3 in. Wing, If. Tail, If. Oilmen,! . 

Female. Upperside dark grass-green. Eump bronzy-green 
crossed by a narrow white band. Throat, breast, and abdomen 
rufous-white, streaked with black. Flanks bronzy-green. 
Undertail-coverts rufous with a bronzy-green band in centre. 
Median rectrices bronzy-green with black tips, lateral bronzy- 
green with a subterminal black bar and greyish white tips. 
Wings purple. Bill black. 

This magnificent species was lately discovered by the well- 
known collector, Mr. H. Whitely, at Eoraima, British Guiana. 

I have two very fine pairs purchased from Mr. Whitely. 

51. Lophornis verreauxi, Bourc. Rev. Zool., 1853, p. 193. 

Bellatrix verreauxi, Bon. Rev. et Mag. Zool, 1854, p. 257. 

Polemistria verreauxi, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein., 1860, 
t. iii., p. 63. 

Lophornis insignibarbis, Simon. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, 
xv., p. 17. 

Peruvian Coquette, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 127. 

Polémistrie de Verreaux, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 221. 

Columbian Coquette. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male.— Forehead and patch behind the eye, bright metallic 
grass-green. Crest elongated, deep purplish-bronze, each 
feather margined and tipped with dark green. Back and flanks 
dark grass-green. Rump bronze-green, crossed above with a white 
band. Throat and sides of neck pale metallic green, the long 
feathers of neck tipped white. Centre of breast and abdomen 
dark green with black reflections. Upper tail-coverts bronzy- 
purple. Tail purplish-bronze with external margins bronzy- 
green. Wing purplish-black. Bill black. 

Total length, 3± in. Wing, If. Tail, 1J. Oilmen, J. 

Female. — Head dark brown. Upperside dark grass-green. A 
line of white on sides of throat. Throat and abdomen black, 
spotted with pale buff. Line across the rump pale buff. Tail 
bronze-green at base changing to blackish-brown, all the lateral 
feathers tipped white. Undertail coverts blackish brown. Bill 
black. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 37 

This species, received by Mr. Bourcier from Columbia, was 
dedicated by him to his friend, the well known Ornithologist, 
Mr. Edouard Verreaux. 

Its proper name should be the Columbian Coquette, as this 
species is restricted to Columbia, as far as I know. 

I have seen a young male specimen from Columbia in the 
collection of my friend, Mr. Eugène Simon, of Paris. It was 
without the elongated feathers of the neck, which were replaced 
by a beautiful metallic grass-green throat. My friend, 
Mr. Simon, has described this bird and given the name of 
L. insignibarbis ; but I am quite certain that it is only the 
livery of a young male of L. verreauxi, just before taking the 
plumage of an adult bird. 

52. Lophornis Hauxwelli, N. Sp. 

HauxwelVs Coquette. 

Le Lophornis oVHauxwell. 

Habitat. — Nauta, Upper- Amazons. 

Male. — Very much like the preceding species, with which it 
has always been mixed, but having two fine adult pairs of this 
bird, collected by Mr. Hauxwell, at JSTauta, I am able to point 
the differences which exist between the two species. All the 
upperside of this species is bronzy-green and not dark green as 
in L. verreauxi, the band across the rump is pale rufous in both 
sexes, the tail is reddish-purple with external margins dark 
brown instead of purplish-bronze, the uppertail-co verts are 
crimson-purple, instead of bronzy-purple. The underside is 
exactly the same as L. verreauxi. 

The female has also the back of a lighter green than 
L. verreauxi, the chin and line under the eyes is pale buff, the 
flanks are golden-green spotted with buff, the tail is grayish at 
base, then dark bronze, nearly black, with the lateral feathers 
tipped with a large grayish spot. 

I dedicate this species to Mr. Hauxwell, its discoverer. 

53. Lophornis chalybea, Vieill, Enc. Meth., vol. ii., p. 574. 
Trochilus festivus, Licht. Doubl., p. 14. 
Colibri mystax, Spix. Av. Bras., 1824, t. i., p. 82. 
Ornismya vieilloti, Less. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 186. 
Mellisuga chalybea, Grray, Oen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Lophornis audeniti, Bon. Consp. Gren. Av., 1850, vol. i., p. 84. 



38 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Festive Coquette, Grould, Mon. Troeh., vol. iii., p. 124. 

La Polémistrie de Vieillot, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 230. 

Habitat. — Brazil. 

Male. — Forehead, line under the eyes and ear-coverts metallic 
grass-green. Upperside bronzy-green. Kump dark purple 
crossed by a narrow pale rufous band. Throat dark glossy green, 
the long feathers on the sides tipped white. Breast and abdomen 
rufous- white. Flanks brown with bronze reflections. UpjDertail- 
coverts reddish-brown. Tail bronzy-brown tipped with rufous- 
gray. Wings purplish-black. Bill black. 

Total length, 3J in. Wing, If. Tail, 1±. Culmen, J. 

Female. - Upperside greenish-bronze. Eump and line across 
as in male. Chin, line under the eyes and flanks buff. Breast 
and abdomen black spotted with buff. A white patch near the 
thigh as in the male. Tail bronzy-green at base, changing into 
dark bronzy-brown, tipped with grayish-buff. 

54. Lophornis sttctolophus, Salv. and Elliott Ibis., 1873, 

p. 280. 

Bellatrix reginœ, Reich. Aufz der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Telamon stictolophus, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 201. 

Spangled Coquette, Gould. Mon. Troch. vol. iii., p. 122. 

Le Telamon à huppe étroite, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876., vol. iii, p. 202. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador. 

Male. — Crest broad, dark reddish buff, each feather tipped 
with a green spot, the spots commencing in the centre of the 
crown. Upperside shining-green, reddish near the yellowish- 
white band crossing the rump. Eump and uppertail-coverts 
reddish-brown. Throat metallic-green, beneath which is a spot 
of white in the centre. Underside light shining-green, rufous 
in the centre of abdomen. Undertail-coverts buff. Tail 
brownish-chestnut, external feathers margined and tipped with 
bronzy-green. Wings purplish-brown. Bill flesh color with 
brown tips. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, l^. Tail, 1-J-. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Head deep buff. Upperside bronzy-green. Eump 
bronzy-brown crossed by a band of pale buff. Throat pale buff 
spotted with blackish-brown. Breast and flanks bronzy-green. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 39 

Abdomen rufous. Tail buff with a broad subtermirial blackish' 
bar. 

It is a rare species. 

55. Lophornis DELATTREi, Less. Kev. Zool., 1839, p. 19. 

Mellisuga delattrei, Gray. Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Telamon delattrei, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 219. 

Delattre' s Coquette, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 121. 

Le Telamon de Delattre, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 220. 

Habitat. — Veragua, Panama and Columbia. 

Male.— Differs only from L. stictolophus, by the green of the 
throat, which is lighter, the internal colour of tail which is 
entirely chestnut, and chiefly by the form of the crest which is 
pale rufous, and composed of graduated lengthened feathers 
very narrow and tipped with a very diminutive green 
spot, scarcely visible. Eest of plumage like the preceding 
species. 

Total length, 3 in. Wing, 1 J. Tail, 1±. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Forehead light buff. Upperside bronzy-green. 
Eump reddish-bronze crossed by a band of white. Tail greenish- 
bronze with a broad subterminal purplish-black bar, tipped buff. 
Throat black, beneath which is a small whitish spot. Breast, 
abdomen and flanks bronzy- green. Undertail-coverts buff. 
Tail buff, with a central bar blackish-bronze. 

Young male is very much like the female, but the chin 
is rufous and the throat spotted with green metallic 
feathers. 

I have several specimens of both sexes of this species from 
Veragua, Panama, and Bogota, Columbia. 

It was discovered by Delattre in Columbia, and dedicated to 
him by his friend Mr. Lesson, the well-known ornithological 
author. 

5Q. Lophornis regulus, Gould. P.Z.S., 1847, p. 89. 
Mellisuga regulus, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Lophornis lophotes, Gould. Int. Troch., 1861, p. 83. 
Great Crested Croquette, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 120. 
Le Lophornis à grande huppe. 
Habitat. — Bolivia. 



40 Genera of Humming Birds. 

This species resembles very much to L. delattrei, but can be 
easily recognised by its crest which is much wider and shorter. 
Besides, the green spots on tips of crest-feathers are much 
larger. The green of the throat is darker and more brilliant ; 
the line crossing the rump is pure white, and the bill is longer. 

Total length, 2f in. Wing, If. Tail, 1J. Culmen, J. 

In my opinion, it is a very good species, quite easy to 
distinguish from L. delattrei. It is rare. 

The specimens which I have in my collection, were collected 
in Bolivia by the celebrated explorer Buckley. 

Genus XIX. Gouldia, Bon. Compt. Bend., 1850, p. 31. 

Popelaria, Heich. Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Gouldomyia, Bon. Eev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 257. 

Prymnacantha, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein.. I860., t. iii., 
p. 64. 

Tricolopha, Heine. Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 209. 

Mythinia, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 235. 

Type : T. langsdorffh, Vieillot. 

Bill about as long as the head. Eectrices lengthened, stiff, 
graduating to a fine point. Forehead ornamented with metalling 
leathers forming a sort of crest. Throat metallic. A white 
band across the rump as all the other species of the family, a 
tuft of white feathers on side of flanks over the thigh. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Veragua, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and 
Brazil. 

57. GrOULDiA LANGSDORFFi, Bonnat and Vieill. Ency. Méth., 

1794, vol. ii., p. 574. 

Orthorhynchus langsdorffi, Less. Man. Ornith., 1828., t. ii., 
p. 77. 

Ornismya langsdorffu, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 102. 

Colibri hirundinaceus, Spix. Av. Bras., 1824, vol. i., p. 80. 

Mellisuga langsdorffL, Bon. Consp. Av., 1850, vol. i., p. 86. 

Pryrnnacaniha langsdorffi, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein., 1860, 
t. iii., p. 64. 

Langsdorjf's Thorn-tail. Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 127. 

Le Prymnacanthe de Langsdorffs Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, vol. iii., p. 230. 



Genera of Hamming Birds. 41 

Habitat. —Brazil. 

Male. — Crown throat and breast glittering metallic grass- 
green, bounded beneath by a line of fiery-red. Upperside 
golden-green, with a white band crossing the rump. Uppertail- 
eoverts bronzy-green. Lower part of breast and centre of abdo- 
men black. Flanks and rest of underside greenish-bronze washed 
with gray. Median rectrices steel-blue with white shafts, 
lateral steel-blue at base then brownish-gray, with the points 
slightly darker. Wings purple-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 5-in. Wing, 1£. Tail, 3. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green, darker on head. Kump 
crossed by a white band. Chin and centre of throat black 
spotted white, a white line from the bill to the throat. Throat 
whitish spotted with metallic-green. Lower part of breast and 
centre of abdomen black, rest of abdcmen white. Flanks golden- 
green washed with white. Median rectrices steel-blue tipped 
with gray, lateral bronze, with a subterminal bluish-black bar 
and gray tips. 

Total length, 4j-in. Wing, 1J. Tail, 2$. Culmen, \. 

This very fine species was dedicated to Baron de LangsdorfY 
by Vieillot. 

58. GrOULDiA melanosternum, Grould. Ann. and Mag. Nat. 

Hist., 1868, p. 323. 

Black bellied Thorn-tail. 

Le Prymnacanthe à ventre noir. 

Habitat. — Ecuador and Peru. 

Male. — This species is only distinguishable from the preceding 
by all the top of head, which is metallic grass-green, and 
the line under the breast, which is golden instead of fiery 
red. 

The specimens which I have of this rare species were 
collected by Messrs. Hauxwell in Peru, and Buckley in 
Ecuador. 

59. GrOULDiA popelairei, Du. Bus. Esquiss. Ornith., 1845, 

p. 6. 

Mellisaga popelairei, Gray, Gen. of Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 

Popelairia tricholopha, Eeich. Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 12. 

Prymnacantha popelairei, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein., 18G0, 
t. iii., p. 64. 

H 



42 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Tricolopha popelairei, Heine. Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, 
p. 209. 

Popelairês Thorn-tail, Grould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 127. 

Le Tricolophe de Popelaire, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. iii., p. 236. 

Habitat. — Columbia, Ecuador, Peru. 

Male. — Head and throat metallic grass-green. Several long 
black hair-like feathers extending beyond the crest, the two 
middle ones reaching the tail. Back and uppertail-coverts 
bronzy-green. Rump greenish-black, crossed by a white band, 
bluish-black underneath the band. Breast and abdomen black 
with bluish reflections. Flanks bronzy-green passing to 
brownish gray. Tail, si eel-blue, with conspicuous white shafts, 
especially on the underside. Undertail-coverts whitish. Thighs 
rufous. Bill black. 

Total length, 4f in. Wing, 1J. Tail, 2£. Culmen, J. 

Female. — Upperside, sides of breast, flanks and uppertail- 
coverts golden-green. White band across the rump, underneath 
bluish-black. Chin, breast, and centre of abdomen dark brown, 
nearly black. Line on each side of neck white. Tail short, 
gray at base, then steel-blue with tips white. Wings purple- 
brown. Thighs rufous. Bill black. 

This very peculiar species was discovered in Pérou by Baron 
Popelaire de Terloo, and was dedicated to him by Du-Bus. The 
type is in the Museum of Bruxelles. 

All my specimens are from Columbia and Ecuador. 

60. GrOULDiA CONVERSi, Bourc and Muls. Ann. Soc. Agr. 

Lyon, 1846, p. 313. 

Mellisuga conversi, Gray, Gren. Birds, vol. i., p. 113. 
Prymnaccmtha conversi, Cab. and Hein. Mus. Hein., 1860, 
t. iii., p. 65. 

Converts Thorntail, Grould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 129. 

Le Prymnacanthe de Convers, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, vol. iii., p. 243. 

Oouldia aequatorialis, Berlepsch and Tacz, P.Z.S., 1883, 
p. 567. 

Habitat. — Veragua, Columbia, Ecuador. 

Male.— Head and throat shining dark green, elongated 
feathers beneath the throat, centre of breast bright green 
with bluish reflections, sometimes metallic blue. Upperside 



Genera of Humming Birds. 43 

dark bronze-green. Rump underneath the white band, some- 
limes dark purple-brown, sometimes coppery. Tail steel blue, 
with shafts pale brown upperside, and showy white underside. 
Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 4 in. Wing, If. Tail, 2±. Culmen, }. 

Female. — Upperside golden-green. Rump and white band 
as in male. Throat and centre of abdomen black. A white 
line under the eyes from the bill to the breast. Breast blackish 
washed with metallic green feathers. Flanks golden-green. 
Two large white patches between the lower part of abdomen 
and flanks. Tail short, upperside steel blue with white tips, 
underside gray at base, then steel blue with white tips. Bill 
black. 

I have united Gouldia aeqaatorialis, Berlepsch and Tacz, 
with this species, because the characters given by these authors 
are not peculiar to the specimens from Ecuador. I have 
several specimens from Veragua and from Columbia coloured 
exactly the same as those from Ecuador. 

This species was discovered by Mr. Convers, a French 
naturalist, established years ago in Bogota. It was dedicated 
to him by Messrs. Bourcicr and Mulsant. 

61*. Gouldia lœtitiae, Bourc. Ann. Soc. Lyon, 1852, p. 143. 

Prymnacantha lœtitiae, Cab. and Hein. Mus Hein., 1860, 
t. iii, p. 64. 

Mythinia lœtitiae, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, vol. iii., 
p. 245. 

Letitia/s ThorntaU, Groulcl. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 130. 

La Mythinie de Letitia, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 246. 

Habitat. — Bolivia. 

Male. — Head and throat glittering pale grass green. Upper- 
surface coppery-brown ; band across the rump white. A white 
patch beneath the green of the throat. Upper parts of 
abdomen and flanks bronzy-green. Lower portion of belly gray. 
Upper tail-coverts red changing to golden-green. Tail black, 
shafts rufous. Undertail-coverts golden-green bordered with 
black. Bill maxilla black, mandible flesh-color at base, rest 
black. 

Total length, 3f in. Wing, 1±. Tail, l^. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Unknown 



44 Genera of Humming Birds. 

The above description was taken from Elliot's Classification 
and Synopsis of the Trochilidae. 

Genus XX. Discura, Keich. Aufz der Colib, 1853, p. 8. 

Platurus, Less. Ois. Mouch, 1829, p. 22. 

Ocreatus, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 86. 

Discosura, Bon. Compt. Kend., 1850, vol. i., p. 84. 

Type; T. longicauda, Gmelin. 

Bill short, straight, converging near the tip to a slender point. 
Male brilliantly coloured on the forehead and throat. White or 
rufous band crossing the ramp as in all the other species of the 
family. Tail deeply forked, the outermost rectrices bare of 
webs near their tips, and terminating in a spatula. Sexes 
unlike. 

Habitat. — Guiana, Brazil. 

62. Discura longicauda, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1788, vol. i., 

p. 498. 

Trochilus jolaturus, Lath. Ind. Ornith, 1790, vol. i., p. 317. 

Melliswga plattira, Steph. Gen. ZooL, vol. xiv., p. 242. 

Trochilus bilophus. Tern. PI. Col., No. 18, fig. 3. 

Ornismya platura, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 136. 

Ocreatus ligonicaudus, Gould, P.Z.S., 1846, p. 86. 

Discosura longicauda, Bon. Coûsp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 84. 

Discura, Sp. Salv. Ibis., 1885, p. 434. 

Racket Tail, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iii., p. 126. 

La Discure à raquettes, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. iii., p. 250. 

Habitat. — Guiana, Brazil. 

Male. — Head, throat and breast shining grass-green, a small 
black spot on chin. Upperside bronzy -green, rump crossed by 
a white band. In the specimens from Guiana, this band is 
pale buff. Flanks golden-green, a few feathers beneath the 
metallic green feathers of breast, silvery-green. Abdomen dark 
brown, nearly black, washed with golden feathers, lower part 
and undertail-coverts pale buff with white patch near the thigh. 
Tail purplish-brown with buff shafts. Shaft of outermost ones 
bare of webs near the tip, and terminating with a black spatula. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 45 

Wings purple brown. Bill black. In some of my specimens 
the upperside is reddish golden. 

Total length, 4-in. Wing, If. Tail, 2. Culmen, \. 

Female. — Upperside greenish-bronze. A white band across 
the rump. Throat white, spotted dark brown, centre black. 
Breast, flanks and lower part of abdomen whitish, tinged with 
green feathers, centre of abdomen blackish-brown washed with 
golden feathers. Tail short, dark gray, tipped with purplish- 
black and edged with white. Bill black. A small buff line at 
base of bill. 

Total length 3 in. 

There is a slight difference of coloration between the speci- 
mens from Guiana and Brazil ; but I don't think it is enough to 
separate them. 



FAMILY III. CEPHALELOPIDAE. 

or Family of Crowned Humming Birds. 

Body moderate, sometimes very minute as in the genus 
Mtcrochera. Bill short slender and straight, serrated at tips 
in the genus Chrysolampis. Feathers projecting on the culmen, 
especially so in the genera Bellona and Chrysolampis, in 
which they cover about half the length of the maxilla. Head 
crowned and brilliantly coloured. In the genus Cephalolepis one 
or two black elongated feathers projecting from the crown getting 
beyond half the length of the body. In some genera, the throat 
is also brilliantly coloured. In the extraordinary and marvellous 
genus Loddigesia the outermost rectrices terminates suddenly 
with a broad rounded spatule, and the two posteriors undertail- 
coverts are very long, narrow, and pointed, longer than the 
whole body. Wings long, nearly reaching the end of fail. Tail 
rounded, excepting in the genus Loddigesia. Sexes unlike. 

Type: Cephalolepis, Lodd, P.Z,S., 1830, p. 12. 

Genus XXI. Cephalolepis, Lodd, P.Z.S., 1830, p. 12. 

Smaragdites, Reich. Syst. Av. Nat., 1 849, p. 40. 

Orthorhynehus, Burm. Th. Bras., 1856. 

Type : T. delalandi, Vieillot. 

Bill straight, mandible curved upwards at tip. Nostrils hidden. 
Head crested, from the centre, spread one or two long narrow 



46 Geneva of Humming Birds. 

feathers nearly reaching the upper part of tail. Wings long. 
Feathers of tail, even in length, rounded, and lateral tipped 
white in both sexes. Tarsi bare. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat, — Brazil. 

G7. Cephalolepis delalandii, Vieill. Nouv. Diet. Hist. Nat., 

t. xxii., p. 427. 

Trochilus versicolor, Vieill. Nous. Diet. Hist. Nat., t. xxiii., 
p. 430. 

Mellisuga delalandi, Gray, Gren. of Birds. 

Cephalepis lalomdii, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 83. 

Orthorhync/ius delalandii, Burm. Th. Bras., 1860, pt. ii., 
p. 351. 

Cephalepis leski, Von. Pelz. Orn. Bras., 1868, p. 58. 

Delalande's Plover-Crest, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. iv., p. 208. 

Le Cephallepis de Belalande, Muls. Hist. ( Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, t. iii., p. 188. 

Habitat — Brazil. 

Male.— Head and crest metallic dark green with golden 
reflections on forehead, the two long feathers of crest black. 
Upperside shining bronzy-green. Median rectrices bronze- 
green, lateral bronze-green at base, then bluish-black with white 
tips. A white spot behind the eyes. Chin dark gray. Centre 
of throat, breast and abdomen shining violet-blue. Eest of 
underside dark gray. Undertail-coverts whitish gray, darker 
in centre of feathers, and sometimes washed with green. Wings 
purplish brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3f in. W T ing, 2. Tail, If. Culmen, -fir. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-greeen. Underside gray. Tail 
like that of male. Bill black. 

Same size as male. 

This beautiful species was dedicated by Vieillot to the 
celebrated naturalist Delalande, who probably is the discoverer 
of the species. 

It is common in Brazil. 

68. Cephalolepis loddigesi, Grould. P.Z.S., 1830, p. 12. 

Trochilus opislhocomus, Licht. Nordm. Enum. Keise, 
1835. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 47 

Mellisuga loddigesi, Gray. Gen. Birds, vol. i., p, 114. 

Cephalepis loddigesi, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 83. 

Orthorhynchus loddigesi, Keich. Troch. Enum., 1855, p. 9. 

Loddiges Plover Crest, Gould. Mon. Troch.., vol. vi., p. 209. 

Le Cephallepis de Loddiges, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876,t.iii.,p. 192. 

Habitat.— South Brazil. 

Male. Head and crest metallic prussian-blue, the long 
feathers of crest black. Upperside bronze-green. White spot 
behind the eye. Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral bronze- 
green at base, then black with large white tips. Chin and sides 
of the neck brownish-gray. Flanks and undertail-coverts 
brownish- grey washed with green. Eest of underside dark 
shining blue. Wings dark brown. Feet flesh color. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 3| in. Wing, 2. Tail, If. Culmen, f. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green. Underside gray. Rest 
like male. 

This rare species was dedicated by Gould to Mr. George 
Loddiges, the celebrated botanist, who made, during his life- 
time, one of the best collections of humming birds of that 
epoch. 

One of my specimens I found in the collection of Costa de 
Beauregard, another was collected by H. von Hering, at 
Taquara do Mundo novo, Prov., Rio Grande, Brazil. 

Genus XXII. Loddigesia, Gould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii. 

Loddigiornis, Bon. Compt. Rend., 1850, p. 381. 

Mulsantia, Reich. Aufz der Colib, 1853, p. 12. 

Thaumantoëssa, Hein. Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, p. 209. 

Type : T. mirabilis, Bourcier. 

Bill straight, longer than the head. Wings diminutive, 
primaries rounded at the tip, tail feathers on each side very 
much prolongated aod terminating in a large spatula, median 
and lateral rectrices excessively short, the two posterior under- 
tail-coverts very long and pointed. 

Habitat. — Peru. 



48 Genera of Humming Birds. 

69*. Loddigesia mirabilis, Bourcier, P.Z.S., 1847, p. 42. 

Mulsantia mirabilis, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, vol. i., 
p. 80. 

Thaumatoëssa mirabilis, Heine. Journ. fur Ornith., 1863, 
p. 210. 

Loddigesia mirabilis, Tacz., P.Z.S., 1881, p. 827. 

Marvellous Humming Bird, Cfould, Mon. Troch., vol. iii., 
p. 161. 

La Loddigêsie admirable, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1877, 
t. iii., p. 252. 

Habit/Jit. — Chachapoyas, Peru. 

Male. — Crown of the head brilliant blue, neck scapularies, 
back wing and tail-coverts golden-green ; on the throat a gorget 
of very brilliant green tinged with blue in the centre, and 
bounded on each side by a narrow band of coppery red ; sides 
of the breast and abdomen white ; flanks golden-green. Median 
and lateral rectrices very short, dark green ; outermost ones very 
long about three times the length of the body, very narrow 
until near the end where they terminate suddenly with a broad 
spatule of a dark blue colour crossed with darker lines, very 
distinct in certain lights. The spatules are as broad as long, 
wider in the middle and curved in half a circle, in nearly all 
their length, so that in their natural position they cross twice 
one another. Undertail-coverts green margined with white. 
They are in general long, but the two posteriors are very long, 
more so than the body, and pointed. These are dark bronzy- 
green on their basal half passing to dark blue with tips whitish ; 
bill and feet black. 

Total length, 147 mill. Wing, 40. Tail, 125. Culmen, 21. 
Posterior undertail-coverts, 80. Width of spatule, 30. 

Female. — Upperside less golden than the male. Head 
grayish-bronze. Underside white washed with dove color, 
throat spotted with green, flanks and abdomen golden-green. 
Median rectrices brilliant green, lateral green at base passing to 
bluish-black at tips ; outermost grayish passing to blue on 
spatula, which is oblong. Undertail-coverts dove colour, the 
posterior ones reach three-fourths of the outermost rectrices, 
and are pure white. 



Genera of Humming U'irds. 49 

This most remarkable species was discovered in 1835, 
at Ghachapoyas (Peru), by M r Matthews, who sent it to 
M r Lodcliges," in which collection it is still. It is the type of 
the species. 

For many years it remained unique, and Gould did his 
utmost to procure another specimen ; but he failed and died 
in 188i, before he could secure the species. 

Shortly after his death, MM rs Jelski et Stolzmann, who were 
collecting objects of natural history for the Museum of War- 
saw, had the good fortune to rediscover the species and to 
secure about fifteen specimens of both sexes, which they sent 
to Europe. The British Museum possesses three specimens, 
two adults, male and female, and one young, which i believe 
were collected by the last mentioned naturalists. 

It is still a very rare species, and one of my desiderata. 

Loddigesia, sp. Boucard Troch. du Mex. (Ann. Soc. Linn., 
Lyon, 1875). 

Habitat. — San-Andres Tuxtla. 

In August 1856, when residing in San-Andres Tuxtla Mexico, 
I saw a bird probably belonging to this extraordinary genus. 
It was near sunset, and unfortunately I had no gun at the 
time. I came at the same place several times on purpose to 
obtain that bird; but I was never able to see it again. 

I call the attention of the mexican Naturalists on the impor- 
tance of the discovery of that bird, and I ask as a favour that if 
discovered one day or another, that the species should be called 
after me. 

Genus XXIII. — Klais, Reich. Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 13. 

Basilinna, Gab and Hein. Mus. Hein, i860, t. Ill, p. 44. 
Guimetia, Bon. Ann. Sc. Nat., 1854, p. 137. 

Type : T. guimeti, Bourcier. 

Bill straight, little longer than the head, wide at base, gra- 
duating to a point. Feathers of forehead projecting on the cul- 
men. Throat and crown brillantly coloured. Wings long. Tarsi 
clothed. Size minute. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Guatemala Costa-Rica, Veragua, Panama, 
Venezuela and Columbia. 

70. Klais guimeti, Bourc and Muls. Ann. Soc. d'Agric, 

Lyon, 1843, p. 88. 

Hylocharis guimeti, Gray. Gen. Birds, vol. I, p. 114. 

Myabeittea guimeti, Bon. Rev. and Mag. Zool., 1854, p. 253. 

Basilinna giUmeti, Gab and Hein. Mus. Hein, 1860, t. Ill, 
p. 44. 

i 



50 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Klais guimeli, Sclat et Salv. Nomenclator, 1873, p. 88. 
GuimeVs Flatterer, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, p. 210. 
Le Klais de Guimet, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. mou., 1876, 
vol. Ill, p. 139. 
Habitat, — Columbia. 

Male. — Crown and throat metallic purplish blue. Upperside 
bronzy-green. Underside shining dark green washed with 
dark gray, slightly golden on flanks. Undertail-coverts pale 
bronze edged with gray. Median rectrices bronze-green, lateral 
bronze-green at base, then blackish, with brown tips, outermost 
ones tipped gray. Wings purplish-brown. A white spot behind 
the eye. Bill black. 

Total length, 3 in.: Wing, 1. Tail, \ ~. Culmen,-^- 

Female. Upperside bronzy-green. Underside gray. Same 
size as male. 

This uncommon species was dedicated by MM. Bourcier and 
Mulsant to M r Jean-Baptiste Guimet, of Lyon, the inventor of 
the colour, well known as Blue Guimet. 

71. Klais merritti. Lawr. Anm N.-Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 1860, 

vol. Ill, p. 110. 

Mellisaga merritti, Lawr ,, „ „ „ ,, ,, „ ,, „ 

MerriVs Flutter er, Gould. Mon. Troch. Suppl. 1«86. 

Le Klais deMerritt. 

Habitat. — Guatemala, Costa-Rica, Veragua, and Panama. 

Male. — The principal differences between this species and 
the preceding consists in the color of the throat and crown 
which is metallic blue without any purple in it ; it is lighter on 
the crown and brillantly metallic. The general colour of the 
underside is of a much lighter gray. 

Total length,3 i-in. : Wing,2.Tail.l -§-• Culmen,4: 

Female. — Centre of crown metallic greenish-blue. Upperside 
shining golden-green. Underside pale gray. Median rectrices 
bronze-green ; lateral bronze-green at base, then bluish-black 
with white tips. Wings dark brown. Bill black. 

Same size as male. 

This description is taken from a female killed by me at 
Navarro (Costa-Rica), in May 1877. 

It is a rare species. My specimens are from Guatemala, Costa- 
Rica, Veragua and Panama. 

Genus XXIV. Anthocephala, Cab. Mus. Hein, 1860, 

t. Ill, p. 72. 

Type : T. floriceps, Gould. 
Bill straight, pointed, long as the head. Wings long, pointed. 
Tail rounded. 
Habitat. — Columbia. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 51 

72. Anthocephala floriceps, Gould. P. Z. S., 1853, p. 62. 

Metallura floriceps, Reich. Aufz. der Col., 1853, p. 8. 

Adelomyia floriceps, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. Ill, p. 202. 

Blossom Crown, Gould. Mod. Troch., vol. I1T, p. 202. 

UAntocephale à tète rose, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. Ill, p. 126. 

Habitat. — Columbia. 

Male. — Forehead buffy-white, passing to a beautiful deep 
peach-blossom hue on the crown. Throat gray, passing into 
the rufous of the abdomen ; Wings purplish-brown. Middle 
tail feathers bronzy, lateral bronzy at the base passing into pur- 
plish-black and largely tipped with buff. Bill black; feet appa- 
rently light brown. « Gould. Mon. Troch. » 

This extremely rare species was probably discovered in 
Columbia, by Linden. 

Genus XXV. Microchera, Gould. Int. Troch., 4861, p. 82. 

Type : M. albocoronata, Gould, 
Size minute. Bill long as the head, slender, straight. Crown 
snow white. Feathers of forehead projecting on the culmen. 
Nostrils covered. Wings long, primaries rather broad. Tail 
short, square. Tarsi clolhed. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Costa-Rica, Nicaragua, Veragua. 

73. Microchera albocoronata, Lawr. Ann. N.-Y. Lye. Nat. 

Hist., 1855, vol. VI, p. 137. 

Snoio Cap, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. II, p. 116. 

La Microchère à couronne blanche, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. 

Mou., 1876, vol. HI, p. 135. 

Habitat. — Veragua (Columbia). 

Male. — Crown silky snow-white. Neck purple-black. Rest 
ot upperside dark shining purple with black reflections. Throat 
greenish-black. Breast and flanks dark purplish-black. Abdo- 
men black. Undertail coverts white. Median rectrices dark- 
bronze ; lateral white at base, then bluish-black with a narrow 
white band at tips. Wings purple. Maxilla black. Mandible 
brownish. 

Total length, 2 |in.: Wings, l|. Tail, |. Culmen, |. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside white. Same 
size as male. 

This beautiful species is very rare. I have only one male spe- 
cimen collected by Arce, in Veragua. It was discovered by Doc- 
tor J.-K. Meritt. 

74. Migroghera parvirostris, Lawr. Ann. N.-Y. Lvc.Nat. Hist., 

1870, p. 122. 

Purple Snow Cap, Gould. Mon. Troch. Suppl., p. 40. 



52 Genera of Humming Birds. 

La Microclière à petit bec, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
vol. Ill, p. 137. 

Habitat. — Costa-Rica, Nicaragua. 

Male.— Crown silky snow-white. Upperside shining reddish- 
purple. Throat, breast, abdomen and flanks, dark reddish-pur- 
ple, slightly greenish on chin. Undertail-coverts white. Median 
rectrices light bronze, blackish at tips ; lateral white at base, 
rest brownish black edged with white. Wings purple. Bill 
black. 

Total length, 2 iin.: Wings, 1 |. Tail, J. Culmen, ^. 

Female. — Upperside bronzy-green. Underside white. 
Middle rectrices bronze-green, rest white with a subterminal 
black bar. Bill black. 

It is a very rare species. I have only two specimens, one col- 
lected by M r Belt at Chontales (Nicaragua), and the other col- 
lected by M r Zeledon at Limon (Costa-Rica). 

Genus XXVI. Bellona, Muls and Yerr. Class. Troch., 

1865, p. 75. 

Type : T. cristatus, Linné. 

Bill straight about as long as the head. Feathers of the fore- 
head covering one half the length of culmen. Nostrils hidden. 
Head covered with a broad pointed crest. Underside dull. 
Wings long. Tail short and rounded. Feet small. Tarsi 
naked. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — West Indies. 
75. Bellona cristata, Linné. Syst. Nat., 1766, vol. I, p. 192. 

Trochilus puniceus, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, t. I, p. 497. 

Mellisuga cristata., Gray. Gen. Birds., vol. I, p. 113. 

\J Oiseau mouche huppé, Less. Ois. Mou., 1829, p. 113. 

Ornismya cristata, Less. Troch., 1831, p. 20. 

OrthorhyncJtus cristatus, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av., 1850, 
p. 83. 

Ort/iorhynchus ornatus, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, p. 206. 

Blue Crest, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, p. 206. 

La Bellone à huppe bleue, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 1876, 
t. III, p. 194. 

Habitat. — Saint- Vincent, Barbadoes, Martinique, Grenada. 

Male. — Forehead and crown metallic golden-green changing 
into deep purplish blue on the lengthened crest feathers, which 
in some specimens are amply furnished and extend to the mid- 
dle of back. Upperside dark green, nearly black on sides and 
back of crest. Tail purplish-black with a greenish tinge on 



Genera of Humming Birds. 53 

webs of median rectriccs. Throat smoky-brown. Underside 
smoky black. Wings purplish-brown. Bill black. 

Total length, 3 |in.: Wings,! g-. Tail, 1 1. Gulmen, *-. 

Female. — Upperside dark bronzy-green. Underside white» 
grayish on sides of breast and flanks. Median rectrices bronzy- 
green ; lateral bronze at base on external web, then bluish 
black with white tips, outermost ones grey at base on exter- 
nal web, then bluish black, with large white tips. Wings pur- 
plish-black. Bill black. Same size as male. 

This species is abundant in the West Indies and I believe 
that the Bellona ornata of Gould is only a variation of piu- 
mage with more blue on the crest. 

I have received a fine series of both sexes of this species from 
Grenada, collected by M r Wells. Some have more or less blue 
on the back part of crest ; but in all the specimens it is the same 
purplish-blue. 

76. — Bellona superba. Boucard. H. Bird, vol. I, p. 43. 

Blue and green Crest. 

La Bellone superbe. 

Habitat. — Saint-Vincent ? 

Male.— Forehead and crest metallic golden-green; the few 
elongated feathers of crest which are forming a point, metallic 
blue without any purple in it. Upperside dark bronzy-green, 
not so dark as the preceding species, but just a little black 
under the green of the crest. Tail purplish-black. Throat smoky 
brown, remainder black. 

Total length, 3 iin.: Wing,l|. Tail,!. Gulmen |. 

Female. — Unknown, but probably like the preceding spe- 
cies. What I described in the Humming Bird was probably a 
young male. The description runs as follows : 

Forehead dark-green. Upperside dark golden-green appearing 
black on neck. Chin gray, remainder dark gray, nearly black. 
Wings purplish-brown. Tail purplish-black, with gray tips on 
outermost feathers in some of my specimens. 

Bill and feet black. 

This species makes the passage between B. cristata and 
B. exilis ; but is more closely allied to the latter species. 

77 : Belloxa exilis, Gmel. Syst. Nat. 1788, p. 484. 
Troehilus crislatellus, Lath. Ornith. Suppl. 1790. p. 39. 
Mellisuga exilis, Gray. Gen. Birds, vol. I, p. 113. 

OrthorhynchusehlorolO'phus,B(m. Consp.Gen.Av. 1850, vol. I, 
p. 83. 

Gilt Crest, Gould. Mon. Troch., vol. IV, p. 207. 

La Bellone d huppe verte, Mais, Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou. 1876, 
t. Ill, p. 196. 



54 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Habitat. — Dominica, Sainte-Croix, Montserrat, Nevis and 
Martinica. 

Male. — Forehead and crown mettallic golden-green turning 
into grass-greenon elongated feathers of crest. Upperside bronze- 
greendarker on neck. Throat dark gray; remainder of underside 
dark brown with bronzy-green feathers on sides of breast 
and flanks. Median rectrices dark bronze-green, rest dark 
bluish-purple. Wings purple-brown. Bill and feet black. 

Total length, 2 | in.: Wings, 2, Tail, I |. Culmen,|. 

Female. ~ Upperside bronzy-green. Underside smoky gray, 
lighter on throat, centre of breast, and abdomen. Median 
rectrices bronzy-green, lateral purplish, outermost with gray 
tips. Bill and feet black. Same size as male. 

One of the specimens which I have in my collection, formerly 
in Riocour Collection, has on its laoel O.chlorolophus, Vieillot. 

I think that many more species of this charming genus will 
be found when all the West Indies islands will be more tho- 
roughly explored than what they have been up to the present 
time. 

78. Bellona emigrans, Lawr. Ann. N.-Y. Lye. Nat. Hist., 
vol. I, p. 50. 

Blue and violet Crest. 

La Bellone à huppe violette et bleue. 

Habitat. — Venezuela? Grenada. 

Male. — The basal half of the crest is of a shining emerald- 
green ; the terminal half deep reddish-violet ; the upper plu- 
mage is dark grass-green. Tail feathers blackish-purple ; the two 
central ones washed with green ; quills light purple. Throat 
smoky -gray ; breast and abdomen smoky-black. Bill and feet 
black. 

Total length, 3 i iu.: Wings, i\. Tail, 1 ^.Culmen,f 6 . 

Female. — Without the brillant crest. Underside whitish- 
gray. « Lawr, loc. cit. » 

This species is closely allied to 0. cristalus from Barbadoes ; 
the two colors of the crest are equally divided in both, but they 
differ in shades of coloring ; the green in this species is without 
the strong golden tinge existing in the other and the violet is 
rather deeper in color, which color it retains in all positions 
whereas in some lights that of 0. crlslatusia greenish, the upper 
plumage of 0. cristatus is lighter and golden green. It is also 
smaller with a longer bill. They differ strongly in the ends of 
the tail feathers, these being obtusely pointed in the new spe- 
cies aud rounded in the other. I have some specimens exactly 
like this description from Grenada. 



Genera of Humming Birds. 55 

Genus XXVII. — Chrysolampis, Boié. Isis, 1831, p. 546. 

Type : T. moschitus, Linné. 

Bill straight, long as the head. Feathers of the forehead 
projecting on the culmen and hinding the nostrils. Wings long- 
nearly reaching the end of tail. Tail rounded. Rectrices of even 
size. Feet small. Tarsi bare. Head, throat and upper part of 
breast brillantly coloured. Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, Columbia and 
Guiana. 

79. Chrysolampis moschitus, L. Syst. Nat., 1766. vol. I, p. 192. 

Trochilus carbanculus, Gmel. Syst. Nat., 1788, t. I, p. 498. 
Ornismya moschitus, Less. Ois. Mou. 1829, p. 166. 
Mellisuga moschita, Steph. Shaw. Gen. Zool., vol. XIV, 
p. 253. 

Chrysolampis giglioli, Oustalet., le Naturaliste, 1885, p. 3. 

Chrysolampis infumatus, Berl. 

Chrysolampis moschitus Var., Boucard. H. Bird. vol. I, 
p. 26. 

Ruby and Topaz, Gould. Mon. Troch. vol. VF, p. 204. 

Le Chysolampe Rubis-Topaze, Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mou., 
1876, vol. II, p. 255. 

Habitat. — Brazil, Trinidad, Venezuela, Guiana and Colum- 
bia. 

Male. — Head metallic ruby-red. Upperside bronzj^-brown, 
appearing black on sides of neck and upper part of back. Chin, 
throat and upper part of breast metallic topaz. Abdomen and 
flanks dark brown, nearly black round the breast. A line of 
white feathers on sides of flanks, and a tuft of white feathers 
on each side under the vent. Undertail-coverts rufous. Tail 
rufous with brownish black tips. Bill and feet black, 

Totallength, 3 | in.: Wings, 2 | . Tail, 1 1. Culmen, J. 

Female.— Upperside golden green. Underside grayish-white, 
washed with golden feathers on sides of breast and flanks. 
Median rectrices bronzy-green, lateral gray at base, then pur- 
plish-brown with white tips. Bill and feet black. 

This species is very abundantin Brazil, Trinidad, Guiana, and 
Columbia. 

Chrysolampis giglioli , Oustalet ,was amadeup bird fabricated 
in Colombia with half a specimen of C. moschitus., and the 
other half of Florisuga mellivora. 

Chrysolampis infumatus, Berlepsch, can only be a dark 
coloured bird of C. moschitus, and I don't think it cau stand as 
a species. 



50 Genera of Humming Birds. 

Genus XXVIII. — Eustephanus, Reich. Syst. Av. Nat. 1840, 

pi. 40. 

Sephianoides, Less. Int. Gen. et Syn. Gen. Av. 1850, p. 21. 
Stephanoides, Bon. Consp. Gen. Av. 1850, p. 82. 
Thaumaste, Reich. Aufz der Golib. 1853, p. 14. 
Stohosiella, Reich. Bon. Ann. Sc. nat. 1854, p. 38. 

Type : T. galeritits, Molina. 

Bill short, straight, rather stout, subcylindrical, pointed, shor- 
ter than the head. Nostrils covered with feathers. Wings long 
nearly reaching the end of tail. Median rectrices shortest, 
remainder very slightly and gradually longer. Tarsi clothed. 
Sexes unlike. 

Habitat. — Chili and Islands of Juan Fernandez. 

80. Eustephànus gajleritus, Mol. Hist. Chili, p. 219. 

Colibri du Chili, Aud and Vieill Ois. Dor., t. I, p. 125. 
Mellisuga hingi, Vig. Zool. Journ., vol. Ill, p. 432. 
Mellisuga galerita, Gray, Gen. Birds, vol. I, p. 113. 
Orthorhynchus sephaniodes Less and Garn. Voy. Coquille, 
pi. 31. 
Ornysmiasephanoides, d'Orb. and Lafr. Syn. Av., t. II, p. 29. 
Trochilus forficatus, Gould. Voy. Beagle 18 il, pi III, p. 110. 
Sephanoides hingi, Gray. List Gen. Birds, p. 19. 
Chilian Fire Crovm, Gould. Mon Troch., vol. IV p. 265. 
^i^t?p/îaneco^,Muls. Hist. Nat. Ois. Mon. 1876, t, II, p. 247. 

Habitat. — Chili and Islands of Juan Fernandez. 

Male. — Head metallic fiery-red. — Upperside dark bronzy- 
green, appearing black on neck in certain lights. Tail bronze- 
green. Throat white spotted with green. Tuft on thighs white. 
Undertail-coverts pale bronze-green edged, with buffy-white. 
Wings purplish. Bill black. 

Total length, 4|in.: Wings, 2 §. Tail, 1 1; Culmen,|. 

Female. — Upperside bronze-green, passing to shining green 
on uppertail coverts. Four median rectrices bronze-green, the 
two next with subterminal blackish bar and gray tips, outer- 
most bronze-green at base passing to blackish on internal web, 
and gray on external web, tips gray. Underside like the male. 

Total length, 4 J in. : Wings, 2 4, . Tail, 1 1. Oilmen, j. 

I have also a young male of this species with metallic sil- 
very-green feathers on top of head. 

My specimens of this species were collected near Valpa- 
raiso by M 1 ' Reed. 



9 





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